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Article

Aguilonius [de Aguilón; Aguillon], Franciscus  

Frans Baudouin

[François]

(b Brussels, ?Jan 4, 1567; d Antwerp, March 20, 1617).

Flemish scientist and architect. His father was a Spaniard, Pedro de Aguilón; his mother, Anna Pels, was of Flemish origin. Aguilonius studied at the Jesuit Collège de Clermont in Paris and at Douai. He entered the novitiate of the Jesuits in Tournai. After a brief visit to Salamanca in 1596 he was ordained. He taught philosophy at Douai for five years, and in 1598 moved to Antwerp, where he became confessor to the Spaniards and Italians and a teacher at the city’s Jesuit college. In 1614 he was appointed rector of the college.

Aguilonius’s reputation rests on his book on optics, illustrated by Peter Paul Rubens, and on the part he played in building the Jesuit church in Antwerp (S Carlo Borromeo), which contributed to the popularity of Italian Baroque architecture with Flemish Jesuits. By December 1611 Aguilonius had written Opticorum libri sex, which was published by the Plantin press in ...

Article

Amato, Paolo  

Helen M. Hills

(b Ciminna, Jan 24, 1634; d Palermo, July 3, 1714).

Italian architect, writer and painter. He trained as a priest in Palermo and entered the Padri Ministri degl’Infermi. Another member of this Order was Giacomo Amato, with whom he worked, although they were not related. While serving as a chaplain Amato studied geometry, architecture, optics and engraving. His earliest known artistic work is a painting on copper of the Miracle of S Rosalia (1663), the patron saint of Palermo. After 1686 he created many works of an ephemeral character. For the feasts of S Rosalia and for important political events he provided designs for lavish triumphal chariots, probably developed from those by Jacques Callot, triumphal arches and other ceremonial apparatus set up on principal roads and piazzas, and he painted hangings, papier-mâché models and massive altarpieces for the cathedral. These works influenced Amato’s permanent architecture. The spiral columns of the campanile of S Giuseppe dei Teatini, Palermo, recall the festival designs of ...

Article

Ardemans, Teodoro  

(b Madrid, 1664; d Madrid, Feb 15, 1726).

Spanish architect, painter and writer. He was trained in architecture by the Jesuits and in painting by Claudio Coello and worked mainly as an architect. Two overdoors showing multiple allegorical scenes of the Battle of Lepanto (1721; Madrid, Pal. Arzobisp.) and a St Barbara (1723; Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano) reveal Ardemans as a talented painter working in the tradition of Francisco Rizi, Juan Carreño de Miranda and Francisco de Herrera the younger, and partially influenced by Luca Giordano. His debt to Coello is apparent in a ceiling fresco attributed to him in the Capilla del Cristo de los Dolores of the Venerable Orden Tercera de San Francisco, Madrid, which shows St Francis riding in a chariot of fire with figures watching from a balcony. Also attributed to Ardemans is the portrait of Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra (c. 1689; Granada, Pal. Arzobisp.)

As an architect, Ardemans belongs to a period of transition, continuing into the 18th century the Baroque tradition of the Madrid school. He worked in Granada (...

Article

Baglione, Giovanni  

Maryvelma O’Neil

(b Rome, c. 1566; d Dec 30, 1643).

Italian painter, draughtsman and writer . He executed canvases and frescoes of religious and mythological subjects, and portraits. He was given important commissions by popes and aristocrats and sold his works to patrons in Italy and abroad. Baglione’s arguably greater fame as a writer derives from Le nove chiese di Roma (1639) and especially from his Vite de’ pittori, scultori, architetti (1642), containing biographies of more than 200 artists who worked in Rome between 1572 and 1642.

Although born in Rome, where he spent most of his life, Baglione claimed descent from a noble Perugian family. His only acknowledged training (in the autobiography appended to Le vite, 1642) was an apprenticeship with Francesco Morelli, a little-known Florentine painter in Rome. However, drawings for works from the late 1580s and 1590s (such as the Finding of Moses, the Denial of St Peter and the Arrest of Christ...

