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Article

Anhalt-Dessau, (Leopold III Frederick) Francis, Prince of  

Erhard Hirsch

[Anhalt, Duke of]

(b Dessau, Aug 10, 1740; reg 1756–1817; d Dessau, Aug 9, 1817).

German ruler and garden designer. After leaving the Prussian Army in 1757, he devoted himself to governing Dessau, instituting provision for the poor, public health and education. He made four journeys to England (1763–85) with Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff, with whom he also travelled through Italy (1765–6). He studied for six months with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose ‘mimetic theory of the Ancients’ he realized in his garden designs. With Erdmannsdorff and his planters, he created gardens at Luisium (1774) and Sieglitzer Berg (1777) and most notably at Wörlitz (1764–1810), based on such English models as The Leasowes (Worcs), Stowe (Bucks), Kew Gardens (London) and Stourhead (Wilts). He was acquainted with William Chambers, Henry Holland, Sir William Hamilton (i) and possibly also Henry Flitcroft and ‘Capability’ Brown. As well as introducing the English landscape garden and Palladian country house to the Continent, the Prince also transplanted the Gothic Revival. The ‘Country House’ and ‘Gothic House’ at ...

Article

Arlaud, Jacques-Antoine  

Vincent Lieber

(b Geneva, May 18, 1668; d Geneva, May 25, 1743).

Swiss miniature painter and collector, active in France. He is said to have shown precocious signs of great talent. In 1688 he established himself in Paris as a miniature painter; his talent secured him the protection of such patrons as Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans and later Regent of France, and his mother, Elisabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d’Orléans. Arlaud advised the Duc d’Orléans on the purchase of paintings from the collection of Christina, Queen of Sweden. Later, he himself acquired various works of considerable quality, eventually building up an interesting collection. As he was in contact with Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas de Largillierre, his style naturally reflected their manner, as well as the prevailing taste. He generally executed miniatures in gouache, such as Madame de la Baume (Geneva, Mus. Horlogerie & Emaillerie), sometimes adding highlights in pastels, as in the case of his Self-portrait (1727; Florence, Uffizi). This technique, which was a novelty when Arlaud adopted it, has unfortunately aged badly, and the effect achieved, which was much appreciated at the time, has since become blurred. Arlaud was received at the English court in ...

Article

Aved, Jacques(-André-Joseph)  

Michelle Lespes

[Camelot]

(b Douai, Jan 12, 1702; d Paris, March 4, 1766).

French painter and collector. His father, Jean-Baptiste Havet, a doctor of Armenian origin, died when Aved was a child. He was brought up in Amsterdam by his step-father, a captain in the Dutch Guards. At 16 he is said to have become a pedlar or ‘camelot’ (hence the nickname given to him by his French acquaintances) travelling through the Netherlands, drawing portraits at fairs. In 1721, after spending short periods in the Amsterdam studios of the French engraver Bernard Picart and of the draughtsman François Boitard (1652–1722), he left the Netherlands to work in the Paris studio of the fashionable portrait painter Alexis-Simon Belle. At this time he met other notable painters including Carle Vanloo and the portrait painters Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, Jean-Baptiste Perroneau and Jean-Etienne Liotard. He also formed a deep and lasting friendship with Jean-Siméon Chardin, with whom he may have collaborated on occasion; they used similar techniques, and he may have encouraged Chardin to turn from still-life painting to figure painting in the 1730s....

Article

Azincourt, Barthélémy-Augustin Blondel d’  

[Dazaincourt]

(b Paris, June 6, 1719; d Paris, May 31, 1794).

French patron, collector, amateur engraver and soldier . He was the only son of the collector Augustin Blondel de Gagny and joined the army at 15, being awarded the Croix de St Louis in 1745. He retired from the army in 1753, having married a great heiress, Catherine Edmée de la Haye des Fosses; they divided their time between hôtels particuliers in the Rue de Vendôme and the Rue Nazareth, Paris, and an elegant château at Bonneuil. Azincourt was an honorary member of the Académie Royale in Paris and the academy of Marseille. In 1776 he helped to arrange the acquisition by the Maison du Roi of the Cabinet de l’Amour from the Hôtel Lambert, Paris. In La Première Idée de la curiosité (1749), he described the principles of collecting and offered advice on display. His eclectic collection ranged from Italian, Northern European and French works to curiosities of natural history. After ...

