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Bazzani, Giuseppe  

Matilde Amaturo

(b Mantua, Sept 23, 1690; d Mantua, Aug 18, 1769).

Italian painter. He was the son of the goldsmith Giovanni Bazzani and trained in the studio of Giovanni Canti (1653–1715). Giuseppe was a refined and cultivated artist (Tellini Perina, 1988) and as a young man profited from the rich collections of art in Mantua, studying the works of Andrea Mantegna, Giulio Romano, 16th-century Venetian painters, especially Paolo Veronese, and Flemish artists, above all Rubens. His earliest works, for example the Assumption (Milan, priv. col., see Caroli, pl. 20), reveal an affinity with contemporary Venetian painters such as Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, Federico Bencovich and Andrea Celesti, but Bazzani rapidly absorbed the influence of Antonio Balestra, Domenico Fetti and most of all Rubens and Veronese. The inspiration of the last two artists is apparent in a number of works that may be dated in the 1720s and early 1730s. These include the Miracles of Pius V, the Conversion of a Heretic...


Bergmüller [Bergmiller], Johann Georg  

Gode Krämer

(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...


Bonavia, Giacomo  

Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos


(b Piacenza, 1705; d Madrid, 18 or Sept 20, 1759).

Italian architect, painter, urban planner and stage designer, active in Spain. He was a pupil in Piacenza of the painters Bartolomeo Rusca (1680–1745), Andrea Galluzzi (fl 1700–1743) and Giovanni Battista Galluzzi (fl c. 1730–40). In 1728 he was one of a number of artists summoned to Spain by the Marchese Annibale Scotti to assist with the construction of royal projects that were already under way and to introduce an Italian influence in place of the French style that had been introduced by the Bourbon kings. He worked at the Aranjuez Palace with the French engineer Léandre Brachelieu (fl c. 1733–9) and then in 1735 became Director of Royal Works of Decoration. He specialized in quadratura painting and, in addition to his work at Aranjuez, where his fresco vault decorations provided fictive trompe l’oeil architectural settings for mythological figures executed by Rusca and ...


Desportes, (Alexandre-)François  

Laurie G. Winters

(b Champigneule, Marne, Feb 24, 1661; d Paris, April 20, 1743).

French painter. He was an artist of the late Baroque who trained in the Flemish tradition of animal painting. After a slow start and a brief trip to Poland, where he painted royal portraits, he became in 1700 the official painter of hunting scenes and animals to Louis XIV. He continued in this role under Louis XV. He also painted a variety of still-lifes and tapestry cartoons for the Gobelins, and he is noted for his landscape studies made directly from nature. He is credited with helping to popularize Flemish art, one of the essential ingredients of the Rococo style in France.

Desportes’s father, a prosperous agricultural labourer, sent him at the age of 12 to live with an uncle in Paris. Shortly after his arrival he became ill, and to amuse him during his recovery his uncle gave him an engraving to copy, thus revealing his talent. Soon after this he became a student in Paris of the Flemish painter ...


Diziani, Gaspare  

Sergio Claut

(b Belluno, 1689; d Venice, Aug 17, 1767).

Italian painter and draughtsman. His earliest training was in Belluno with Antonio Lazzarini (1672–1732), the last exponent in the Veneto of Baroque tenebrism. Having moved to Venice, he joined the workshop of Gregorio Lazzarini and later that of Sebastiano Ricci, who was in Venice until 1715 and exerted the strongest influence on his development; presumably Diziani was familiar with Ricci’s many paintings in Belluno before becoming his pupil. Between 1710 and 1720 he painted a group of eight pictures that included the Mary Magdalene for S Stefano, Belluno, and the Entry into Jerusalem for S Teodoro, Venice. His speed of production and technical assurance are demonstrated especially in his preparatory oil sketches, with colour applied in rapid and spirited penlike strokes. He was also working as a scenery painter in many Venetian theatres, an employment that led to commissions first in Munich (1717) and later in Dresden, where he was highly acclaimed. According to Canal, Diziani was invited to Rome by Cardinal ...


Grund, Norbert  

Ivo Kořán

(b Prague, bapt Dec 4, 1717; d Prague, June 17, 1767).

Bohemian painter. He was the son of the painter Kristián Grund (c. 1686–1751) and brother to the painters František Karel Grund (1721–43), Petr Pavel Christian Grund (1722–84)—also a violin virtuoso—and the harpist Jan Eustach Grund. He learnt painting with his father, who released him from his apprenticeship in 1737. Subsequently he lived in Vienna and then perhaps in Germany; he probably knew his great models, Watteau, Nicolas Lancret and Francesco Guardi, only from engravings.