Article

Bartoli, Papirio  

Louise Rice

(fl Rome, 1620).

Italian jurist and amateur architect . A learned dilettante active during the reign of Pope Paul V, he wrote and illustrated a series of proposals for the improvement and embellishment of St Peter’s, Rome. His Discorso was composed in 1620, and in 1623, following the election of Urban VIII, his designs were published at the expense of his nephew Simone Bartoli in a set of four engravings by Matthäus Greuter. Bartoli proposed the construction of an elaborate pontifical choir in the crossing of St Peter’s, to be built in the form of a navicella (a ship symbolic of the Church) and to encompass within its complex iconography the tomb of the Apostles, the papal high altar and the chair of St Peter. He also advocated transforming St Peter’s from a three-aisled to a five-aisled basilica by modifying the chapels on either side of the nave; demolishing the attic storey of Carlo Maderno’s façade in order to restore a view of Michelangelo’s drum and dome; and regularizing the piazza in front of the church by means of a vast three-storey arcuated portico built on an elongated rectangular plan. Bartoli’s projects, costly and impractical, were never executed and are chiefly of interest as precedents to Bernini’s great works at St Peter’s....

Article

Castelli, Domenico  

Alessandra Anselmi

(b Melide, Ticino, c. 1582; d Rome, Oct 12, 1657).

Italian architect, surveyor and writer. The earliest documents on him concern his work in Rome as superintendent, together with Giovanni Fontana, of the construction of the Acqua Paola and the monumental fountain on the Janiculum (1607–14; see Fontana, Giovanni). Between 1614 and 1621 he was employed as superintendent architect on drainage works in the Romagna. In 1619 he also designed the monumental fountain (completed 1621) in the main square of Faenza and in 1620 the iron gate that was meant to complete it; this was made by Domenico Gamberini but never installed. When Castelli returned to Rome his technical knowledge together with the backing of the Barberini family enabled him to obtain numerous public and private commissions. In 1621 he was appointed curator of the Acqua Paola, and in 1624 he became superintendent of the Camera Apostolica, the papal office of works, serving there until 1657 as superintendent, surveyor or both together. This enabled him to work with such architects as ...

Article

Francart [Franckaert; Francquart], Jacques  

J.-P. Esther

[Jacob]

(b ?Antwerp, ?1583; d Brussels, bur Jan 6, 1651).

Flemish architect, painter, draughtsman, engineer and writer. He was the son of an Antwerp painter, Jacques Francart (b before 1550; d 1601), and he was trained as a painter in Rome, where his father worked for some years. He greatly admired Michelangelo, Jacopo Vignola, Giacomo della Porta and Carlo Maderno. In 1599 the Flemish painter and architect Wenzel Coebergher married Francart’s younger sister in Rome. After Coebergher had been appointed Court Engineer in 1605 to the Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella in Brussels, Francart likewise returned to the Low Countries in 1608 to begin a career as a painter and architect in the service of the Archduke, where he remained until the death of Isabella.

In 1622, influenced by his Roman sojourn, Francart published his Premier livre d’architecture in November 1616, a work of great importance to the development of the early Baroque style in the southern Netherlands. One month after its publication he was given the task of completing the Jesuit church in Brussels (destr. ...

Article

Gibbs, James  

Roger White

(b Aberdeen, Dec 23, 1682; d London, Aug 5, 1754).

Scottish architect.

Gibbs was the younger son of an Aberdeen merchant, Patrick Gibb(s), and was brought up a Roman Catholic. He was educated at the Grammar School and at Marischal College in Aberdeen. Shortly before 1700 he left Scotland for the Netherlands, where he stayed with relatives before making his way through France to Italy, visiting Milan, Venice, Bologna, Florence, Genoa and Naples. He arrived in Rome in the autumn of 1703 and registered at the Pontifical Scots College, apparently with the intention of training for the priesthood. Within a year, however, he left to become a pupil of Carlo Fontana, then the most influential architect in Rome. His father had suffered financial hardship as a result of the 1688 Revolution, so that Gibbs had to rely on the charity of friends for his income, probably supplementing it by guiding and drawing for British tourists.

