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Bandurek, Wolf  

Ticio Escobar

(b Dobrzyn, 1906; d Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1972).

Paraguayan painter and engraver of Polish birth. He studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań and the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Düsseldorf. As a result of Nazi persecution he settled in Paraguay in 1936, where his work was particularly influential on the development of late 20th-century art. Although he was not an innovator from the point of view of form, he introduced into painting a dramatic content drawn from Paraguayan history and comment on social injustice and recent wars, thus giving new life to a school of painting that until then had been bucolic. His somber and moving oil paintings had vitality and an impassioned expressiveness. In the late 1930s and early 1940s this intensity of expression in his work provided a useful complement to the formal clarity of Jaime Bestard; both helped to undermine the prevailing academicism of art in Paraguay. Bandurek’s black-and-white wood engravings confirm the drama in his work and his persisting social concern. They were published in Buenos Aires in ...


Buvelot, Abram-Louis  

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, Mar 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer, and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of eighteen lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–1844. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...


Catherwood, Frederick  

Esther Acevedo

(b Hoxton, London, 1799; d at sea nr. Terranova, 1854).

English draftsman and printmaker, active also in Mexico. He studied architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in London and continued his studies in Rome. Active in the Middle East, he made drawings of antiquities in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the Holy Land. At the end of the 1830s, Catherwood worked for an architecture studio in the USA. During the assemblage of an exhibition about his first works, he met the American archaeologist John Lloyd Stephens (1805–1852), who proposed to travel with him to Yucatan.

Catherwood accompanied Stephens on two trips to Mexico. On the first one, in 1839–1840, he undertook the task of drawing the archaeological ruins of Palenque, Uxmal, Copan, and other places or monuments specified by Stephens. Under the terms of his contract, Stephens became the owner of the original drawings, with the right to reproduce them. The monuments were captured with great precision down to the minutest details. On their second trip, in ...


Charlot, (Louis Henri) Jean  

Esther Acevedo

(b Paris, Feb 8, 1898; d Honolulu, Mar 20, 1979).

French painter and printmaker, active in Mexico and the USA. As a child he was surrounded by the nostalgic presence of Mexico, as one of his great-grandmothers was Mexican, and one of his grandfathers had collected Pre-Columbian art. He specialized in murals, painting his first for the Exposition Saint-Jean, an exhibition of liturgical art at the Louvre in 1920. In 1921 he settled in Mexico to take up an offer of work from Alfredo Ramos Martínez at the open-air school in Coyoacán. He worked in Mexico City as one of Diego Rivera’s assistants on the mural The Creation (1923), executing two important murals of his own in the city during the same period: the Conquest of Tenochtitlán (1922–1923) in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, and Porters and Washerwomen (1923) in the building of the Secretaría de Educación Pública. Charlot collaborated on the magazine Mexican Folkways...


Egerton, Daniel Thomas  

Eloísa Uribe

(b England, 1797; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Apr 27, 1842).

English painter, draftsman, and engraver, active in Mexico. He exhibited with the Royal Society of British Artists, of which he was a founder-member, between 1824 and 1829. Inspired by the writings of Alexander Humboldt, he traveled to Mexico in 1830 and from 1831 made a series of sketches of landscapes including views of mines, ranches, and cities. Twenty-five oil paintings and more than a hundred watercolors and drawings in red chalk date from this period. On his return to England, his pictures were made into prints to form an album of color lithographs. As the record of a traveling artist, the album contributed to a fashionable genre of the period. Egerton’s work depicted an abundant natural world and prosperous towns, with each urban or rural landscape inhabited by people dressed in traditional costume, who are generally positioned in the foreground and surrounded by typical local vegetation (e.g. View of the Valley of Mexico...


Fabregat, José Joaquín  

Paul Niell

(b Torreblanca, 1748; d Mexico City, 1807). Spanish engraver, active also in Mexico. Fabregat was born in Torreblanca in the province of Castellón in 1748. He began his studies at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos in Valencia. He later obtained a prize in engraving from the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid and in 1774 was named ‘Académico Supernumerario’ by this institution and by the Academia de S Carlos in 1781. He engraved for some important printing presses in Spain, including those of Antonio Sancha, Joaquín Ibarra, the Imprenta Real in Madrid, and that of Benito Monfort in Valencia. By royal order, on 21 November 1787, the Crown appointed him director of metal engraving at the Real Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1783, after Fernando Selma declined the position. Fabregat embarked for the Americas in 1788. He is well known for the engraving that Manuel Toussaint titles the ...



