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Article

Bendl [Bendel], Ehregott Bernhard  

Hannelore Hägele

(b Pfarrkirchen, Upper Bavaria, c. 1660; d Augsburg, Jan 31, 1738).

German sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Johann Christian Bendl, with whom he trained. Having become a journeyman, he travelled for six years, probably to Bohemia and Venice. On his return he entered in 1684 the workshop in Augsburg of Johann Jakob Rill (fl c. 1686–99); on 26 November 1687 he was made a master and also became a citizen of Augsburg. He was the city’s leading sculptor during the late Baroque period; many important churches in and outside of Augsburg had sculptures by him. He worked mostly in wood, but also in stone, terracotta and stucco, and probably in ivory and metal as well. For jewellers and goldsmiths he produced models, such as a figure of St Sebastian (1714–15) and a crucifix (1716). His major work included two series of life-size statues: one, of the Apostles, for St Moritz and the other, of the ...

Article

Cipriano da Cruz, Frei  

Pedro Dias

[Manuel de Sousa]

(b Braga, c. 1650; d Tibães, 1716).

Portuguese sculptor. He was born to a family of craftsmen and later entered one of the many workshops of wood-carvers in Braga. In 1676, however, he entered the Benedictine order at its Portuguese mother house of Tibães, near Braga. Here he made statues and reliefs for the church of S Martinho. From this period date his St Benedict and St Gregory the Great and the relief of the Visitation, now in the Benedictine church, S Romão do Neiva. Between 1680 and 1683, during the abbotship of Frei João Osório, he made terracotta sculptures of the eight Virtues and the four Benedictine kings (Tibães, Sacristy), images that appear rather rigid and stereotyped.

Frei Cipriano da Cruz moved to Coimbra before July 1691, when it is recorded that he made the St Catherine in the chapel of the University of Coimbra. This contact with the main centre for sculpture in Portugal had a broadening effect on his art. His most important work outside Tibães is the group of serene and dignified sculptures (dispersed) that he made for the Colégio de S Bento (Benedict), Coimbra. This group includes his gilt and polychromed wooden ...

Article

Garbo family  

António Filipe Pimentel

Family of builders and masons of Italian origin, active in Portugal. Giovanni Battista Garbo (b ?Milan,fl 1670; d ?Lisbon) went to work in Lisbon c. 1670 for the Jesuits at São Antão (now the chapel of the hospital of São José) and perhaps also for the church of Nossa Senhora de Loreto. His son Carlos Baptista Garbo (d Mafra, 1725) was trained in the same skills of masonry at São Antão, and he also became a designer of altarpieces. The high altar with marble mosaic for the old Jesuit church, now the seminary, Santarém, was designed by Carlos Baptista along 17th-century lines and made in 1713 in the workshops of São Antão. It was here that his son António Baptista Garbo (b Lisbon, 1692; d ?Lisbon) was trained and also worked in the service of the Jesuits.

The ability of the Garbo family is most visible at Mafra, where Carlos Baptista superintended the construction of the vast palace, church and convent, following the plans of ...

Article

Grund, Norbert  

Ivo Kořán

(b Prague, bapt Dec 4, 1717; d Prague, June 17, 1767).

Bohemian painter. He was the son of the painter Kristián Grund (c. 1686–1751) and brother to the painters František Karel Grund (1721–43), Petr Pavel Christian Grund (1722–84)—also a violin virtuoso—and the harpist Jan Eustach Grund. He learnt painting with his father, who released him from his apprenticeship in 1737. Subsequently he lived in Vienna and then perhaps in Germany; he probably knew his great models, Watteau, Nicolas Lancret and Francesco Guardi, only from engravings.

Grund’s work consists of a rather confused range of small pictures, embodying almost all genres in which landscapes or dwellings include figures. He painted scenes from myths, the Bible, legends and battles; he depicted love scenes, the theatre, storms at sea, visits to ruins, studios etc. Although the human figures always endow his pictures with a light touch, often there is an implicitly deeper allegorical meaning. His paintings from the 1740s are marked by a heavy Late Baroque colour scheme, in the 1750s by fragile Rococo shades; later he accomplished a smooth transition to a classicist realism. The popularity of his works in aristocratic and bourgeois circles is underlined by reproductions by ...

Article

Moosbrugger, Caspar  

Ulrich Knapp

[Andreas]

(b Au im Bregenzerwald, May 15, 1656; d Einsiedeln, Aug 26, 1723).

