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Agabiti, Pietro Paolo  

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active from 1511 to 1540.

Born in Sassoferrato (Ancona); died, in Cupramontana (Ancona).

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Many of Pietro Paolo Agabiti's paintings decorate the churches of his native town. Santa Maria del Piano has a Virgin with St Catherine and St John the Baptist...


Agostino D'antonio di Duccio  

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1418, in Florence; died before 1498, in Perugia.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Florentine School, Perugian School.

The son of the weaver Antonio di Duccio, Agostino d'Antonio di Duccio produced works in marble and terracotta of the Della Robbia type. His earliest known works are four low reliefs in Modena Cathedral. While living in Florence in ...


Albanese, Giovanni Battista  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Vicenza and in Venice, during the first half of the 17th century.

Sculptor. Religious subjects. Statues.

Brother of Girolamo Albanese. Worked on various architectural projects and, in particular, produced five marble statues that adorn the façade of S Giorgio Maggiore in Venice....


Alberghetti, Giovanni  

Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Sculptor, founder, designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious subjects.

London, 3 May 1977: Baptismal Fonts (bronze, h. 14¼ ins/36.5 cm, diam. 17 ins/43.2 cm) GBP 12,000


Alberto da Campione  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Modena.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

The son of Anselme and the nephew of Arrigo, Alberto da Campione was employed as an architect in the building of Modena Cathedral until after 1244.


Allio, Matteo di Gauro  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Milan.

Sculptor, architect.

He worked in Padua and sculpted the angels on the Altar of Christ in the church of S Francesco. Together with his brother Tommaso, he assumed responsibility for decorating the three outside faces of the right-hand column of the Cappella del Santo in the church of S Antonio in Padua....


Aricò, Gianni  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Aricò.

Sculptor, painter, glassmaker. Religious subjects, figures, animals.

Gianni Aricò received a diploma in architecture from Venice University in 1971. In 1974 he set up his sculpture studio in the de-consecrated church of S Andrea della Zirada in Venice....


Astrology in medieval art  

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....


Bailly, Charles Eloy  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 January 1830, in Remenoville; died September 1895, in Paris.

Sculptor. Religious subjects, figures, mythological figures, architectural views. Busts, statues, groups, monuments.

Charles Eloy Bailly studied under Robinet at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1855 and exhibited at the Paris Salon for the first time in ...


Baurscheit, Jan Pieter van, the Younger  

Flemish School, 18th century, male.

Born 27 April 1699, in Antwerp; died 10 September 1768, in Antwerp.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Jan van Baurscheit the Younger was the son of Jan Pieter van Baurscheit the Elder. He was accepted as a member of the Guild of St Luke in ...


Bellano, Bartolommeo  

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1434, probably in Padua; died c. 1496, probably in Padua.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, animals. Low reliefs, church decoration, funerary monuments.

Venetian School, Paduan School.

Bellano is said to have studied under Donatello, in Padua, and followed his master to Florence in ...


Bernea, Horia  

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Born 14 September 1938, in Bucharest; died 4 December 2000, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor. Church interiors, landscapes, architectural views, still-lifes.

Conceptual Art.

Horia Bernea studied mathematics and physics at the University of Bucharest from 1955 to 1958, then followed courses at the city's school of architecture ...


Bernini, Gianlorenzo, or Giovanni Lorenzo  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born 7 December 1598, in Naples; died 28 November 1680, in Rome.

Sculptor, architect, playwright. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits. Equestrian statues.

The son of the Tuscan sculptor Pietro Bernini, Gianlorenzo Bernini became one of Italy’s greatest architects and sculptors. He spent his early childhood in Naples, then travelled to Rome where he carried out a long and distinguished career, working for a succession of popes and, from 1621, serving as president of the Accademia di San Luca. He is best known for his work at St Peter’s: the design of the piazza’s colonnade, the bronze baldacchino at the crossing, and numerous other sculptures in marble that decorate the basilica’s interior. Bernini also designed several of Rome’s most celebrated fountains and Baroque churches and carved biblical, mythological, and portrait sculptures and funerary monuments for Rome’s wealthiest families. He was one of the most influential architects of 17th-century Rome. His output was so immense that in order to cope with the flood of commissions that came his way, he used numerous sculptors who worked from his designs. These included Stefano Speranza, Andrea Bolgi, Francesco Baratta, Nicolas Sale, Antonio Raggi, Giacomo Fancelli, Ercole Ferrato, Oresto Raggi, Domenico Guidi, Lazzaro Morelli, Duquesnoy, and Giuliano Finelli. Bernini died of a stroke on 28 November 1680 at the age of 92; he is buried in the basilica of S Maria Maggiore in Rome....


