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Article

Agate, Frederick Style  

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1807, in Sparta (New York); died 1844, in Sparta (New York).

Painter. History painting, religious subjects.

Frederick Style Agate was the elder brother of Alfred Agate and one of the first members of the National Academy of Design in New York. His paintings ...

Article

Alexander, John  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 26 October 1945, in Beaumont (Texas).

Painter. Scenes with figures, religious subjects.

John Alexander is the leader of the Houston school known as Fresh Paint. His religious paintings have a theatrical quality, with bright colours and a sometimes primitive style. Several of his paintings are of fantastical scenes....

Article

Allston, Washington  

American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1779, in Charleston (South Carolina); died 1843, in Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Painter. Biblical subjects, literary subjects, mythological subjects, portraits.

Washington Allston was intended for a career in one of the professions and studied classics at Harvard. However, his Romantic artistic tastes took him over and he was deeply moved by Schiller and by Fuseli's illustrations to Boydell's ...

Article

Bannister, Edward Mitchell  

Canadian, 19th century, male.

Born 2 November 1828, in St Andrews (New Brunswick); died 9 January 1901, in Providence (Rhode Island).

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, photographer. Portraits, religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes.

Bannister's father was form Barbados and his mother was Scottish. He was born in Canada right after slavery was abolished. He went to live in New York were he was a sailor and settled in Boston in ...

Article

Baptists and Congregationalists  

William L. Hendricks

Christian Nonconformist denominations, basically Calvinist in theology. The Baptist tradition has roots in 16th-century Swiss Anabaptism and among the English Baptists of the 17th century. Their distinctive beliefs include baptism by immersion of self-professed believers, the separation of Church and State, the priesthood of all believers and a stress on biblical authority. Congregationalists, related to the European Reformed tradition and English separatists, are distinguished by the congregational form of church government and freedom for all believers using the Church and commonwealth as instruments of a theocratic society. Churches were established in North America in the early 17th century: the Congregationalists (Pilgrims and Puritans) in 1611 and 1623 and the Baptists in 1638–9. Both traditions made missionary inroads in Africa and the East, while Baptists also found converts in Europe, notably in 19th-century Russia. By the second half of the 20th century there were more than 50 groups of Baptists in the USA. American Congregationalists became part of the United Church of Christ in ...

Article

Barlow Brewster, Achsah  

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1878, in New Haven (Connecticut); died 1945, in Almora (India).

Painter. Religious subjects, flowers.

Achsah Barlow Brewster studied at the New York School of Art and at the Art Students League. In 1905 she was in Paris. She married the artist Earl Brewster in ...

Article

Baumgarten, William  

Gordon Campbell

(b 1845; d 1908).

American interior decorator and founder of the first tapestry factory in the USA. He worked for Herter Brothers (see Herter, Christian) on the decoration of a series of grand houses, notably William H. Vanderbilt’s house on Fifth Avenue, New York, and William Welsh Harrison’s Grey Towers Castle (now part of Arcadia University) in Philadelphia. When the Vanderbilt house was completed in 1882, Christian Herter returned to Germany and Baumgarten took over the company. In 1891 he started his own company, William Baumgarten and Company, Inc., and in 1893 complemented his interior decoration business with a tapestry factory in his Fifth Avenue premises. He recruited weavers and dyers from the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory (which had closed in 1890), including five weavers from the Foussadier family. The factory’s tapestries include one at Grey Towers (1898).

A Short Résumé of the History of Tapestry Making in the Past and Present...

Article

Bearden, Romare Howard  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 September 1911, in Charlotte (North Carolina); died 12 March 1988, in New York.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, lithographer, screen printer, engraver, collage artist, newspaper cartoonist, illustrator, art theorist. Religious subjects, figure compositions, local figures. Humorous cartoons, frontispieces, stage sets...

Article

Bensell, George Frederick  

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1837, in Philadelphia; died 26 May 1879, in Philadelphia.

Painter, illustrator. Religious subjects, landscapes.

George Frederick Bensell studied painting in Philadelphia for three years with John Lamblin. He sometimes painted landscapes, but concentrated on biblical scenes. Among his biblical paintings are: ...

