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French, 19th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 19th century in Paris.

Painter, publisher, print publisher.

Le Blanc cites his Collection of Engravings ( Un recueil de gravures) based on antique vases.


Bénez, A  

French, 19th century, male.

Active in the middle of the 19th century.

Draughtsman, designer of ornamental architectural features, engraver (etching), print publisher.


Bowyer, Robert  

David Blayney Brown

(b London, c. 1758; d Byfleet, Surrey, June 4, 1834).

Miniature painter and publisher. He was originally self-taught and then a pupil of John Smart (1741–1811), whose work he copied and whose style he imitated: between 1783 and 1828 he was an occasional exhibitor at the Royal Academy, being appointed in 1789 painter in watercolours to George III and miniature painter to Queen Charlotte (1744–1818). He was a keen promoter of history painting and in 1792 launched a prospectus for an edition of David Hume’s History of England, to be ‘superbly embellished’ with illustrations engraved after historical paintings by leading artists, including Benjamin West, Robert Smirke, Francis Wheatley and Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg. Bowyer also published the Historic Gallery, which, until its failure, with great financial loss, in 1806, provided substantial patronage to history painters and fostered a taste for national history paintings, especially of medieval subjects. The five folios that appeared contained, in addition to engravings of historical paintings, engraved portraits, manuscripts and antiquarian material. Bowyer also published ...


Chataigner, Alexis  

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1772, in Nantes; died 1817, in Paris.

Draughtsman, engraver (etching/burin), print publisher.

Alexis Chataigner, a pupil of François-Marie Queverdo, was one of the most prolific engravers of the Revolution and the Empire.

Paris, 14 Dec 1935: The Husband's Departure...


Crosey, P.  

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Versailles.

Draughtsman, engraver (burin), print publisher.


Dickenmann, Johann Rudolf  

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1793, in Zurich; died 1884, in Zurich.

Draughtsman, engraver, print publisher.

Son of the editor Johann-Rudolf Dickenmann, this artist succeeded his father as studio director and supplied a number of aquatint plates for a series of views and panoramas of Switzerland. Several plates were painted in watercolours by his sister, Anna Dickenmann....


Gavarni, Paul  

Michel Melot

[Hippolyte-Guillaume-Sulpice Chevalier]

(b Paris, Jan 13, 1804; d Paris, Nov 24, 1866).

French lithographer and painter. He was one of the most highly esteemed artists of the 19th century. Like Daumier, with whom he is often compared, he produced around 4000 lithographs for satirical journals and fashion magazines, but while Daumier concentrated on giving a panoramic view of public life, it was said of Gavarni that his work constituted the ‘memoirs of the private life of the 19th century’. He specialized in genre scenes, in which the protagonists are usually young women, treating them as little dramatic episodes drawn from the light-hearted life of bohemia, dear to the Romantics.

Gavarni was initiated into the art of precision drawing while still very young, being apprenticed to an architect and then to a firm making optical instruments. He was also a pupil at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers. His first lithograph appeared when he was 20: a miscellany that accorded well with the taste of the time. His second work, the album ...


Guillaume, Edouard  

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1850, in Môtiers; died 1908, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, print publisher. Landscapes.

Edouard Guillaume's Evening on the Mountain is in the museum in Neuchâtel.


Lechter, Melchior  

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 October 1865, in Münster; died 8 October 1937, in Raron (Valais, Switzerland).

Painter (including glass), pastellist, illustrator, draughtsman, decorative designer, graphic designer, writer, publisher.

Melchior Lechter was initially apprenticed to a painter of cartoons for stained-glass windows in Münster, before enrolling at the Hochschule der Künste, Berlin in ...


Lemaitre, Augustin François  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1797, in Paris; died 25 February 1870, in Paris.

Draughtsman, lithographer, engraver, print publisher. Landscapes, genre scenes.

Augustin Lemaitre studied under Michallon and Fortier. He exhibited at the Salon from 1832 to 1855, and in 1834 he won a second-class medal. He made engravings of landscapes and genre scenes....


Liberman, Alexander  

Anne Blecksmith

(b Kiev, Sept 4, 1919; d Miami, FL, Nov 19, 1999).

American painter, photographer and publishing executive of Ukrainian birth. Raised in England and France, he received a degree in philosophy and mathematics from the Sorbonne in 1930. Connected to the Russian exile community in Paris, he was introduced to artists Aleksandr Yakovlev and Marc Chagall. In 1931, he studied painting with André Lhote and enrolled at the Ecole Spéciale d’Architecture, where he was a student of Auguste Perret. Later that year, he transferred to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. While studying architecture, he was apprenticed to graphic artist Cassandre through whom he found work at the newsweekly Vu, where he created photomontage covers with Russian Constructivist sensibilities and later rose to art director. At Vu he worked with imagery by pioneers of 35 mm photography Henri Cartier-Bresson, Brassaï and Erich Salomon. A prolific photographer since childhood, he enthusiastically identified with the candid documentary style of the 35 mm camera.

Arriving in New York in ...


Matyushin, Mikhail  

Christina Lodder


(b Nizhny Novgorod, 1861; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Oct 14, 1934).

Russian painter, patron, musician, writer and publisher. He pursued a highly original line of artistic thought and practice and developed an organic perception of the world, deriving his inspiration from nature rather than machines, unlike many of his Russian Constructivist contemporaries.

