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British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 November 1821, in Paris, to English parents; died 14 May 1906, in Oakland Battle, USA.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Landscapes.

Brabazon studied briefly under James D'Egville and Alfred Downing Fripp but was largely self-taught. He travelled to Spain, Italy, Egypt, the Indies and France, bringing back many landscapes in watercolour. He also made many copies of the masters during his travels. He became a member of the New English Art Club in 1891. He exhibited his work in London, particularly from 1865 until 1870....


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1867, in Bruges, Belgium, to English parents; died 11 June 1956, in Ditchling.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, local scenes (carnival), rustic scenes, urban landscapes, architectural views, urban views, harbour scenes, seascapes...


British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 7 February 1872, in Uxbridge (Middlesex); died 17 June 1952, in Melbourne.

Painter. Genre scenes, landscapes, flowers.

Ethel Carrick trained with Francis Bate and at the Slade School of Fine Art under Frederick Brown and Henry Tonks. She married the Australian painter Emanuel Phillips Fox in 1905 and together they settled in Paris. She was a member of the Salon d'Automne and exhibited there from the time of its foundation. She also exhibited at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon des Indépendants. She was a member of the Union Internationale des Beaux-Arts et des Lettres, a sociétaire of the Salon d'Automne from 1911, and the vice-president of the International Union of Women Painters until 1913. At the outbreak of World War I, the Fox's returned to Australia. Following her husband's death in 1915, Carrick-Fox travelled extensively in Europe, the Middle East and Asia with regular trips to Australia where she continued to exhibit her work....


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 April 1850, in Paris; died 14 December 1933, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Mythological subjects, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Christol studied drawing while working in an architectural practice in 1866. In 1872 he qualified as a teacher of drawing at public schools run by the City of Paris. In ...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1862, in Rheims; died 1943.

Painter, pastellist, engraver (etching). Figures, portraits, landscapes, village views, architectural views, seascapes.

From 1886 to 1891, Henri Delavallée regularly visited Pont-Aven in Brittany where he met Gauguin, Émile Bernard and Seguin. In Paris, where he had a studio, he also met with other artists of the Pont-Aven school. In 1891 he left for the Middle East and settled in Istanbul, remaining there for ten years before returning to Brittany. Delavallée painted Breton landscapes in a pointillist style, sunburnt Turkish landscapes and portraits of the Grand Vizir and members of his court in solidly structured compositions....


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 November 1860, in Carpentras (Vaucluse); died 3 July 1932, in Carpentras.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Seascapes, landscapes.

Joseph Eysseric was a pupil of the two Laurens brothers, Jules and Jean Bonaventure. He travelled in Europe and the Middle East in ...


Sergey Kuznetsov

[Gigo] (Ivanovich)

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Nov 22, 1862; d Tsikhisdziri, Oct 28, 1936).

Georgian painter. He studied at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, where he was influenced by Gotfrid Villeval’de (1818–1903), painter of battle-scenes, and he held his first exhibition in 1891. He was also well acquainted with the Wanderers, and his Three Townsmen (1893; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.) displays his aspirations towards Critical Realism. Seeking new sources of inspiration Gabashvili travelled to Central Asia where studies and sketches similar to the work of Vasily Vereshchagin resulted in Bazaar in Samarkand (1896; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.; another version, 1897), in which a mastery of drawing is combined with commonplace colouring and weak composition. He also travelled to Munich but was not impressed by the modernism of German painters. In 1895, Il’ya Repin received a gold medal for his Zaporozhe Cossacks Write a Letter to the Turkish Sultan (main version 1880–91; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), a painting that greatly influenced Gabashvili, who from ...


Hilary Pyle

[Mary Catherine]

(b Dublin, March 11, 1863; d Dublin, July 16, 1955).

Irish painter. She was educated mainly at home, where she drew, painted and copied the family portraits. Although she exhibited Turkeys at the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1897, family obligations prevented her from studying art until c. 1910; she was taught in Paris by Kees van Dongen and later by Hermenegildo Anglada-Camarasa, and she spent each of the 15 subsequent winters in the city. She joined the French army as a nurse during World War I and received the Croix de Guerre in September 1915. From 1922 to 1925 she worked with André Lhôte, in the latter year holding her first solo exhibition in Paris, which helped to establish her as one of the first Irish artists associated with the Ecole de Paris. In 1925, having absorbed aspects of the work of Matisse, of Cubism and finally of the work of Marie Laurençin and Raoul Dufy, still maintaining Anglada-Camarasa’s rather hot colouring, she achieved a free, decorative manner of her own. She said in ...


Czech, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Zlín.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver. Landscapes.

Bohumir Jaronek studied at the Budapest academy of fine art. He spent five years in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Constantinople and Italy. He stayed in Paris where he exhibited his watercolours of the Middle East. He also exhibited work in Prague, at the watercolour exhibition in Dresden in ...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1873, in Perrecy-les-Forges (Saône-et-Loire); died 1960, in Paris.


Dominique Lagru did not begin painting until 1949 at the age of 75 after leading a life of destitution.

First a shepherd and then a miner, Lagru had always been interested in the history of man and the prehistory of animals and his work recounts important moments of that history, from the origins of the world ( ...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 29 June 1844, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland); died 1917, in Breslau.

Painter. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Linke studied at the academy in Berlin, then in Italy and the Middle East before returning to settle in Breslau.

Wroclaw: Ziegenrucken...


Fani-Maria Tsigakou

(b Alexandria, May 10, 1878; d Athens, July 1967).