Grund’s work consists of a rather confused range of small pictures, embodying almost all genres in which landscapes or dwellings include figures. He painted scenes from myths, the Bible, legends and battles; he depicted love scenes, the theatre, storms at sea, visits to ruins, studios etc. Although the human figures always endow his pictures with a light touch, often there is an implicitly deeper allegorical meaning. His paintings from the 1740s are marked by a heavy Late Baroque colour scheme, in the 1750s by fragile Rococo shades; later he accomplished a smooth transition to a classicist realism. The popularity of his works in aristocratic and bourgeois circles is underlined by reproductions by ...


Mancini, Francesco  

Emilia Calbi

(b S Angelo in Vado, April 24, 1679; d Rome, 1758).

Italian painter. He was trained in Bologna in the school of Carlo Cignani, and his art is rooted in the classicist tradition of Bologna and Emilia Romagna. His achievements can be measured not only by his official appointments (French Academician, 1732; associate and regent of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon, 1743, 1745; principal of the Accademia di S Luca, 1750–51) but also by the numerous commissions, almost exclusively ecclesiastical, that he obtained both in Rome and in the provinces. These made a significant contribution to the development of the form and iconography of the altarpiece.

Mancini’s early period is not well documented: the only canvases that remain from it are the Chariot of the Sun (Forlì, Pal. Albicini), which is clearly influenced by Correggio, two more solemn and measured canvases, the Union of the Greek and Latin Churches and Gregory and Gratian, Compilers of the Sacred Canons, and the fresco of the ...


Marchesi, Giuseppe  

Dwight C. Miller

(b Bologna, 1699; d Bologna, 1771).

Italian painter. After initially studying with Aureliano Milani, he entered the studio of Marcantonio Franceschini, whose refined classical style had a decisive influence on his development. His first independent work was the huge Rape of Helen (1723; Bologna, Pal. Mentasti). During the 1730s he proved himself to be a capable practitioner of large-scale fresco painting with his ambitious decoration of the vaults and cupola of S Maria di Galliera, the Oratorian church in Bologna. Franceschini’s influence is particularly evident in Marchesi’s interpretation of Ovidian pastoral myths, where his suave, languorous figures, his comely maidens and scantily clad nymphs represent the transformation of Franceschini’s elegaic classicism into an elegant late Baroque idiom with clear analogies to Rococo. Marchesi was among the more prominent painters in Bologna in the mid-18th century and an active member of Bologna’s Accademia Clementina, which Franceschini had founded. His works must have had a particular appeal to English patrons, as many of them have been discovered in English country-house collections, for example a series of paintings of the ...


Matteis, Paolo de  

Oreste Ferrari

(b Piano del Cilento, Salerno, Feb 9, 1662; d Naples, Jan 26, 1728).

Italian painter and silversmith. He was important to the history of painting in Naples in the transitional period between the 17th and 18th centuries. His elegant art encouraged the movement away from Baroque drama towards a more tender, rocaille style in harmony with the earliest manifestations in Naples of the Arcadian school of poetry and of the Enlightenment. He painted frescoes, altarpieces and allegorical and mythological pictures.

He arrived in Naples while still young and received his first artistic training in the workshop of Luca Giordano. He was in Rome before 1683, where he was the pupil of Giovanni Maria Morandi (1622–1717), a still-life painter, and here he became a protégé of the 7th Marqués del Carpio, Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, the Spanish Ambassador, who had already begun to form an impressive art collection. In Rome the influence of Giordano was modified by the formal elegance of the painting of Carlo Maratti. De Matteis’s earliest known work, the ...


Mura, Francesco de  

Roberto Middione

(b Naples, 1696; d Naples, 1782).

Italian painter. He was educated initially in the workshop of Domenico Viola at Naples, but in 1708 he entered the school of Francesco Solimena, whose favourite pupil and most trusted collaborator he became. At first he followed closely Solimena’s monumental Baroque manner, as in the frescoes (1715) in S Nicola alla Carità in Naples, but later developed a more controlled and refined style of rhythmical lines, light and airy colours and delicate psychological overtones. He employed this new style in his ten canvases of the Virtues and his vast Adoration of the Magi (all 1728; Naples, S Maria Donnaromita) and, above all, in his frescoes of the Adoration of the Magi in the apsidal dome of the church of the Nunziatella, Naples (1732; in situ). De Mura was also active as a portrait painter; his Portrait of the Artist’s Wife (c. 1730; Naples, Pio Monte della Misericordia) and ...


Pellegrini, Giovanni Antonio  

Bernard Aikema


(b Venice, April 29, 1675; d Venice, Nov 5, 1741).

Italian painter. With Sebastiano Ricci and Jacopo Amigoni he was the most important Venetian history painter of the early 18th century. By uniting the High Renaissance style of Paolo Veronese with the Baroque of Pietro da Cortona and Luca Giordano, he created graceful decorations that were particularly successful with the aristocracy of central and northern Europe. He travelled widely, working in Austria, England, the Netherlands, Germany and France.