Matyushin trained initially as a musician at the Moscow Conservatory (1878–81) and played the violin in the Court orchestra in St Petersburg from 1881 to 1913. In 1889 he began to attend the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St Petersburg, where he studied painting with Yan Tsionglinsky (d 1914). In Tsionglinsky’s studio he met the artist and writer Yelena Guro, whom he married. Later (1906–8) he studied with the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) painters Léon Bakst and Mstislav Dobuzhinsky at the Zvantseva School of Art in St Petersburg.

In 1909 Matyushin briefly joined the circle around Nikolay Kul’bin and the following year he founded the ...


Monvoisin, Pierre  

French, 19th century, male.

Born in Bordeaux.

Painter, lithographer, print publisher. Genre scenes.

Pierre Monvoisin moved to Paris from his native Bordeaux, and settled in the Passage Delorme. He was active by 1824, exhibiting lithographs at the Paris Salon in 1831, 1833 and 1836. His identity may possibly be confused with that of Raymond August Quinsac, or Pierre Raymond Jacques Monvoisin....


Motte, Charles, Étienne Pierre  

French, 19th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Born 1785; died 1836.

Lithographer, draughtsman, engraver (etching), print publisher.

Charles Motte exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1827 and 1831.


Orsini, Baldassare  

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1732, in Perugia; died before 15 December 1810, in Perugia, where he was buried on that date, in S Teresa.

Painter, decorative designer, print publisher. Historical subjects. Church decoration.

A pupil of Fr. Busti, Orsini continued his training in Rome with Masucci and Capriozzi. He became the director of the academy of Perugia and executed many of the chancel pictures in the cathedral of Perugia....


Rugendas family  

Gode Krämer

German family of painters, draughtsmen, and engravers. Georg Philipp Rugendas I, an esteemed painter and graphic artist in Augsburg, established a print publishing house there in 1735. His sons Georg Philipp Rugendas II (1701–74), Christian Rugendas (1708–81), and Jeremias Gottlob Rugendas (1710–72) helped with this business, as did their descendants, including Georg Philipp II’s grandson, the engraver ...


Ruszczyc, Ferdynand  

Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Bohdanów, nr Vilna [now Vilnius, Lithuania], Dec 10, 1870; d Bohdanów, Oct 30, 1936).

Polish painter, printmaker and stage designer. In 1890–92 he studied law at the University of St Petersburg, but from the autumn of 1892 dedicated all his time to painting classes at the Academy of Fine Arts. He was a student of the Russian landscape painters Ivan Shishkin and Arkhip Kuindzhi. During his studies Ruszczyc went twice to the Crimea (1894 and 1895) to paint seascapes. In 1896 and 1897 he went to the Baltic islands of Rügen and Bornholm and to the southern coast of Sweden to paint studies of northern landscape. He also went several times to Berlin, where he first saw works by German Symbolist painters. The influence of Arnold Böcklin may be detected in works on fantastical themes, while Spring (1897; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) recalls Kuindzhi’s luminism and the lyrical Russian landscape tradition. After graduation Ruszczyc made an extensive tour of western Europe, thus substantially enlarging his knowledge of contemporary European art. At the end of his journey (...


Sartain family  

Cheryl Leibold

American family of Philadelphia printmakers, printers, painters, and educators. John Sartain and his children, Emily and William, played an important role in the art world of Philadelphia for over a century. Their influence on American art lies primarily in the impact of their work example and leadership on others, and somewhat less from the value placed on their own artistic output. The patriarch, John Sartain (b London, 24 Oct 1808; d Philadelphia, PA, 25 Oct 1897), arrived in Philadelphia at the age of 22. By 1850 he was the city’s premier engraver of illustrations for a wide range of publications. His brilliant mezzotint engravings, often reproducing the work of others, brought graphic art into the homes of all classes. Reproductive engravings, either framed or in books, were widely popular before the advent of photography. Many writers promulgated the display of such prints as a means to refine and enlighten society. Sartain’s most successful endeavours in this field were his large and elaborate framing prints, commissioned by painters, collectors, and publishers to disseminate important works. The finest of these is ...


Smith, John Raphael  

Geoffrey Ashton

(b Derby, 1752; d Doncaster, March 2, 1812).

English printmaker, publisher and painter. The youngest son of the landscape artist Thomas Smith of Derby (d Bristol, 12 Sept 1767), he was apprenticed to a linen draper at the age of ten and around 1767 became a linen draper’s assistant in London. He seems to have taught himself to paint miniatures and produced his first mezzotint in 1769, from Henry Benbridge’s portrait of General Pascal Paoli (San Francisco, CA Pal. Legion of Honor). Smith married and opened a draper’s shop in Exeter Exchange; about 1773 he began to engrave professionally and sold prints from the same shop.

Smith exhibited mezzotints at the Society of Artists from 1773 to 1777, most of which were copied from paintings by Royal Academicians. He was one of the most refined mezzotint engravers of the late 18th century; many of his plates, such as the Gower Family (1781) after George Romney or ...


Timm, Vasilii  

Russian, 19th century, male.

Active in France from 1844 to 1849, and in Germany from 1867 to 1895.

Born 9 June 1820, in Sorgenfrei (near Riga); died 7 April 1895, in Berlin.

Painter, illustrator, lithographer, publisher. Battle scenes, genre scenes.

Son of a burgomaster of Riga, Vasilii Timm was interested in drawing from an early age, and in ...