These contacts with potential patrons proved useful when Gibbs arrived in London late in ...

Article

Gioffredo, Mario Gaetano  

Alice Dugdale

(b Naples, May 14, 1718; d Naples, March 8, 1785).

Italian architect and theorist. He began his training in 1732 with the architect Martino Buoncore, whose style he later dismissed as ‘Gothic’. However, Buoncore had a good architectural library, in which Gioffredo studied the writings of Palladio, Vitruvius and Vincenzo Scamozzi. During the same period he studied with the painter Francesco Solimena, believing an understanding of the human body to be an essential part of architecture.

Gioffredo qualified as an architect in 1741, after being examined by Giovanni Antonio Medrano (b 1703), one of the kingdom’s engineers. Unfortunately his technical education was somewhat neglected, and he earned for himself the sobriquet ‘l’imprudente architetto napoletano’ after Luigi Vanvitelli was called in to work on his Villa Campolieto (1762), Resina, and the Palazzo Casacalenda (c. 1766), Naples, both of which were in danger of collapse.

Gioffredo’s architectural knowledge was largely acquired from books and from the direct study of ancient buildings. In the preface to his ...

Article

Gobert, Thomas  

Françoise Hamon

(b c. 1630; d 1708).

French architect and writer. He was the son of a Parisian master mason, Thomas Gobert (d c. 1644), who built houses on the Ile Saint-Louis (destr.), the Rue Saint-Paul (1641) and the Rue de la Bucherie. The younger Thomas Gobert was related by marriage to the Mansart family. It is not clear, however, if he was related to the painter Pierre Gobert. From 1660 to 1664 he was in the service of Louis II, Prince de Condé, and in 1662 qualified as Architecte des Bâtiments du Roi, building some houses near the Palais-Royal: 61, Rue de Richelieu (1668); 53, Rue Sainte-Anne; and 7, Rue du Mail. In the same district he worked on the library wing of the monastery of the Petits-Pères. In 1670 he collaborated with Antoine Le Pautre on the building of the château of Saint-Cloud (destr.), near Paris. He became Contrôleur Alternatif des Bâtiments du Roi in ...

Article

Guarini, Guarino  

Peter Stein

(b Modena, Jan 17, 1624; d Milan, March 6, 1683).

Italian architect, mathematician, astronomer, theorist, writer and priest. Together with Francesco Borromini, he is the most renowned exponent of the anti-classical, anti-Vitruvian trend that dominated Italian architecture after Michelangelo but increasingly lost ground from the late 17th century. His subtly designed buildings, crowned with daring and complex domes, were ignored in Italy outside Piedmont, but illustrations published in 1686 and again in Guarini’s treatise Architettura civile (1737) proved a fruitful source of inspiration in the development of south German and Austrian late Baroque and Rococo architecture.

Guarini came from a deeply religious family; he and his four brothers all joined the Theatine Order. At the age of 15 he became a novice and was sent to Rome (1639–48), where he was able to study High Baroque architecture, in particular the work of Borromini, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The details of Guarini’s architectural training are not known, but in the excellently equipped libraries of his Order he presumably studied such well-known treatises as those of Serlio and Jacopo Vignola. In ...

Article

Indau, Johann  

Hans H. Aurenhammer

(b 1651; d Vienna, Feb 7, 1690).

German cabinetmaker and architectural theorist, active in Austria. Probably a native of south Germany, he travelled in Germany and Italy and is recorded in Vienna from 1682. After 1684 he became cabinetmaker to Eleanor Gonzaga (1628–86), widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III (reg 1637–57). After her death he was emancipated from guild restrictions.