Article

Baillie, William  

Elizabeth Miller

(b Kilbride, Co. Carlow, June 5, 1723; d London, Dec 22, 1810).

Irish printmaker and art dealer. He joined the British Army around 1742, serving until 1761 and reaching the rank of Captain. His earliest dated print, a portrait of John Golding (Meyer, no. 28) is from 1753. On another (m 81), undated, he acknowledged art instruction from Nathaniel Hone (i). Baillie exhibited prints at the Society of Artists from 1762 and visited The Hague in 1763 to purchase paintings for James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale (1736–1802). Many of his prints reproduce Dutch 17th-century drawings or paintings in his own, or aristocratic collections. He also specialized in prints of Rembrandt’s graphic works. Baillie etched a reversed copy of Rembrandt’s print Three Trees (m 80), adding fork lightning. He owned three Rembrandt plates, including that for the Hundred Guilder Print, which he reworked in 1775. His collected prints went through eight editions between 1776 and 1824.

J. Meyer...

Article

Bartoli, Francesco  

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born c. 1675, in Rome; died c. 1730.

Engraver (burin), art dealer. Religious subjects, architectural views.

Worked initially under the tutelage of his father, Pietro Santo Bartoli. It is probable that this is the same artist as F. Bartoli who produced coloured drawings based on religious works in St Peter's in Rome on behalf of the English art collector John Talman. The volume containing these engraved illustrations has been in the British Museum in London since ...

Article

Basan, Pierre-François  

M.-E. Hellyer

(b Paris, Oct 23, 1723; d ?Paris, Jan 12, 1797).

French engraver, print-seller and dealer . His father was Claude-Pierre Basan, a wine merchant in Paris. Pierre-François received his first lessons in drawing and engraving from his cousin Etienne Fessard (1714–77); he then studied under Jean Daullé. From 1747 he worked for the print-seller Michel Odieuvre (1687–1756), for whom he engraved 58 portraits. Between 1750 and 1754 he contributed to the engraving of the paintings in the Saxon royal collection in Dresden (Galerie royale de Dresde, 1753–7) and in the collection of Heinrich, Graf von Brühl (Galerie … [du] Comte de Brühl, 1754). He also engraved 14 illustrations for the Histoire naturelle of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1749–67; Paris, Bib. N. cat. nos 272–85).

However, it is as a print-seller rather than as an engraver that Basan is best remembered. By his own admission, he had too much ‘vivacité de caractère’ for the exacting task of the engraver, and in ...

Article

Basset, André  

French, 18th century, male.

Active in Paris during the second half of the 18th century.

Engraver, art dealer.

Article

Baudouin, Silvain-Raphaël  

[Simon-René]

(b Paris, Dec 11, 1715; d Paris, 1797).

French soldier, amateur printmaker and collector. He was sometimes called ‘Comte’, probably an assumed title. He was raised by his grandfather Jean Baudouin des Pacauds (d 1722), a tobacco merchant and collector of maps and mathematical instruments, whose wealth he inherited. In 1736 Baudouin joined a regiment of the Gardes Françaises as a gentilhomme à drapeau. He was an amateur printmaker of limited technical skill; in 1757 he published L’Exercice de l’infanterie française, a book of 62 prints. He presented it to Louis XV and was rewarded with 20,000 francs. The book was republished in 1759, with the plates re-engraved by Augustin de Saint-Aubin. Baudouin was a considerable collector, particularly of Dutch and Flemish paintings, which served as models for many of his prints. In 1779 he sold 115 paintings from his collection to Catherine the Great, having had copies made of 92 of them. Many of the works he sold, including ...

Article

Beaumont, Sir George  

David Blayney Brown

(Howland)

(b Great Dunmow, Essex, Nov 6, 1753; d Coleorton, Leics, Feb 7, 1827).