Besenzi, Paolo Emilio di Matteo  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Reggio Emilia.

Born c. 1624; died 1666, in Reggio Emilia.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Paolo Emilio di Matteo Besenzi studied under Lionello Spada and was a skilled imitator of the work of Francesco Albani. In 1641, Besenzi painted a ...


Biardeau, Pierre  

French, 17th century, male.

Born 4 November 1608, in Le Mans; died 1671, in Angers.

Sculptor (terracotta), architect. Religious subjects, figures. Statues, groups.

Pierre Biardeau was the son of René II Biardeau. He went to live in Angers in 1638. He was in Luçon in ...


Bin, Antonio  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Gemona del Friuli; died 1987.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious subjects, figures.

Bin exhibited busts at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1928.


Bussaert [Bussart; Bussert], Martin  

Robin A. Branstator


(d Copenhagen, 1553).

Danish sculptor and architect. His sculptural work shows a precocious awareness of early Renaissance art, suggesting that he trained in the workshop of Claus Berg in Odense. He first served Christian II, King of Denmark (reg 1512–23), as architect and sculptor and had settled in Copenhagen by 1523. His tombstone sculptures equal or surpass his architectural successes. The first in his series of gravestone reliefs was of Elisabeth of Habsburg (c. 1523; Copenhagen, Nmus.), Christian II’s queen, a pendant to an earlier representation of King John (1503; Copenhagen, Nmus.), sculpted by Adam van Düren. The limestone high relief had a conventional Gothic framework but hinted at Bussaert’s mature work in the more naturalistic folds of Elisabeth’s gown. After Christian II fled to the Netherlands in 1523, Bussaert elected to remain in Copenhagen in the employ of the newly crowned Frederick I (reg 1523–34). Frederick rewarded Bussaert well, naming him master builder in ...


Campagna, Gerolamo  

Italian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1550, in Verona; died after 1623.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Gerolamo Campagna was a pupil of Danese Cattaneo. He worked for churches in Venice, Padua and Verona and is known in particular for his St Justin, Saint Bringing a Child back to Life...


Campi, Antonio (Cavaliere)  

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born shortly before 1536, in Cremona; died c. 1591.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits.

Antonio Campi was the son of Galeazzo and brother of Giulio and Vincenzo Campi. He worked first with his father and later at the studio of his brother Giulio. Before moving to Milan in 1561 he had worked in many different towns, notably Piacenza, Lodi, Brescia, Mantua, Cremona and Rome....


Candlestick, S Paolo fuori le Mura  

Alison Manges Nogueira

Monumental, marble paschal Candlestick of the late 12th to early 13th century with reliefs signed by Nicolaus de Angelo and Vassallettus now in S Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. The imposing column (h. 5.6 m), adorned with six registers of reliefs and surmounted by a fluted candle holder, rests upon a base of sculpted lions, sphinxes, rams and female figures. The upper and lower reliefs bear vegetal and ornamental patterns while the three central registers portray Christ before Caiaphas, the Mocking of Christ, Christ before Pilate, Pilate Washing his Hands, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and the Ascension. The culminating Easter scenes reflect the paschal candle’s function during the Easter season as a symbol of Christ resurrected, as evoked in an inscription on the base. A second fragmentary inscription refers to the unidentifiable patron’s desire for commemoration. A third inscription identifies Nicolaus de Angelo as the master sculptor and Petrus Vassallettus as playing a secondary role. Both were active in the second half of the 12th to the early 13th century and came from leading families of Roman sculptors: the Vassalletti and Cosmati (Nicolaus’s family). The candlestick is the only work signed by and securely attributed to Nicolaus and the scope of his contribution remains uncertain. A plausible theory attributes the base and first register to Petrus, based upon similarities to works signed by him and ascribed to his family, such as the cloister of S Giovanni in Laterano in Rome and the narthex of S Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. Nicolaus probably executed the Christological scenes, distinguishable for their more dynamic, expressive figures and decorative chisel work, and appropriate for the master sculptor because of their centrality and significance. Early Christian sarcophagi and Carolingian ivories may have provided models for the figural types. This form of paschal candlestick was probably inspired by Roman columnar monuments carved with triumphal scenes....