German architect. He served his apprenticeship with Christian Thumb, completing it in 1673. In 1674 he began to work as a mason under Johann Georg Kuen (1642–91) on the construction of the new monks’ choir at the Benedictine abbey church at Einsiedeln. In 1682 he was admitted as a lay brother there and assumed the religious name of Caspar. He attained the grade of building expert and abbey architect, working as an adviser or architect for Einsiedeln and many other Benedictine abbeys in Switzerland and south Germany. He was largely self-taught in architectural theory and history, but his designs, especially those for Einsiedeln Abbey, bear witness to his knowledge of French and Italian architectural treatises, such as Augustin-Charles d’Aviler’s Cours d’architecture (Paris, 1693) and Andrea Pozzo’s Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (Rome, 1693–1700). Moreover, numerous drawings by Moosbrugger survive (Lucerne, Burgerbib.), copied from Italian architectural treatises and engravings, for example, Sebastiano Serlio’s treatise on architecture, the ...

Article

Muñoz, Fray Vicente  

José María Peña

(b Seville, 1699; d ?Buenos Aires, 1784).

Spanish architect, active in Argentina. In 1741 he joined the Franciscan Order in Buenos Aires. When he took his vows it was noted that he was a ‘mason–architect’, and he worked in this capacity in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Salta. From 1730 he designed the vaulting for S Francisco, Buenos Aires, following the plans of the original architect Andrea Bianchi, who had begun it c. 1724. The dome (1752) of Córdoba Cathedral is attributed to Muñoz. As has been noted, it is a majestic cupola reminiscent of those of Toro Cathedral in Spain or the Old Cathedral in Salamanca (Spain). Its corner turrets are designed in the Romanesque style, although its skilful interplay of curves and counter-curves, onion-shaped crown, and base strengthened by a balustered ring are derived from Piedmontese Baroque (Gallardo). In 1754 Muñoz was involved in the construction of S Roque Chapel, Buenos Aires, designed by ...

Article

Platen, Wilhelm [Vilhelm] Friederich [Frederik] von  

Mette Bligaard

(b 1667; d Sønderborg, April 27, 1732).

German architect and administrator, active in Denmark. He was officially attached to the Danish court from 1687 and was sent by King Christian V (reg 1670–99) on a study trip to Italy and France in 1698 to perfect his knowledge of architecture, with the promise of being appointed Director of Works on his return. He was appointed to the position in 1705 and thereby became director of all building activity in Denmark. In 1706 he was appointed Marshal of the Court. During von Platen’s period in office a series of outstanding public buildings was erected in Copenhagen to designs by architects who worked under von Platen, including Johan Conrad Ernst (1666–1750), Ernst Brandenburger (d 1713) and Christoph Marselis (fl 1704–25). It is not possible to determine precisely von Platen’s involvement in these buildings, which are all expressions of the interest of King Frederick IV (...

Article

Pozzo [Puteus], Andrea  

Richard Bösel

(b Trento, Nov 30, 1642; d Vienna, Aug 31, 1709).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s Spirited Exercises (1548). His architectural works are eclectic, and his unconventional combination of varied sources led to bold experiments with both space and structure. His ideas were spread by his highly successful two-volume treatise, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693–1700).

He received his first artistic training in Trento, with a painter who appears to have worked in the studio of Palma Giovane. He then studied with an unidentifiable pupil of, among others, Andrea Sacchi, who would have been the first to instruct Pozzo in the art of the Roman High Baroque, and he followed this painter to Como and Milan. In Milan Pozzo joined the Society of Jesus on ...

Article

Schmid, Martin  

Teresa Gisbert

(b Baar region, Switzerland, Sept 26, 1694; d March 1772).

Swiss architect and musician, active in Bolivia. He entered the Jesuit Order and in 1730 was sent to join the Jesuit missions to the indigenous Chiquito peoples of eastern Bolivia, in the Chaco rainforests bordering Brazil and Paraguay. In 1731 he organized the craft workshops in the mission of S Javier and began the construction of the church there. Like all the churches in that region, it is a timber structure with a rectangular ground-plan and a pitched roof. The plan is organized on the basis of five rows of timber columns, with the three central rows dividing the internal space into two aisles and the outer rows defining the enclosing walls and supporting the widely overhanging eaves. These churches were based on ancient Greek models and were adapted to the humid climate and forested nature of the region. Schmid also constructed the churches at S Rafael (1749–53) and Concepción (...

Article

Tausch, Christoph  

Klára Garas

(b Innsbruck, Dec 25, 1673; d Neisse [Nysa, Poland], Nov 4, 1731).

Austrian architect and painter. In 1695 he became a lay brother of the Jesuit Order in Vienna. Between 1702 and 1709 he was the pupil of Andrea Pozzo, with whom he collaborated on the interior decoration of the Liechtenstein summer palace in Vienna (1705). In 1709–10 he completed the renovation of the church of St Anne in Vienna and of the refectory in the Clementinum, a Jesuit college in Prague; both were projects that had been begun by Pozzo. Between 1712 and 1715 Tausch produced his principal work, the decoration of the former Jesuit church at Trencsén (Trenčín, Slovakia) with illusionistic perspective ceiling paintings depicting the Glorification of St Ignatius of Loyola and St Francis Xavier. Between 1713 and 1719 he produced many paintings and designs for Jesuit church interiors in Hungary, Prague and Germany (Passau). After a journey to Rome (1720), and his modification and decoration of the Jesuit church of S Ignazio at Gorizia (...