Amateur painter and draughtsman, collector and patron. He was the quintessential amateur, whose interests extended to literature and drama as well as to art; he became the leading arbiter of taste of his day. The painter Thomas Hearne described him as the ‘supreme dictator on works of art’. While Beaumont strongly supported new trends in poetry and did much to foster the careers of William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, he maintained essentially 18th-century standards in his connoisseurship. His love of art had begun at Eton College, where he was taught drawing by Alexander Cozens; it was confirmed in 1771 by a meeting with the engraver William Woollett and Hearne, then Woollett’s pupil. Subsequently Beaumont was guided by a succession of distinguished artists including John Robert Cozens, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Richard Wilson, Thomas Jones, Joseph Farington, Benjamin West, Thomas Girtin and John Constable. His own work, of which there is a large collection in the ...

Article

Beschey, Balthazar  

Alain Jacobs

(b Antwerp, bapt Nov 20, 1708; d Antwerp, April 17, 1776).

Flemish painter and art dealer. Beschey was taught by Peter Strick; he joined the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp in 1753 and was elected its dean for the financial year 1755–6. In 1754 he was made director of the Antwerp academy, which then had no fewer than five of the Beschey family among its members. Using his influential position at the academy, Beschey sought to revive traditional practices through the study of Rubens. Among his pupils were Pierre Joseph Verhagen, Guillaume-Jacques Herreyns and Andries Cornelis Lens.

The market for Old Master and contemporary paintings was flourishing at this time, and a considerable part of Beschey’s production consisted of pastiches and copies on copper of works by David Teniers II, Jan Breughel I, Frederik de Moucheron and Rubens. Beschey also acted as a dealer, and his house became a meeting-place where art-lovers and artists could study the work of earlier Flemish and Dutch masters....

Article

Bodenehr, Gabriel, the Elder  

Swiss, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1664 or 1673, in Augsburg; died 1758 or 1766, in Augsburg.

Draughtsman, engraver, picture dealer. Historical subjects, figures, landscapes.

Gabriel Bodenehr the Elder painted historical figures and views, some of which were collected under the title: The Glory and Might of Europe...

Article

Bonnemaison, Ferréol de, Chevalier  

Linda Whiteley

(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....

Article

Bossi, Benigno  

L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...

Article

Bossi, Giuseppe  

Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Busto Arsizio, Nov 11, 1777; d Milan, Dec 15, 1815).

Italian painter, collector and writer. He studied painting at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. Between 1785 and 1801 he lived in Rome, where he met such Neo-classical artists as Angelica Kauffman and Marianna Dionigi (1756–1826) as well as writers, scholars and archaeologists, notably Jean-Baptiste Séroux d’Agincourt, Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi (1754–1827) and Ennio Quirino Visconti. While in Rome he studied Antique and Renaissance works, making copies of the statues in the Museo Pio-Clementino and the frescoes by Raphael and Michelangelo in the Vatican, also furthering his studies of the nude in the Accademia di Domenico Conti and making anatomical drawings of corpses in the Ospedale della Consolazione. On his return to Milan in 1801 he became secretary to the Accademia di Brera, a post he held until 1807. During this period he devoted all his efforts to the restructuring of the Brera, providing it with new statutes and a major library and also founding the adjoining art gallery. He prevented numerous works from being smuggled abroad or dispersed and was responsible for their inclusion in the ...

Article

Boudin, Léonard  

(b c. 1735; d Paris, Nov 20, 1807).

French cabinetmaker and dealer. He owes his reputation more to his activities as a dealer than as a cabinetmaker. Before he became a maître-ébéniste (4 March 1761) in Paris, he worked for Pierre Migéon, Roger Vandercruse and Macret. His own work, essentially in the Louis XV style, is not particularly different from that of his colleagues either in form or in the use of lacquer (e.g. Versailles, Château) or japanning with European decoration (e.g. Stockholm, Kun. Husgerådskam.). He was, however, particularly talented as a marquetry craftsman, as seen on his secrétaires (e.g. Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.), including one (Paris, Petit Pal.) stamped r.v.l.c.. While managing his workshop, he dealt in both new and antique furniture. After 1770 he made this his main business and he added his own stamp to those of his subcontracted colleagues. His business was extremely successful and from 1791 he described himself as an interior decorator....

