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Aladrén y Mendívil, Luis  

Alberto Villar Movellán

(fl 1882–97).

Spanish architect. His work is representative of the eclecticism of late 19th-century Spanish architecture, which is especially marked by classical values. His idiom was derived from Mannerist architecture and has a strong Baroque element. The influence of French art is also evident, especially the ostentatious style of Charles Garnier. Aladrén y Mendívil’s early works are more restrained in style and show a mastery of plan and façade design. This is apparent in the Diputación de Guipúzcoa (1885), San Sebastián, which he executed in collaboration with Adolfo Morales de los Ríos. With this same architect he designed his most renowned work, the Casino (now Ayuntamiento; 1882–7) at San Sebastián, which was promoted by the city council to take advantage of wealthy visitors, as San Sebastián was the court summer residence. The upper part of the building was set aside for gaming and the lower for relaxation and recreation, with banqueting-rooms, a café and restaurant. It is French in style and incorporates medieval, Renaissance and Baroque influences, combining these with the use of iron technology. These official works recommended him to industrial magnates in the Basque region, who made important commissions. These he executed with an academic respect for symmetry and following French models, as in the elegant country house (...



Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in 1249. Further excavations could shed much light on this history.

Highlights in the Algarve include remains at Milreu of a villa with elaborate mosaics that rank among the most substantial Roman sites in the region. The site further preserves foundations of a basilica, likely constructed in the 5th century, and traces of what may be a baptistery, perhaps added during the period of Byzantine occupation in the 6th and 7th centuries. The period of Islamic rule, from the 8th century through to the 13th, witnessed the construction of many fortifications, including examples at Aljezur, Loulé and Salir, which were mostly levelled by earthquakes. Silves, a city with origins in the Bronze Age, preserves a substantial concentration of relatively well-preserved Islamic monuments. These include a bridge, carved inscriptions, a castle, cistern and fortified walls, along which numerous ceramics have been excavated. Most extant medieval churches in Algarve date to the period after the Reconquest. These tend to be modest in design and small in scale, such as the 13th-century Vera Cruz de Marmelar, built over Visigothic or Mozarabic foundations. The relatively large cathedrals at Silves and at Faro preserve substantial portions dating to the 13th century, as well as fabric from subsequent medieval campaigns. Renaissance and Baroque churches and ecclesiastical furnishings can be found throughout Algarve....


Altemps family  

Joseph Connors

(Alta Emps, Hohenems)

Italian family of patrons, of German origin. The Hohenems family from Salzburg Italianized their name when Cardinal Marcus Sitticus Altemps (1533–95) brought the dynasty to Rome. A soldier by training, he pursued an ecclesiastical career under the patronage of his uncle, Pope Pius IV (reg 1559–65). Marcus was made Bishop of Konstanz in 1561 and legate to the Council of Trent. He began the development of the massive Villa Mondragone (see Frascati), to the designs of his house architect Martino I Longhi (i); Pope Gregory XIII (reg 1572–85) often visited it. Through papal favour he accumulated enormous wealth, which he used to rebuild the Palazzo Riario near Piazza Navona, Rome, into a magnificent family palace (known thereafter as the Palazzo Altemps) and to build the Altemps Chapel in S Maria in Trastevere; both of these designs were by Longhi. Effects of the Cardinal’s patronage or his generosity survive in the many estates that he purchased or received as gifts, at Loreto, Gallese and in the area around Frascati (e.g. at Mondragone, Monte Compatri and Monte Porzio). ...


Antunes, João  

Leonor Ferrão

(bapt Lisbon, Sept 30, 1643; d Lisbon, Nov 25, 1712).

Portuguese architect and master mason. He worked in the context of a national tradition marked by Mannerism and the Plain style (see Portugal, Republic of, §II, 2), but he also contributed to the progressive acceptance of new Baroque concepts of space in Portugal, as shown in the use of polygonal plans. He gave a festive and sumptuous treatment to the interiors of his buildings, using inlay of coloured jasper or marble, which is sometimes combined with carved and gilded woodwork (talha) and blue and white azulejos (glazed tiles). Antunes probably learnt these intarsia techniques from the examples of the decorations (c. 1665–92; destr. 1755) of the nave and chancel of the church of the convent of S Antão-o-Novo, Lisbon, and those (1668–c. 1707) of the sacristy of the convent church of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. In 1670 Antunes was admitted to the Irmandade de S José dos Carpinteiros e Pedreiros in Lisbon, which gave him professional status as master mason. In ...