Gustavo Navarro-Castro

revised by Iliana Cepero

[Goldschmidt, Gertrudis]

(b Hamburg, Aug 1, 1912; d Caracas, Sept 17, 1994).

Venezuelan architect, sculptor, draftsman, and printmaker of German birth. She studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart until 1938; one of her principal teachers was Paul Bonatz. The following year she traveled to Venezuela, where she combined her artistic career as a sculptor, draftsman, and engraver with teaching. In 1952 she adopted Venezuelan nationality and in 1953 she moved to the coastal town of Tarma where she made watercolors, drawings, and prints. Upon her return to Caracas in 1956, and inspired by the kinetic art movement, she began experimenting with the conversion of planes into three-dimensional forms, exploring the media of drawing, watercolor, engraving, collage, and sculpture and integrating them into architectural spaces, defying artistic conventions. A pioneering example of this approach was her 1962 design for the headquarters of the Banco Industrial de Venezuela in Caracas, which comprised a 10 m tower of interlocking aluminum and steel tubes....


Goeldi, Oswaldo  

Roberto Pontual

revised by Alana Hernandez

(b Rio de Janeiro, Oct 31, 1895; d Rio de Janeiro, Feb 15, 1961).

Brazilian draftsman and printmaker. In 1901 he returned to Switzerland with his father, the Swiss naturalist Emil Goeldi, who served as the director of the Museu de História Natural e Ethnografia do Para (later the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi) in Belém. In 1917 he enrolled in the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Geneva, but left soon after. He settled in Rio de Janeiro in 1919 and began a career as an engraver and illustrator for popular magazines, and became attached to a group of avant-garde artists. In 1921 Goeldi had his first solo exhibition, which later led to his participation in the 1922 Semana de Arte Moderna in São Paulo with a group of drawings.

Goeldi took up printmaking in 1924, particularly favoring woodcuts, and he illustrated numerous books, reviews, and literary supplements, especially after the success of his illustrations for Raul Bopp’s poem Cobra Norato (Rio de Janeiro, 1937...


Herrería, Julián de la  

Ticio Escobar

[Cervera, Andrés Campos]

(b Asunción, 1888; d Valencia, Spain, 1937).

Paraguayan painter, engraver, and ceramicist. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, and spent six years studying in Paris in private studios. His first exhibition, in Asunción in 1920, marked a turning-point in the history of Paraguayan art. He showed oil paintings inspired principally by Cézanne and the Fauvists, and the arbitrary colors and heavy impasto of his stylized landscapes introduced local artists to the innovations of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism previously unknown in Paraguay; as a result, other painters began to use them in their work. In his engraving, Herrería used a simplified line based on flat contrasts of color. From 1922 he began to work in ceramics, developing themes derived from Pre-Columbian Latin American traditions and scenes of daily rural life in Paraguay. His plates and small sculptures had designs influenced by Art Deco. The series of motifs used in his ceramics show a deep understanding of Paraguayan humor and popular art and give a vivid portrait of everyday life that transcends the merely picturesque....


Jensen, Alfred  

Alberto Cernuschi


(b Guatemala City, Dec 11, 1903; d Glen Ridge, NJ, April 4, 1981).

American painter and printmaker of Guatemalan birth. Of Polish, German, and Danish heritage, he started school in Denmark and completed high school in San Diego, CA, after working as a seaman and as a farmer in Guatemala. He eventually decided to train as a painter, studying at the San Diego Fine Arts School in 1925 and with Hans Hofmann in Munich in 1926–7. He settled permanently in the USA only in 1934. The patronage of Saidie Alder May (d 1951), a wealthy woman whom he met in 1927 as a fellow student of Hofmann, made it possible for him to dedicate himself to the study of colour theory (especially that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), Mayan and Inca cultures, science, mathematics, and philosophy. Much of this knowledge was later transposed into complex, diagrammatic pictures such as Family Portrait (1958) and The Great Mystery II (1960...


Landesio, Eugenio  

Eloísa Uribe

(b Venária Reale, Jan 27, 1809; d Rome, Jan 29, 1879).

