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Article

Allora & Calzadilla  

Sofia Hernández Chong Cuy

American installation artists, active also in Puerto Rico. Jennifer Allora (b Philadelphia, Mar 20, 1974) graduated with a bachelor’s degree in art from the University of Richmond, Virginia (1996), and Guillermo Calzadilla (b Havana, Cuba, Jan 10, 1971) graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Escuela de Artes Plastica in San Juan, Puerto Rico (1996). Allora and Calzadilla met in Italy in 1995 during a study abroad program in Florence. They then lived together in San Juan for a year before moving to New York City where they started working collaboratively while each participated in different residency and study programs. In 1998–1999, Allora participated in the year-long Whitney Independent Study Program, while Calzadilla participated in the P.S.1 Contemporary Arts Center National Studio Program.

Allora & Calzadilla’s first important international exhibition was the XXIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1998 curated by Paulo Herkenhoff, which investigated the idea of cultural cannibalism known in Brazilian literature as ...

Article

Belloni, José Léoncio  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active in Montevideo.

Born 1882; died 1965.

Sculptor (bronze).

Belloni created the La Carreta monument.

Montevideo, 29 June 1981: Figure (bronze, h. 17¾ ins/45 cm) UYU 4,000

New York, 18 May 1995: Road (bronze, 12¼ × 42½ × 9 ins/31.1 × 107.9 × 22.9 cm) ...

Article

Bergallo, Armando  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 16 November 1942, in Montevideo.

Sculptor.

Armando Bergallo exhibited at the Venice Biennale of 1970, showing assemblages of juxtaposed linear structures.

Article

Cabrera, German  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 1903, in Las Piedras.

Sculptor.

German Cabera's first studies were at the Montevideo arts circle between 1918 and 1926, followed by travels around Europe (Germany, Belgium and France). He settled for a time in Paris where he was the pupil of Despiau and Bourdelle. In ...

Article

Carlos  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 6 November 1922, in Montevideo.

Sculptor.

Between 1941 and 1946 Carlos studied at the school of art in Montevideo. In 1947 he went to Paris where he settled. He worked in André Lhote's studio in 1948, then with Fernand Léger, with whom he collaborated until ...

Article

Darié, Sandú  

Blanca Serrano Ortiz de Solórzano

(b Roman, Moldavia, 1908; d Havana, 1991).

Cuban painter, sculptor, filmmaker, set designer, and ceramicist of Romanian birth. A pioneering figure in the development of concrete abstraction in Cuba, he was a member of the Havana-based artist group Diez Pintores Concretos, and he collaborated with the Argentine art movement Arte Madí.

In 1926 Darié moved to Paris where he studied Law, worked as a cartoonist for French and Romanian print media, and befriended avant-garde artists. In 1941 he fled Vichy France for Cuba, obtaining citizenship four years later. After a period of lyrical abstraction inspired by the local landscape, Darié turned to non-objective art. His first solo exhibition, Composiciones, was held at the Lyceum in Havana in 1949, and later traveled to the Carlebach Gallery in New York where the Museum of Modern Art acquired Composición en Rojo (Composition in Red, 1946).

In New York, Darié met the painter Jean Xceron (1890–1967), who introduced him to the sculptor Gyula Kosice, who was one of the founders of ...

Article

Ferrari, Juan M.  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 21 May 1874, in Montevideo; died 31 October 1916, in Buenos Aires.

Sculptor. Busts, groups, monuments.

As a young man, Juan Ferrari was awarded a bursary to train in Europe. He studied in Rome under Ettore Ferrari and Ercole Rosa. From his Italian teachers Ferrari learned a style of sculpture that was still very objective but which he brought to life through his own sensibility, carving busts of his friends and monuments that have now become classics in Latin America. His most famous work is the ...

Article

Fonseca, Gonzalo  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1922, in Montevideo; died 1997, in Italy.

Sculptor.

Atelier Torres García.

As a child Gonzalo Fonseca frequently visited Europe with his family. From 1939 to 1941 he studied architecture at the University of the Uruguayan Republic and ...