Arpino, Cavaliere d’  

[Cesari, Giuseppe]

(b Arpino, nr Sora, 1568; d Rome, July 3, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman . His father, Muzio Cesari, was probably a painter; his brother, Bernardino Cesari (1571–1622), became his principal assistant. Giuseppe’s precocious talent for drawing led his mother to take him to Rome in 1581–2, where he became a colour mixer under Niccolò Circignani, then directing the decoration of the third of the great Vatican Logge for Gregory XIII. Circignani promoted him to the painting team; a tiny figure of Abundance on the vault of the seventh compartment has been identified as his earliest known work. During 1583 Giuseppe also worked at the Vatican on the monochrome figure of Samson with the Gates of Gaza in the Sala Vecchia degli Svizzeri and the restoration of the Prophets and Virtues painted by the Raphael workshop in the Sala dei Palafrenieri. Towards the end of the year the Pope granted Giuseppe a salary. Probably in 1584–5 he contributed a fresco of the ...


Baroque Revival  

Alastair Service

[Edwardian Baroque; English Renaissance; Imperial Baroque]

Architectural style adopted widely in Great Britain and the British Empire from about 1885 until World War I, particularly for government, municipal and commercial buildings. Great Britain, with its nationalism, prosperity and extensive empire, was at this time boldly confident of its place in the world as a major power and adopted a style that reflected that confidence. Baroque Revival architecture is characterized by imposing classical façades, with much associated decorative sculpture, and it makes emphatic use of domes and towers, turrets and cupolas. Interiors are spacious and dignified and are also often decorated with sculpture and painting.

Known at the time as English Renaissance, Baroque Revival was a freely adapted version of the English Baroque architecture of the period 1700–20 by such architects as Christopher Wren, John Vanbrugh, Nicholas Hawksmoor and Thomas Archer. Its immediate source was perhaps Kinmel Park, Denbs, a country house designed by W. E. Nesfield (R. Norman Shaw’s partner) in ...


Bautista, Francisco  

Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Murcia, 1594; d Madrid, May 20, 1679).

Spanish architect. He entered the Jesuit Order at 16 as a lay brother and began his career as a carpenter and assembler of retables. His earliest work included the Mannerist retable in the church of the Jesuit college of Alcalá de Henares and the tabernacle in Juan Gómez de Mora’s Bernadine church (c. 1624–30) in the same city. The latter is an empty, free-standing feature, placed on the altar, quite distinct from the traditional Spanish retable, which rests against the rear wall of the sanctuary. In 1633 he replaced the lay brother Pedro Sánchez (1568–?1633) as master of the works at the church of the Colegio Imperial in Madrid, now the cathedral of S Isidoro. There he built the vaults and the dome over the crossing, the latter being the first instance of the ‘cúpula encamonada’, a dome constructed using a timber frame (‘camón’), roofed in slate and plastered inside, with a brick drum. The ease of construction of this type of dome, its low cost and its structural stability made it the prototype of Madrid domes in the Baroque period. Bautista reduced the height and width of the nave arcades in S Isidoro and replaced the capitals and entablatures of the façade columns and paired pilasters of the nave with others of his own particular invention. The capitals featured Corinthian foliage surmounted by an egg-and-dart moulding, while the entablatures displayed paired triglyph consoles....


Buonconsiglio Castle  

Maria Angela Mattevi

[Buon Consiglio; Trent; Trento]

Vast monumental complex built between the north and east gates of the ancient city walls (c. 1200–20) of Trent, the capital of Trentino in Italy. It has three main nuclei: the Castelvecchio, the Magno Palazzo and the Giunta Albertiana. The oldest part, Castelvecchio, was built (1239–55) around the strong donjon, the Torre d’Augusto, by the Imperial Podestà of Trent, Sodegerio da Tito (d 1255), who took up office in 1238. Its function was predominantly military. In 1277 it passed to the Church and became the residence of the prince–bishop of Trent. In subsequent centuries a series of modifications and extensions have brought the castle to its present form. Of fundamental importance were the works completed in 1475 by Giovanni Hinderbach (d 1486) with the aid of Venetian craftsmen, who built the Renaissance Gothic internal court with tiered open galleries and the small loggia on the third floor. At that time the walls of the upper loggia were frescoed with portraits of the bishops of Trent from the city’s origin to the year ...


Büsinck, Ludolph  

(b Hanoversch Münden, 1599 or 1602; d Hanoversch Münden, 1669).