Italian painter, printmaker, teacher, and writer, active in Mexico. He was a pupil of the Hungarian painter Károly Markó (i) and studied at the Accademia Nazionale di San Luca in Rome. There he met the Spanish Catalan painter Pelegrín Clavé, who in 1854 proposed to the governing body of the Academia de las Nobles Artes de San Carlos in Mexico that Landesio be engaged as professor for the perspective and landscape class, recommending him for his skill as a painter, engraver, lithographer, and restorer. His work, which was influenced in particular by the landscapes of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, was already known at the academy, since five of his paintings had been shown in the exhibitions of 1853 and 1854 and had subsequently been bought for the academy’s collection (e.g. View of Rome, 1853; Mexico City, Pal. B.A.). Once in Mexico, Landesio taught the students to work from nature and concentrated on perfecting their drawing before allowing them to use color. His pupils included ...


Leufert, Gerd  

Ana Tapias

revised by Susanna Temkin

(b Memel [now Klaipéda], Jun 9, 1914; d Caracas, Jan 22, 1998).

Venezuelan graphic designer, printmaker, painter, photographer, sculptor, museum curator, and teacher of Lithuanian birth. He studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hannover, at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Mainz, and, after briefly completing his obligatory military service, at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich with typographer Fritz H. Ehmcke (1878–1965). He moved to Venezuela in 1951, becoming a citizen in 1954. He is acknowledged for his contributions to the Venezuelan postwar art scene and, in particular, to the field of graphic design.

In Venezuela he briefly worked for the Grant Advertising company, and later as Director of Art of McCann Erickson, taking over the position from Carlos Cruz-Diez. In 1952 he met the artist Gego, who became his life partner and with whom he collaborated on projects at the Centro Comercial Cediaz (1967) and the Instituto de Cooperación Educativa (INCE) (1968). From 1957 to 1959 he was art director of the magazine ...


Linati (de Prevost), Claudio  

Esther Acevedo

(b Parma, 1790; d Tampico, Dec 11, 1832).

Italian lithographer, active in Mexico. He was a member of the Carbonari (a secret society dedicated to the unification of Italy) who used lithography and journalism to diffuse his revolutionary ideas. His revolutionary activism caused him to travel to Spain, Belgium, and Mexico.

In 1809 he completed his studies in Paris, but after returning to Italy he was sentenced to death in 1824 for revolutionary activities. He went to Mexico with his colleague Gaspar Franchini in 1825, apparently attracted by the idea of putting his revolutionary ideas into practice. After considerable bureaucratic problems, Linati and Franchini arrived in Veracruz on September 25, 1825 and were responsible for assembling the first lithographic workshop in Mexico City. Since his youth in Parma, Linati had belonged to the Sociedad del Sublime Maestro Perfecto, where he was initiated as a Carbonario. With his lithography machine, he founded the publication El Iris whose first issue was published on ...


Montenegro (Nervo), Roberto Fabrés  

Leonor Morales

revised by Deborah Caplow

(b Guadalajara, Feb 19, 1887; d Mexico City, Oct 13, 1968).

Mexican mural and easel painter, printmaker, illustrator, and stage designer. In 1903 he began studying painting in Guadalajara under Félix Bernardelli, an Italian who had established a school of painting and music there. He produced his first illustrations for Revista moderna, a magazine that promoted the Latin American modernist movement and to which his cousin, the poet Amado Nervo, also contributed poetry. In 1905 he enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Arte in Mexico City; his teachers included Antonio Fabrés, Julio Ruelas, Leandro Izaguirre (1867–1941), and Germán Gedovius. Some of his fellow students were Diego Rivera, Francisco de la Torre, Saturnino Herrán, Angel Zárraga, and Jorge Enciso. In 1905 Montenegro won a grant to travel to Europe, first studying at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. In 1907 Montenegro moved to Paris, where he continued his studies and immersed himself in the world of contemporary art, meeting Cocteau, Picasso, Braque, and Gris, among others....


Obregón, Alejandro  

Eduardo Serrano

(b Barcelona, 1920; d Cartagena, Apr 11, 1992).

Colombian painter, printmaker, draftsman, and sculptor of Spanish birth. After studying in Spain, France, and at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1937–41), he began his career in Colombia in the mid-1940s with paintings in a naturalistic style. He soon developed a more expressionist idiom based to some degree also on Cubism in its reconstruction of multiple fragmented figures. Gradually extending his range of color and defining his motifs as signs and symbols of his culture, he favored images such as mangrove swamps, volcanoes, condors, bulls, and gannets. Much of the expressive power of his work was based on striking contrasts, for example between energetic brushwork and fine detail, between mysterious glazes and imposing figures, or between muted gray areas and areas of bright contrasting colors. Direct references to reality co-exist with allusions to magic, enigmas, and fantasy. In 1956 he won the Gulf–Caribbean Art Prize for Cattle Crossing the Magdalena...