Indau is known only through his publications. His main work, Wiennerisches Architectur-Kunst und Säulen-Buch (Vienna, 1686), is the first treatise on architectural theory published in Austria. Addressed not only to architects, masons and builders but also to carpenters and painters, it follows the tradition of the German Säulenbücher of the late 16th century and the 17th as a textbook on the five Classical orders of architecture, with 14 illustrations engraved by Elias Nessenthaler (1664–1714) accompanied by a brief text.

Instead of applying the proportions laid down by Sebastiano Serlio’s ...

Article

James, John  

Sally Jeffery

(b ?1673; d Greenwich, May 15, 1746).

English architect, surveyor and writer. He was educated by his father in Basingstoke, Hants, before being apprenticed to the king’s Master Carpenter, Matthew Banckes. From Banckes he received his training as carpenter and surveyor and must have worked at Hampton Court Palace and Chelsea Hospital, London, and on private houses. James’s association with Banckes (and his marriage to Banckes’s niece, Hannah, in 1697) laid the foundations of his style and his circle of contacts with other surveyors and craftsmen.

James earned his reputation as one of the most experienced and dependable surveyors of his time, undertaking a variety of work—carpentry, measurement, supervision, inspection and advice, designing and any combination of these. His earliest recorded employment was at the Royal Hospital for Seamen, Greenwich, in 1699, as assistant clerk of works. He designed little, but his association there with Nicholas Hawksmoor was an important influence on his early work, and the buildings at Greenwich were a lasting source of inspiration. He worked there until his death, eventually succeeding to Hawksmoor’s post. He was also surveyor to St Paul’s from ...

Article

Kuban, Doğan  

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Paris, 1926).

Turkish historian of Islamic architecture. He studied in the faculty of architecture at Istanbul Technical University under Emin Onat, receiving his degree in 1949 for a study of Turkish Baroque architecture. He spent 1954–5 in Italy investigating Renaissance architecture, and 1962–3 in the USA on a Fulbright Fellowship. The following year he was a fellow at Harvard University’s Center for Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, where he studied Byzantine architecture in Anatolia, and for the next decade he was involved in the study and restoration of the Byzantine church known as Kalenderhane Cami in Istanbul. He taught architectural history and restoration at Istanbul Technical University from 1958 until his retirement in 1993 and was dean of the architecture faculty from 1974 to 1977. From 1978 to 1983 he served on the first Aga Khan Award for Architecture, and in 1980–81 he was Aga Khan Professor of Islamic Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His voluminous scholarship combines a thorough knowledge of European architectural history and theory with a close and intimate reading of Turkish and Islamic buildings and their structure....

Article

Lauterbach, Johann Balthasar  

Urs Boeck

(bapt Ulm, May 30, 1663; bur Wolfenbüttel, April 20, 1694).

German architect, mathematician and teacher. He studied in Tübingen and Jena, gaining a master’s degree. In 1687 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Ritterakademie in Wolfenbüttel. He wrote treatises on geometry, civil architecture, the architectural orders and fortifications, and these works indicate his concerns as a teacher. He also designed scientific instruments, including an equatorial sundial (1693, signed and dated; Brunswick, Landesmus.). Because of his ‘special mastery of architecture’, he was also chief architect in the duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, from 1689 in collaboration with Hermann Korb. In 1950 drawings (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib.) dating from c. 1688 were discovered for Lauterbach’s masterpiece, Schloss Salzdahlum (1688–94; destr. 1812), near Wolfenbüttel, and for manor houses (begun 1693) at Destedt, near Brunswick, and Brüggen, near Hildesheim. These were used by Fink and Thöne to distinguish between Lauterbach’s work and that of Korb. Schloss Salzdahlum, built for Anton Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was based on the Palladian villa type, incorporating elements of French, Italian and Dutch Baroque. It consisted of a pseudo-arcaded court and a powerfully articulated ...