German engraver, draughtsman and painter. His presence in the northern Netherlands c. 1620 is suggested by the woodcut Holy Family under a Tree (Hollstein, no. 4), which renders a design taken from Abraham Bloemaert in a chiaroscuro produced with one line and two tone blocks—a technique developed by Hendrick Goltzius. Between 1623 and 1629–30 Büsinck lived in Paris, producing woodcuts for the publisher Melchior Tavernier (1564–1641) after drawings by Georges Lallemand. The Holy Family with the Infant St John (1623; h 3) shows a more Italian technique, restricting contours to the black line and placing less emphasis on the use of the tone blocks. Subsequent work, such as the Moses (h 1) and the Apostles series (h 5–19) after Lallemand, synthesizes the clear black outlines of the Italian tradition with a lively decorative sway characteristic of the Dutch 17th-century style; while the systematic layers of parallel lines and crosshatching used in the ...


Casino (i)  

[It.: ‘little house’]

Term used in Italian Renaissance and Baroque architecture for the house of a villa suburbana. A good example is the casino of the Villa Giulia, Rome, by Jacopo Vignola. By extension, the term came to refer to an ornamental pavilion or small house, usually in the grounds of a large house or palazzo....



Nancy Ward Neilson

[Crespi, Giovanni Battista]

(b ?Cerano, nr Novara, c. 1575; d Milan, Oct 23, 1632).

Italian painter and designer. He is one of the most prominent of the Milanese artists of the early 17th century whose work represents a transitional phase between Mannerism and Baroque. He was highly esteemed in his day and patronized by the Fabbrica of Milan Cathedral, the civic authorities and highly distinguished private patrons, such as the Borromeo and Gonzaga families and the House of Savoy. Much of his work for private patrons is lost. Although he is chiefly famous as a painter, he also did much work as a designer, from church façades to sacred vestments.

From 17th-century sources both Busto Arsizio and Cerano have been proposed as his birthplace. The latter seems the more likely since the artist adopted its name, but it is also possible that he was born in Milan, where his father, Raffaele Crespi, a minor decorative fresco painter, was active from the late 1550s. His date of birth is based on his age as given in the Milanese census of ...




Crespi, Daniele  

Nancy Ward Neilson

(b ?Milan, 1597–1600; d Milan, July 19, 1630).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was the most original artist working in Milan in the 1620s, the first to break with the wilfully exaggerated manner of Lombard Mannerism and to develop an early Baroque style, distinguished by clarity of form and content. In this context his Supper of St Carlo Borromeo (Milan, S Maria della Passione; see fig. below) is one of the most famous early 17th-century pictures in northern Italy. Crespi’s style, both as a painter and as a draughtsman, is a fusion of Lombard and Emilian sources.

In the Milanese census of 1610 Crespi was listed as a ten-year-old living with his family in the parish of S Eufemia. The family is thought to have come from Busto Arsizio, north of Milan, but Daniele may have been born in the Lombard capital; certainly his education should be considered Milanese. His teacher is unknown, but in 1619 Crespi was already described as a promising painter (Borsieri) and is documented (Delfinone) as working with ...


Tanzio da Varallo  

Francesco Frangi

[Enrico, Antonio d’; il Tanzio]

(b Riale d’Alagna, 1575–80; d 1632–3).

Italian painter. He is best known for his dramatic oil paintings executed in a unique style of Caravaggesque realism modified by the elegance of Lombard Late Mannerism. He also adopted elements of a robust and unsophisticated realism from Piedmontese art, as is evident in his frescoes for the sacromonte at Varallo (see Varallo, Sacro Monte, §2). His drawings are in the highly refined and meticulously finished technique associated with Renaissance draughtsmanship.

Tanzio’s family had lived at Varallo since 1586, and he had two brothers who were also artists: the fresco painter Melchiorre d’Enrico, with whom he may have trained, and the sculptor and architect Giovanni d’Enrico (c. 1560–1644). On 12 February 1600 a safe conduct was issued to Melchiorre and Tanzio to leave Valsesia to visit Rome for the Holy Year. Tanzio’s first biographer, Cotta, wrote that the artist studied ‘in the Academies of Rome’ and that in ...


Douffet, Gérard  

Pierre-Yves Kairis

(bapt Liège, Aug 6, 1594; d Liège, 1660).

Flemish painter. He was trained in Liège by Jean Taulier (d ?1636), probably one of the late Mannerists of the school of Lambert Lombard. It seems likely that he next went to a painter in Dinant known only as Perpète. Abry recorded that Douffet worked in Rubens’s workshop from 1612 to 1614; this is doubtful, though he probably did study in Antwerp. After 1614 Douffet probably went to Italy, and in 1620 and 1622 he is recorded, with Valentin de Boulogne, in Rome. He knew such Caravaggisti as Bartolomeo Manfredi and Nicolas Tournier. No work from this period is known.