Article

Bourdaloue, Claude de  

Anne Thackray

(b Bourges; d Paris, 1715).

French collector, patron and amateur draughtsman. A member of the Bourges family that included the great Jesuit preacher Father Louis de Bourdaloue, Claude de Bourdaloue built up a collection in Paris (mostly untraced), which Germain Brice, who gives no specific details, knew to include a hoard of paintings and drawings by famous masters, a large collection of rare prints and a considerable number of antique engraved gems. Bourdaloue also owned Rubens’s manuscript Pocketbook on art, which he had purchased from Roger de Piles; after his death it was acquired by André-Charles Boulle, but was badly damaged in a fire in 1720 in Boulle’s studio in the Louvre, Paris (fragments and partial transcripts survive). De Piles recorded that the Pocketbook included Rubens’s observations on optics, chiaroscuro, proportion, anatomy and architecture as well as extracts from poetry concerning human passions, with illustrations copied from ‘the best masters’, principally Raphael. Bourdaloue is known to have commissioned drawings (untraced) from ...

Article

Bourgeois, Sir Peter Francis  

Giles Waterfield

(b London, 1756; d London, Jan 7, 1811).

English painter and art collector of Swiss descent. Born to a family of Swiss watchmakers in London, Bourgeois was apprenticed as a boy to P. J. de Loutherbourg. The latter heavily influenced his art, which was to elevate him to membership of the Royal Academy in 1793. Bourgeois specialized in landscape and genre scenes and achieved recognition in his own day with works such as Tiger Hunt and William Tell (both c. 1790; London, Dulwich Pict. Gal.), but his works are no longer regarded as of any note.

Bourgeois was linked from an early age with Noël Desenfans, who in effect adopted him when his father left London for Switzerland. Desenfans promoted Bourgeois’s reputation as an artist and involved him in his own activities as a picture dealer. Bourgeois became passionately interested in buying paintings, and in the last 15 years of his life bought considerable numbers, sometimes creating financial problems for the partnership. His taste was characteristic of the traditional Grand Manner of his time, concentrating on the great names of the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly academic works and paintings of the Netherlandish schools....

Article

Boydell, John  

Shearer West

(b Dorrington, Salop, Jan 19, 1719; d London, Dec 12, 1804).

English engraver and print-seller. The son of a land surveyor, Boydell at first pursued his father’s occupation. In 1731 the family moved to Hawarden in Flintshire (now Clwyd), Wales, where he began making copies of book illustrations. He saw an engraving of Hawarden Castle (c. 1740) by William Henry Toms (c. 1700–c. 1750) that induced him to go to London in 1740 to become Toms’s apprentice. He also enrolled in the St Martin’s Lane Academy. In 1746 he established himself as an independent engraver with a shop on the Strand, where he produced inexpensive topographical prints and published his first collection of engravings, The Bridge Book (c. 1747). In 1751 he moved to a larger shop in Cheapside, where he began to import landscape prints after Claude Lorrain and Salvator Rosa. Boydell paid unprecedented sums to William Woollett to engrave Claude’s Temple of Apollo...

Article

Bury, Friedrich  

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Hanau, March 13, 1763; d Aachen, May 18, 1823).

German painter and dealer. He was taught to draw by his father, Jean Jacques Bury (1731–85), a goldsmith and engraver born in Strasbourg, who also taught at the Hanau Zeichnenakademie. After taking painting lessons from Anton Wilhelm Tischbein (1730–1804), in 1780 Bury attended the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, where he practised copying from the work of the Old Masters, especially Peter Paul Rubens, in the gallery belonging to the Elector Palatine Charles Theodore. In 1782 Bury went to Italy with his friend Heinrich Lips (1758–1817), a copperplate-engraver, staying until 1799. His contented and enthusiastic character endeared him to the German artists in Rome, and he became especially close to Wilhelm Tischbein, nephew of his former painting teacher, who introduced him to Goethe in 1786. Goethe often subsequently referred to Bury as a ‘child’ and bought many of the drawings and watercolours based on the work of Raphael, Michelangelo and other Old Masters that Bury produced in Rome (Weimar, Goethe-Nmus.). In turn Goethe recommended Bury to ...