Article

Grau, Enrique  

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, Dec 18, 1920; d Bogotá, Apr 1, 2004).

Colombian painter, sculptor, printmaker, filmmaker, and stage designer. He studied at the Art Students League in New York from 1941 to 1943 and subsequently visited Italy, where he studied fresco and etching techniques before settling again in Colombia. Consistently devoted to the human form, he initially depicted figures with angular heads and striped tunics in a strong light, with symbolic objects such as eggs, masks, or cages.

In such later paintings as Boy with Umbrella (1964; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas) Grau’s figures were transformed into plump, fleshy, and voluptuous beings, richly arrayed with lace, feathers, hats, and fans, like characters taken from the theater or from popular turn-of-the-century postcards. His scenes were gradually filled with anecdotal details and numerous objects, including cupboards, easels, boxes, masks, and flowers, through which he suggested emotionally charged atmospheres. Grau also produced murals, prints, stage sets, films, and especially sculptures. The first of these were assemblages of antique and industrial objects, but he subsequently made cast-bronze sculptures that convey a sensuousness, mystery, and nostalgia similar to that evoked by his paintings....

Article

Iturria, Ignacio de  

Uruguayan, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1949, in Montevideo.

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Figures, genre scenes, interiors.

The son of Basque immigrant parents, Ignacio de Iturria studied design and painting. He married in 1977 and moved to Spain, living in Barcelona in 1982. He returned to live in Montevideo from 1979 to 1982 and permanently in 1984....

Article

Maiolino, Anna Maria  

Sonia de Laforcade

(b Scalea, Cosenza, May 20, 1942).

Brazilian printmaker, draughtsman, installation artist, film maker, and sculptor of Italian birth. Maiolino moved to Brazil in April of 1960, after having spent six years in Caracas, Venezuela, where her family had emigrated from Italy. In 1961 she took a woodcut course with the prominent artist and teacher Ivan Serpa at the Museu de Arte Moderna in Rio de Janeiro, before enrolling the next year at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, an important centre of woodcut art overseen by the printmaker Oswaldo Goeldi. There, Maiolino studied alongside Rubens Gerchman (1942–2008) and Antônio Dias, and together with these artists she was a key participant in the Brazilian New Figuration movement. Influenced by popular woodcuts from the north-east of Brazil, Maiolino’s woodcuts produced during the 1960s explored quotidian themes, often focusing on mass culture and the domestic sphere, as in Glu... Glu... Glu... (1967). In 1965 she began a parallel exploration of these themes in works made with found objects and upholstery. She contributed to two key exhibitions for Brazilian art in the 1960s, ...

Article

Mañé, Pablo or Paul  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born in Montevideo.

Sculptor. Allegorical subjects. Monuments, statues.

Pablo Mañé also exhibited in Paris at the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Tuileries. He is known for his allegorical statue Youth and his Monument to Rio Branco.

Versailles, 11 Dec 1983...

Article

Manglano-Ovalle, Iñigo  

Susan Snodgrass

(b Madrid, 1961).

Chicago-based American sculptor, photographer, video artist, installation artist of Spanish birth. He received a BA in art and art history and a BA in Latin American and Spanish literature from Williams College in 1983. In 1989 he earned a MFA from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Manglano-Ovalle’s hybrid practice emerged with Tele-vecindario: A Street-Level Video Block Party, a public art project created for Culture in Action, a community-based art program in Chicago in 1992–1993. Working with Latino youth in Chicago’s West Town community, an area often challenged by substandard housing, drugs, and gang violence, the artist facilitated a multimedia portrait of their lives in which these youth constructed their own images and concept of self. Issues of identity, community, and migration, as they relate to both cultural and geographic borders, have been explored throughout his career that includes collaborative modes of working, as well as individual works sited within the museum or gallery. For Manglano-Ovalle, culture encompassed a broad network of systems—artistic, political, environmental, scientific—in constant dialogue, negotiated by both artist and viewer....

Article

Mendieta, Ana  

Cuban, 20th century, female.

Active in the United States.

Born 1948, in Havana; died 8 September 1985, in New York.