Pacheco, Ana-Maria  

Omar Olivares

(b Goiás, Apr 17, 1943).

Brazilian sculptor, printmaker, and teacher, active in the UK. She studied sculpture and music at the University of Goiás (1960–1964) and the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (1965). Through a British Council scholarship she went to London (1973), where she settled, later being appointed as Head of Fine Art at Norwich School of Art, Norfolk (1985–1989). For her artistic work she drew upon diverse sources: memories of the landscape of her childhood; the troubled and fantastic visions of Spanish art and literature, of Goya, Picasso, and Federico García Lorca. She explored themes of performance and masquerade in sculptural settings of life-size mannequins. Her polychromed woodcarvings, notably The Banquet (1985; artist’s col., see Brighton 1989, pl. 23) and Man and his Sheep (base, Jura marble, 1989; artist’s col.; exh. 1995, Plymouth, City Mus. & A.G., see Brighton 1989, pl. 1), place subjects in claustrophobic situations of entrapment and interrogation. It is perhaps in her extensive series of drypoint etchings, realized with consummate technical mastery, that Pacheco found her most complete expression, for example the playful charade of ...


Periam, George August  

Esperanza Garrido

[Jorge Agustín]

(fl. 1838–1858).

Mexican engraver of English birth. He established a reputation in England in the 1830s and 1840s for works such as Alfred Dividing the Loaf (1846), after Benjamin West, and his work for the Art Journal, including Clarissa Harlowe (1850), after Landseer. He was commissioned to take charge of the Professorship in Plate Engraving at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City. He arrived in Mexico in 1853 and remained there at least until 1858 according to his contract, which was signed on April 2, 1853. Periam was well thought of by his contemporaries, both as an artist and as a teacher, and through his technical expertise he helped bring about a revival of Mexican engraving after a long period of neglect. Two engravings by Periam can be seen in the collection of the Academia de San Carlos: The Refusal (c. 250 × 200 mm, ...


Pingret, Edouard(-Henri-Théophile)  

Xavier Moyssén


(b Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Dec 30, 1788; d Saint-Quentin, 1875).

French painter and lithographer, active in Mexico. He studied under David and Jean-Baptiste Regnault and established his reputation in Paris as a painter of portraits, genre scenes, and historical subjects. From 1850 to 1855 he lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Although he produced outstanding portraits, for example of General Mariano Arista (1851; Mexico City, Mus. N. Hist.), his most important works in Mexico were costumbrista genre scenes, of which he produced a considerable number. He presented his figures, which he painted in a Neoclassical style, as representative of different social types in suitable settings, helping to establish the terms for such subject matter evolved by Agustín Arrieta and other 19th-century Mexican artists.

Obregón, G. Tipos y paisajes mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City, 1976: 6–9.Ortíz Macedo, Luis. Edouard Pingret: Un pintor romántico francés que retrató el Mexico del mediar del siglo XIX...


Revilla, Carlos  

Luis Enrique Tord

(b Arequipa, Aug 19, 1940).

Peruvian painter and printmaker. He studied in the Netherlands and produced fantastic Surrealist-influenced pictures, in which he made reference to Flemish and Italian painting of the Renaissance. In a number of his dreamlike paintings figures appear to have emerged from a great box of robot toys, contributing to the painting’s disconcertingly cold atmosphere....


Rodríguez Padilla, Rafael  

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Jan 23, 1890; d Guatemala City, Jan 24, 1929).

Guatemalan painter, sculptor, and printmaker. After studying in Guatemala under the Venezuelan sculptor Santiago González (1850–1909) he went to Spain, where he was a pupil of the stage designer Luis Muriel. Shortly after returning to Guatemala in 1915 he painted Self-portrait (Guatemala City, Mus. N. A. Mod.). He took part in several group exhibitions, winning a national first prize in 1920 and the first prize for painting in the Exposición Centroamericana held in 1921 on the centenary of independence. Works painted by him during the 1920s, such as Nude (c. 1920), Portrait of the Artist’s Mother (c. 1922), and Tamales (c. 1922, all Guatemala City, Mus. N. A. Mod.), all reveal the influence of Impressionism. He also produced two portraits of the Spanish Catalan painter Jaime Sabartés (1881–1968), who lived in Guatemala from 1904 to 1927 and became a close friend: one etching and one oil painting (Rodríguez Padilla family priv. col., on loan to Guatemala City, Mus. N. A. Mod.)....