Article

Troisi family  

Michael Ellul

Maltese family of silversmiths, architects and designers. The first recorded family member is Carlo Troisi (fl 1697–1736), followed by Andrea Troisi (fl 1750), Pietro Paolo Troisi (?1700–50) and Massimiliano Troisi (fl 1794). A silver sugar bowl (1775–97; London, Mus. Order St John) is attributed to Aloisio Troisi, probably a member of the same family. During the 17th and 18th centuries various members of the Troisi family filled the post of Master of the Mint of the Order of St John of the Knights Hospitaller. The Mint was established in Valletta, Malta, in 1566. The best-known Troisi silversmith is Pietro Paolo, who was also an architect. His best work is the Altar of Repose, which he designed for Mdina Cathedral, and which was constructed by the Maltese painter Francesco Vincenzo Zahra in 1750. It is a magnificent Baroque scenographic creation in wood executed in a masterful ...

Article

Willmann, Michael  

Hannes Etzlstorfer

( Lukas Leopold )

(b Kaliningrad [Königsberg], bapt Sept 27, 1630; d Lubiaź [Leubus], Aug 26, 1706).

German painter. The son of the painter Peter Willmann ( fl 1627; d 1665), he trained in the Netherlands in the early 1650s, making contact with Rembrandt and his circle. However, the element of characteristically Counter-Reformation pathos in Willmann’s work seems to derive from studying Rubens and van Dyck. Willmann’s skill as a landscape painter also derives from Dutch models. Around 1653 (or even later) Willmann tried to establish himself as an artist in Prague. However, the artistic dominance of Karel Škréta prevented him from making his mark, so he moved to Berlin, where he found employment at the court of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, in 1657–8. He may have returned briefly to Prague, but following his conversion to Catholicism in 1660–61, he settled finally at Lubiaź Monastery near Wrocław, where he married in 1662. From here he had a wide field of work open to him in the service of the Cistercian monasteries and the nobility of Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia over a period of four decades. He also worked for other religious orders, painting for instance an altarpiece for the Premonstratensians at Strahov Monastery in Prague....

Article

Winck [Winckh; Wink; Winkh], Joseph Gregor  

Sonja Weih-Krüger

(b Deggendorf, May 8, 1710; d Hildesheim, April 11, 1781).

German painter and sculptor. Formerly thought to be the brother of Johann Christian Thomas Winck, he in fact acquired his surname from a stepfather. Nor was he the grandfather of the sculptor Friedrich Carl Franz Winck (1796–1859). He probably started his training in Augsburg—his antecedents lie in south German late Baroque—and may have served his apprenticeship and journeyman years in Holland. He was in Mannheim in 1743 and then worked in Hildesheim, providing an allegorical ceiling painting (1743–4, 1752–3; destr.) for the renovated Rittersaal in the cathedral, and in Brunswick, where he executed a stucco relief for the main gable of the opera house (1747–8; destr. 1864).

Winck married in 1753 in Hildesheim and executed commissions for its prince-bishop during the following years. The Legend of St Clement (c. 1755–8) on the ceiling of the chapel of Schloss Liebenburg (Goslar) is one of his most mature works. Although it is painted on a flat ceiling, perspective is used to give the illusion of a vault, with standing figures from scenes relating to the saint’s life encircling his apotheosis in the centre of the picture and forming the edge of the apparent vault. The apse is painted with illusionistic architectural features, and the altarpiece shows the ...

Article

Wittwer, Martin  

Pál Voit

(b Imst, Tyrol, Oct 24, 1667; d Pacov, Bohemia, May 12, 1732).

Austrian architect. In 1695 he entered the Carmelite Order as a lay brother and was known as Brother Athanasius. He subsequently joined his compatriot Johann Martin Rass (1640–94) in Prague. Rass, who was also a lay brother, had directed (1679–96) the construction in Prague of the church of St Joseph, to the designs of Jean Baptiste Mathey. From Prague, Rass took Wittwer to Linz, where they began building a church for the Carmelites, completed by Wittwer after Rass’s sudden death. The building contractor was Johann Michael Prunner, who was also responsible for building Wittwer’s centralized church for the Carmelite nuns of Linz and to whom many of Wittwer’s works were later attributed. At Linz, Wittwer closely followed the domed construction of the Order’s church in Vienna and derived its undulating west façade from the work of Borromini. At Győr, Wittwer modelled his Carmelite church on the longitudinal oval structure of Donato-Felice Allio’s church for the Salesian nuns in Vienna. The plans (...