Article

Merlo [Merli; Merula], Carlo Giuseppe  

Peter Boutourline Young

(b Milan, Nov 5, 1690; d Milan, Nov 8, 1761).

Italian architect, engineer, mathematician and writer. He worked in the local Lombard architectural tradition but incorporated late Baroque elements, reflecting architectural trends throughout Europe. His early works included the completion of the parish church at Desio (1726–36) and the Villa Perego (c. 1740) at Cremnago, both near Milan, but his most important work was at the cathedral in Milan. Following the rejection of plans by Luigi Vanvitelli, the cathedral chapter entrusted Merlo and Francesco Croce (fl 1738–65) with the task of carrying out the new façade (plans; Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana). Merlo’s plans, prepared in 1745, proposed Gothic pilasters similar to those of the interior, replacing the twisted columns proposed by Vanvitelli. Work did not begin until 1765 but was completed under Croce’s supervision by 1769. Merlo also made proposals in 1759 for the great spire of the cathedral. During his years of association with the cathedral Merlo also designed the façade of S Andrea (...

Article

Pozzo [Puteus], Andrea  

Richard Bösel

(b Trento, Nov 30, 1642; d Vienna, Aug 31, 1709).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s Spirited Exercises (1548). His architectural works are eclectic, and his unconventional combination of varied sources led to bold experiments with both space and structure. His ideas were spread by his highly successful two-volume treatise, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693–1700).

He received his first artistic training in Trento, with a painter who appears to have worked in the studio of Palma Giovane. He then studied with an unidentifiable pupil of, among others, Andrea Sacchi, who would have been the first to instruct Pozzo in the art of the Roman High Baroque, and he followed this painter to Como and Milan. In Milan Pozzo joined the Society of Jesus on ...

Article

Vittone, Bernardo Antonio  

(b Turin, 1702; d Turin, Oct 19, 1770).

Italian architect and writer. He was the last of the three great masters of Piedmontese Baroque, and he achieved a reconciliation of the ideas of his predecessors Guarino Guarini and Filippo Juvarra in developing an architecture of immense creativity, particularly for churches. Vittone was the only one of the three to be born in Piedmont; most of his work was built outside Turin, however, and it remains generally less well known than that of Guarini and Juvarra.

He came from a family of small merchants, and his introduction to architecture probably came from his uncle, the architect Gian Giacomo Plantery (1680–1756). His first works were minor: the high altar (c. 1730; attrib.) in the sanctuary of S Ignazio (1725), Lanzo, a small church perhaps designed by Plantery; a wall (1730; destr.) separating the courtyard from the garden at Guarini’s unfinished Palazzo Carignano, Turin; and the parish church of S Maria della Neve (...

Article

Zemtsov, Mikhail  

N. A. Yevsina

( Grigor’yevich )

(b Moscow, 1686/8; d St Petersburg, Sept 28, 1743).

Russian architect, teacher and theorist . He was a pupil of Domenico Trezzini (from 1710) and then his assistant at the Ministry of Municipal Affairs in St Petersburg. He supervised the completion (1719–22), to plans by Niccolò Michetti, of the Yekaterinental Palace at Reval, where he also carried out the elaborate decoration of the White Hall and laid out the park. His Hall for Glorious Ceremonials (1725; destr.), designed to house relics of Russia’s victories in the Northern War, combined Neo-classical and Baroque features. Working in the German–Dutch style of Baltic Baroque, Zemtsov designed the church of SS Simeon and Anna (1730–34) on Mokhovaya Street and the cathedral of Prince Vladimir (1741–7; built by Pietro Trezzini, b 1710; now on Dobrolyubov Prospect). These all played an important role in the townscape of the city. While echoing the traditional Russian pattern of a church linked to a refectory and with a belfry surmounting the west entrance, Zemtsov proposed for the interiors an unusually spacious basilica with a long nave, aisles and a transept. In his design for the cathedral of the Trinity (...