Sculptor, installation artist, performance artist, video artist, photographer.

Body Art, performance.

Ana Mendieta’s family left Cuba in 1961 for political reasons. She studied in the United States at the University of Iowa as a painter before radically changing her artistic direction. From 1972 to 1980, Mendieta created performance pieces, or ‘earth–body sculptures’, in Iowa and Mexico; these involved inserting her body into nature as a means of expressing and questioning her Afro-Cuban roots. She was particularly influenced by Santería, a syncretic South American religious movement, while exploring her status as a woman and an immigrant.

Mendieta joined the Artist in Residence Inc. (A.I.R.) Gallery in New York in 1978. A.I.R was the first all-female gallery to be opened in the United States. Mendieta’s active participation in the gallery was crucial to the development of her own feminist practice. While working at the gallery, Mendieta met her future husband, the Minimalist artist Carl Andre....

Article

Mendieta, Ana  

Susan S. Weininger

(b Havana, Nov 18, 1948; d New York, Sep 8, 1985).

American sculptor, performance artist, video artist, and painter of Cuban birth. From the age of 12, when she was sent to the USA from Cuba by her parents, she lived in orphanages and foster homes in Iowa. Her sense of exile and the separation from her family proved strong motivating forces on her later work. After completing an MA in painting at the University of Iowa in 1972, she entered the university’s new Multimedia and Video Art program, in which she was free to experiment and develop a unique formal language, gaining an MFA in 1977.

In the 1970s Mendieta began to create “earth-body sculptures” outdoors in Iowa, using the primal materials of blood, earth, fire, and water, having first executed performances that she documented in photographs or black-and-white films. In the Silueta series she traced or sculpted the image of her body on the ground, using ignited gunpowder, leaves, grass, mud, stones, other natural elements, or cloth (e.g. ...

Article

Michelena, Bernabé  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 13 December 1888, in Durazno; died 30 June 1963, in Montevideo.

Sculptor.

Bernabé Michelena studied in Montevideo under Carlos María Herrera and the Italian sculptor Felipe Morelli. He then obtained a scholarship that enabled him to undertake a long journey across Europe. He lived in Paris for a time from ...

Article

Navarro, Juan Carlos Oliva  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active and naturalised in Argentina.

Born 1888, in Montevideo.

Sculptor. Animals.

Navarro created the Monument to General Estanislas Lopez.

Article

Orozco, Gabriel  

John-Paul Stonard

revised by Iván Ruiz

(b Jalapa, Veracruz, Apr 27, 1962).

Mexican sculptor, photographer, draftsman, and installation artist. He Orozco was educated in the tradition of public art (his father was the Mexican painter and muralist Mario Orozco Rivera (1930–1998)); his work concentrates a game between economic and minimum gestures, and monumental/unmonumental poetics. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México in Mexico City (1981–1984) and at the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Madrid (1986–1987). From 1987 to 1992 he led the Taller de los Viernes (Friday workshop) at his home in Tlalpan, meetings in which young artists presented their work, listened to music, and talked about other artists that interested them, such as Joseph Beuys or Marcel Duchamp. Through his Taller de los Viernes, where Abraham Cruzvillegas, Damián Ortega, Dr. Lakra, and Gabriel Kuri participated, Orozco was known for his remarkable influence on the irruption of philosophy into artist practice. In ...

Article

Peña, Antonio  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 1894 or 1918, in Montevideo; died 1947, in Montevideo.

Sculptor, medallist, engraver, draughtsman, engraver. Monuments.

Peña began his studies at the Cercle de Bellas Artes in his native Montevideo. Having received a travel grant, he went to study with Anton Hanak in Vienna, and then with Antoine Bourdelle in Paris. Among his monuments are: ...

Article

Ramos, Nelson  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 1932, in Dolorès.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator.

Nelson Ramos studied at the National School of Fine Art in Montevideo. In 1959 a bursary enabled him to go to Rio de Janeiro, where he studied engraving techniques, and then settled in São Paulo and worked as an illustrator of magazines. Later a second bursary took him to Europe. In ...