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Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...

Article

[Johannes]

(b Mainz, c. 1394–99; d Mainz, 1468).

German printer. Trained as a goldsmith, he left Mainz for Strasbourg c. 1428 as a political exile. A lawsuit of 1439 indicates that while in Strasbourg he began experimenting with printing techniques. Gutenberg was back in Mainz on 17 October 1448 and by 1450 had begun a commercial printing venture employing his inventions of movable metal type cast in separate letters and a type-casting machine (see Printing). He was financed by a lawyer, Johannes Fust (d 1466), who also became his partner. Gutenberg’s principal developments were the use of individual letters in raised type, which were manufactured in metal instead of wood, thus increasing the durability and clarity of the printed image, and the employment of a pressure press in the printing process. His 42-line Bible, set up during 1452–3, was published before 24 August 1456. It was a lectern book, in two volumes, comprising 1286 pages and was the first full-length ...

Article

(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born 1485, in Bourges; died 1533, in Paris.

Miniaturist, copyist, engraver, illustrator, printer (?), potter.

Tory was one of the eminent Renaissance artists in France. Like many of the notable figures of his day, he was learned and skilled in several areas. After education in Rome and Bologna (1503), he returned to Paris, where he was nominated professor at the Collège du Plessis; he also taught at the Collège de Coquerel and the Collège de Bourgogne. Initially in collaboration with Henri Estienne and then in collaboration with Gilles de Gourmont, he published several scholarly works, among them the ...