Greek painter of Egyptian birth. He studied in Vienna under the German painter Karl Dieffenbach (b 1851) and first exhibited at the Boehms Künstlerhaus in 1899. His first exhibition in Athens was in 1900. From 1903–7 he lived on the island of Poros where he painted the frescoes for the church of St Nicholas. In 1908 he decorated the church of St George in Cairo. From 1909 to 1911 he lived in Paris, where he participated in the Salon d’Automne. In 1910 he received an award for his painting The Hillside, and in 1911 he won first prize at an exhibition of religious art for his painting of the Annunciation. He returned to Greece in 1912, living in Corfu for five years, before finally settling in Athens in 1917. In 1918 he was commissioned to decorate the church of St Alexander at Paleo Phaliro. In 1920, after a retrospective exhibition of his work at the Záppeion, Athens, he received the art and literature award of the Academy of Athens. In ...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Painter. Genre scenes, local scenes.


Eugène Pavy, the brother of Philippe Pavy, travelled in the East with him and painted the same oriental subjects.

Glasgow: Eastern Market; Eastern Farmyard Scene; Eastern Interior


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1860.

Painter. Genre scenes, local scenes.


Philippe Pavy was a pupil of Jules Lefebvre. Between 1885 and 1887, he visited the Middle East, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia with his brother Eugène. He painted typically 'oriental' scenes with spontaneity and freshness: street scenes, interiors, slave markets, snake charmers, harem guards, and similar....


Anthony Parton

[Pirosmani, Nikolay (Aslanovich)]

(b Mirzaani, E. Kiziki region, Kakheti, ?17 May 1862; d Tbilisi, April 7, 1918).

Georgian painter. He was orphaned at an early age and brought up by his father’s employer in Tbilisi. He worked first as a brakesman on the Transcaucasian Railway, then, following a brief and financially unsuccessful foray into business, he became an itinerant painter of signboards, windows and murals, working mainly for the shopkeepers in and around Tbilisi. He had no special schooling and evolved his own naive style based upon the colours, rhythms and spatial concepts of Georgian folk art. His animal paintings and portraits are particularly impressive. His Carousal series (c. 1906; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.) depicts traditional aspects of Georgian life.

In the summer of 1912 Pirosmanashvili was ‘discovered’ by members of the Donkey’s Tail group, for whom he was, as Benedict Livshits wrote, ‘a second [Douanier] Rousseau’. The group members appreciated and collected his work for its spontaneous and naive qualities, and within a year they had propelled the obscure Georgian to fame. In ...


Colette E. Bidon

(b Algiers, March 23, 1861; d Marlotte, Seine-et-Marne, March 1932).

French painter and designer. He began his career painting the Algerian scenes of his youth, rendering Orientalist subjects—such as markets and musicians—with a distinctive, unaffected precision. In 1888 he went to Paris to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Auguste Herst (b 1825) and Fernand Cormon. He exhibited at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1890.

The discovery of Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites, and a visit to Italy in 1894, led Point to model his work on the artists of the Florentine Renaissance. The inspiration of Botticelli and Leonardo can be seen in such works as the Eternal Chimera (c. 1895; London, Piccadilly Gal.). Under the dominating influence of Gustave Moreau, his work was also aligned with Symbolism. He became a disciple of Rosicrucianism and a friend of Sâr Peladan, fastidiously rejecting the modern industrial world and what he considered the excessive realism of Zola or Courbet. He painted magicians, endowed with a pure and ancient beauty, or figures of Greek mythology (e.g. ...


Russian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 May 1844, in St Petersburg; died 18 July 1927, in Polenovo (Tula region).

Painter, engraver, designer, illustrator, teacher. History painting, religious painting, portraits, genre painting, landscapes, stage designs, costumes, decorative art, architecture.

The Peredvizhniki (Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions)...


Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 February 1852, in Istanbul, Turkey; died 2 October 1909, in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Genre scenes, portraits, local figures, architectural subjects, interiors with figures, animals.

Theodoros Rallis (Théodore Jacques Ralli) studied in Paris under Gérôme and Lecomte du Nouy and at the École des Beaux-Arts. He travelled widely in the Middle East and North Africa, finding many sources of inspiration. He exhibited first in 1875 at the Paris Salon, and subsequently at the Salon des Artistes Français, of which he was a member. He received an honourable mention in 1885 and a silver medal in 1889 for the Exposition Universelle, and served as a member of the jury for the 1900 Exposition Universelle. He also exhibited at the Royal Academy in London from 1879. He was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur in 1901....


Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France from 1967.

Born 1920, in Saragossa.

Sculptor, painter, assemblage artist, mixed media.

Saragossa Group.

Ricardo Santamaria studied from 1940 at the colleges of arts and crafts in Saragossa and Barcelona; he spent 1956 travelling in Holland, France and Italy. He started out in around ...


Alkis Charalampidis

(b Tokat, Turkey, 1859; d Athens, 1927).

Greek painter. He studied at the Polytechnic in Athens (1878–80) and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1880–87). He lived and worked in Munich until 1925 but spent the last two years of his life poor and ill in Athens. He painted a wide variety of subjects, including landscapes and religious scenes. Restless by nature, with a constant inclination to experimentation, he moved from academic realism through Impressionism to Expressionism. He relied heavily on colour in his work, while the frequent visits to his own country sustained his Eastern sense of aesthetics. He revealed an interest in philosophy and the theory of art in his unpublished Hemerologio (‘Diary’; Athens, N.G.).

S. Lydakes: ‘Symeon Savvidis’, Oi ellenes zographoi [The Greek painters], ed. S. Lykades and A. Karakatsane, 1 (Athens, 1974), pp. 268–301C. Christou: Greek Painting, 1832–1922 (Athens, 1981), pp. 67–70N. Misizli: Elliniki Zographiki, 1805–1905...