His father, a glover, came from Padua. At an early age Pellegrini was apprenticed to the Milanese Paolo Pagani (1661–1716), with whom he travelled to Moravia and Vienna in 1690. In 1696 Pellegrini was back in Venice, where he painted his first surviving work, a fresco cycle in the Palazzetto Corner on Murano, with scenes from the life of Alexander the Great and allegorical themes on the ceiling. Here his figure style is clearly derived from Pagani, but the effects of light and the free handling suggest the art of Giordano or even Cortona, whose work Pellegrini could not then have known. By contrast, brushwork in a series of paintings of the ...


Peresi [Parise], Francesco  

(fl Naples, 1709–43).

Italian painter. He was a pupil of Paolo de Matteis in Naples and spent a period—the precise dates of which are not known—in Rome, where he was influenced by the work of Carlo Maratti. In 1709 and 1710 he exhibited a series of religious works and landscapes in the festivities of the Holy Sacrament and Corpus Domini in Naples, and from this period probably date his mysterious landscapes which herald those of Alessandro Magnasco, such as the Landscape with the Tombs of the Horatii and the Curiatii and the Southern Landscape (both ex-Niedersächs. Landesmus., Hannover). In 1713 he painted his most important works, two altarpieces depicting Tobias and the Angel and the Conversion of St Dismas (Naples, S Giorgio Maggiore), which combine Baroque theatricality with refined and brilliant colour in a style close to that of Genoese painters whose work could be seen in Naples, such as Gregorio de’ Ferrari. Peresi later developed the decorative element in his painting, and among his mature works, the two charming roundels of the ...


Ricci, Sebastiano  

Dulcia Meijers

(b Belluno, bapt Aug 1, 1659; d Venice, May 15, 1734).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He painted light and colourful religious, historical and mythological subjects with a fluid, painterly touch. His rediscovery of Paolo Veronese, whose settings and costumes he borrowed, was important to later Venetian painters. Sebastiano was an itinerant artist, celebrated throughout Europe.

Sebastiano was the son of Livio and Andreana Ricci. According to Pascoli, he moved at the age of 12 to Venice, where he was apprenticed to the Milanese painter Federico Cervelli (c. 1625–1700), from whom he early acquired a free style of painting. He also responded to the brilliant colour and airy space of Luca Giordano, who had painted three altarpieces for S Maria della Salute, Venice. Temanza’s assertion (1738) that Sebastiano Mazzoni was ‘il maestro di Sebastiano’ seems unlikely, since Mazzoni is not mentioned by Ricci’s early biographers, not even by his friend Giovanni Camillo Sagrestani, whose memoir of Sebastiano (...


Rottmayr, Johann Michael  

Ulrike Knall-Brskovsky

(b Laufen, bapt Dec 11, 1654; d Vienna, Oct 25, 1730).

Austrian painter and draughtsman. He is most notable for large-scale religious and secular decorative schemes, and his career heralded the important 18th-century German contribution to late Baroque and Rococo fresco painting. He was probably taught by his mother, who was a painter of wooden sculpture. Between 1675 and 1687–8 he was in Venice as a pupil and assistant of the Munich artist Johann Carl Loth, whose studio attracted many painters from Austria and southern Germany. It is possible that Rottmayr also visited other Italian cities, in particular Bologna and Rome. He returned to Salzburg in the late 1680s a mature painter and immediately received commissions for panels and frescoes. In 1689 he painted mythological scenes for the Karabinierisaal at the Residenz in Salzburg (in situ); in composition and style these are close to high Baroque models, particularly the work of Pietro da Cortona and Peter Paul Rubens. Such models, as well as the example of Loth, and Venetian painting, had an important influence on Rottmayr’s panel paintings of this period, for example the ...


Trevisani, Francesco  

Ugo Ruggeri

(b Capodistria [now Cape of Istra, Slovenia], April 9, 1656; d Rome, July 30, 1746).

Italian painter. He painted altarpieces and cabinet paintings of biblical and mythological themes in a style that varies between the classicism of Maratti and the softer, sweeter manner of the Barocchetto. His portraits, both of noble Italian patrons and visiting Grand Tourists, are distinguished by their unusual informality and the sense of intimacy between artist and subject.

He trained in Venice, first with Antonio Zanchi and later with Joseph Heintz the younger (1600–78), who specialized in genre painting (Pascoli). No paintings survive from this early Venetian period, and c. 1678 Trevisani moved to Rome. There he worked for Cardinal Flavio Chigi until the latter’s death in 1693, and is first recorded in the Chigi archives at Ariccia. The titles of documented paintings, such as Bullfight in Venice, Bertoldo the Goatherd with Goats and a Goatherd’s Wife with Hens and Turkeys (all untraced) suggest that, influenced by Heintz, he was producing genre works at this time....