Douffet’s oeuvre consists of only about 20 known paintings. The earliest is the Finding of the True Cross (1624; Munich, Alte Pin.). In this he appears uninfluenced by the Rubensian Baroque style of painting then current in the Spanish Netherlands, a surprising fact considering the proximity of the town of Liège to the Flemish border. Instead he introduced Italian-style Caravaggism to Liège. This canvas seems closer to Simon Vouet than to Valentin and the other followers of Manfredi, which is one of the reasons for rejecting the identification of Douffet with the ...


Empoli, Jacopo da  

Elena Testaferrata

[Chimenti, Jacopo]

(b Florence, April 30, 1551; d Florence, Sept 30, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He lived and worked in Florence all his life, and he followed Santi di Tito in the return to the clarity of the Florentine High Renaissance. He absorbed the ideas of his more innovative contemporaries and became one of the most popular painters of altarpieces for churches in Florence and Tuscany. He was also a distinguished still-life painter and received many commissions from private patrons, among them the Medici. Empoli’s painting is distinguished by simple, lucid forms, strong colour and direct and clear interpretation of the subject.

He was the son of Chimenti di Girolamo, a cloth merchant, and of Alessandra Tatti, the daughter of the sculptor Jacopo Sansovino. He trained under the Mannerist painter Maso da San Friano. The Adoration of the Shepherds (Plymouth, City Mus. & A.G.) is one of a small number of paintings attributed to his earliest years (Bianchini, 1980). The two framing figures and the hooded shepherd on the left echo Maso’s style, while the full, sharply modelled forms suggest that Empoli had studied the art of Giorgio Vasari. However, these sources are modified by Empoli’s greater naturalism, and the ruined hut, the simple, devout shepherds and demure little angels recall the accessible and direct religious paintings of Santi di Tito. In the ...


Erardi family  

Mario Buhagiar

Maltese family of painters. Stefano Erardi (b 1630; d 1716) was of French extraction and would seem to have been trained in the workshop of a Mannerist artist, though much of his apprenticeship probably consisted of copying paintings in Maltese collections and studying prints after works by famous artists. This may account for his eclecticism, but it would be wrong to dismiss him as a plagiarist. His best works reveal him to have been an excellent draughtsman with a good sense of colour, who never completely renounced his Mannerist formation. His contacts with Mattia Preti broadened his artistic horizons and introduced him to Neapolitan Baroque art. His work had great popular appeal and helped to stimulate the emergence of a Maltese school of Baroque painting in the 18th century. His most prestigious commission, and one of his best works, is the Adoration of the Magi (Valletta, St John). Equally remarkable are the huge altarpiece of the ...


Fernández, Gregorio  

J. J. Martín González

(b Sarria, Galicia, 1576; d Valladolid, Jan 22, 1636).

Spanish sculptor. He moved from Galicia to Valladolid, drawn by the presence of the Spanish court, and there he was the disciple and collaborator of Francisco Rincón. Fernández’s work in Valladolid is first documented in 1605. He created a style based on strong, vigorous figures and garments with broken, angular folds. His great ability is apparent in the carving of the hair and beards of his figures. He integrated the formal beauty found in the academic Mannerism of Pompeo Leoni and the idealized beauty of the Classical nude with deep Christian feeling. The nude figure of his Ecce homo (1610–12; Valladolid, Mus. Dioc. y Catedrálicio) is based on Classical models. However, his work gradually evolved into a forceful naturalism. He was a skilled narrator of subjects from the Gospels, but he placed greater emphasis on the expressive qualities of the episodes than on the narration. His work also shows a high degree of mysticism. Fernández never visited Italy, so his art is essentially Spanish in style and expression....


Finoglia [Finoglio], Paolo Domenico  

Riccardo Lattuada

(b Orta di Atella or Naples, c. 1590; d Conversano, 1645).

Italian painter. He signed himself Neapolitanus and probably trained in Naples under the late Mannerist painter Ippolito Borghese (d 1627). Borghese’s influence, though lasting, was not as strong as that of Caravaggio, whose art Finoglia came to admire. His work before 1626 is exemplified by the ten lunettes representing the Founders of Religious Orders in the Sala Capitolare (1620–c. 1626) of the Certosa di S Martino, Naples, which demonstrate his accomplished blending of late Mannerist and Caravaggesque styles. The Circumcision (1626), also in the Sala Capitolare, reveals the strong influence of Battistello Caracciolo, as does Finoglia’s first important work in fresco, the decoration of the chapel of S Martino in the Certosa di S Martino with scenes from the Life of St Martin (c. 1632), which were provided to accompany Caracciolo’s altarpiece of St Martin (1622–6) already in the chapel. Caracciolo’s influence was lasting, observable later in the ...