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Bergmüller [Bergmiller], Johann Georg  

Gode Krämer

(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...


Boucher, François  

Alastair Laing

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1703; d Paris, May 30, 1770).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....


Neufforge, Jean François de  

Flemish, 18th century, male.

Born 1714, in Comblain-au-Pont; died 19 December 1791, in Paris.

Sculptor, engraver, architect.

Flemish School.

Jean François de Neufforge was a pupil of Blondel and Babel. He first worked in the Rococo manner. He published several architectural books for which he engraved the plates....


Rehn, Jean Eric  

A.-G. Wahlberg

(b Stockholm, May 18, 1717; d Stockholm, March 19, 1793).

Swedish architect, designer, draughtsman and engraver. In 1733 he began his architectural training at the Fortifikation in Stockholm and in 1739 received his commission as military draughtsman. From 1735 he was also a student at the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna, founded in that year. In 1740 Carl Hårleman provided him with a scholarship so that he might train as an engraver with Jacques-Philippe Lebas in Paris. At the same time Rehn studied architecture as well as pattern draughting for textiles, faience and silverware and was a student at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He was offered a position as an engraver at the Ecole de Chirurgie and appeared destined to have a successful career in Paris. However, in 1745, Hårleman succeeded in having Rehn appointed as designer and pattern draughtsman at the Manufakturkontor (Manufactures Office) in Stockholm. Before returning home, he visited Lyon to examine technical innovations in silk manufacture and to buy silk cloth with contemporary patterns that he might later copy. In Stockholm he founded an engraving school that lasted from ...


Vardy, John  

Roger White

(b Durham, bapt Feb 20, 1718; d London, May 17, 1765).

English architect, engraver and furniture designer. The son of a gardener, he was appointed Clerk of the Works at the Queen’s House, Greenwich, in 1736 and was clerk at a succession of royal buildings, notably at the London palaces of Whitehall, Westminster and St James’s (1746–54). In this capacity he became closely associated with William Kent, whose Horse Guards scheme he was responsible for executing and possibly modifying (1750–59). He engraved and published a number of Kent’s designs (notably in Some Designs of Mr Inigo Jones and Mr William Kent, 1744). Not surprisingly, Kent’s influence is strongly felt in Vardy’s own work, such as the ‘New Stone Building’ adjoining Westminster Hall (begun 1755; destr. 1883) and the unexecuted scheme (1754) for a building for the new British Museum in Old Palace Yard, Westminster.

Vardy’s private commissions included the remodelling (1761–3) of Hackwood Park (destr. in later alterations, ...