Article

Binford, Julien  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1908.

Painter. Religious subjects, genre scenes, portraits.

At the Salon des Tuileries in 1934, Julien Binford exhibited The Disrobing of Christ, Crucifixion, and Portrait of the Author.

New York, 18 Dec 1991: Trying on the Green Dress (oil on canvas...

Article

Bouguereau, W.A. (Mme)  

American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 1851, in Exeter (New Hampshire); died 1922, in St-Cloud (Hauts-de-Seine), France.

Painter, draughtswoman. Genre scenes, mythological scenes, religious scenes.

Elisabeth-Jeanne Gardner studied in Paris under the direction of William Adolphe Bouguereau and later became his wife. She took part in the Paris Salon of ...

Article

Brennen, Robert  

American, 20th century, male.

Born in Pittsburgh.

Sculptor. Religious subjects, figures.

Robert Brennen produces figurative sculptures in wood and metal, often on religious themes. These display fine craftsmanship and great technical skill. Brennen has exhibited in the USA, Greece, Italy, Germany and France. He has received numerous awards, including: in Rome in ...

Article

Buchthal, Hugo  

Annemarie Weyl Carr

(b Berlin, Aug 11, 1909; d London, Nov 10, 1996).

German scholar of Byzantine, East Christian and European illuminated manuscripts. He took his degree in 1933 at the University of Hamburg in the heady community of the Warburg Library (later Institute) under the tutelage of Erwin Panofsky and Fritz Saxl. Immigrating with the Warburg staff and library to London in 1934, he served from 1940 to 1949 as the Institute’s Librarian and from 1944 to 1965 as Lecturer, Reader and then Professor of Byzantine art at the University of London. In 1965 he came to the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, becoming in 1970 the first Ailsa Mellon Bruce Professor. He retired in 1975 to London, where he died in 1996.

Buchthal is best known for his Miniature Painting in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1957), which laid the foundation for the now well-established art-historical field of Crusader studies. It exemplifies both his originality and the methods that made his scholarship so durable. Fundamental among these were his holistic approach to manuscripts, giving as much attention to ornament, liturgical usage, text traditions, palaeography and apparatus as to miniatures, and his relentlessly keen visual analysis. Aided by a powerful memory, he worked from original monuments, developing exceptional acuity in dissecting the formal components of their images. Mobilized in his dissertation, published in ...

Article

Cobb, Darius  

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1834, in Malden (Massachusetts); died 1919, in Newton Upper Falls (Massachusetts).

Painter, sculptor. Historical subjects, religious subjects, figures, portraits, landscapes.

Darius Cobb was the twin brother of Cyrus Cobb. The works for which he is known include portraits of ...

Article

Coleman, Glenn O.  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1887, in Springfield (Ohio); died 1932.

Painter, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Glenn O. Coleman began working as a newspaper illustrator in Indianapolis but moved to New York in 1905, where he studied under Everett Shinn and Robert Henri. He painted scenes of urban poverty which link him to the Ashcan School. During this period he collaborated with Sloan and Bellows, illustrating ...

Article

Cornelius & Co.  

Gordon Campbell

American metalwork company established in Philadelphia in 1810 by Christian Cornelius, a silversmith who had emigrated from the Netherlands in 1783. He soon turned to the casting of bronze, and by 1825 he had become a lamp manufacturer. The company passed to Cornelius’s son Robert (1809–93), under whose management it became an important lighting business. The company made lamps and chandeliers, often finished in gold lacquer; it also made candlesticks, including the earliest documented American brass candlestick. The best known product of the company was the ...

Article

Crite, Allan Rohan  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 20 March 1910, in North Plainfield (New Jersey).

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, print artist, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, figure compositions, genre scenes, street scenes. Murals, church decoration, religious furnishings.

Harlem Renaissance.

Allan Rohan Crite studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and then at Harvard University Extension School, Cambridge, Massachusetts. During the Depression, he worked for the Federal Arts Project. He lived in Boston since he was one year old. From the early 1940s, Crite set out to paint the life of the black community in Roxbury and South End, Boston. He also created a number of religious works for churches in the 1930s and illustrated religious books. In particular, he published two books of Negro Spirituals with Harvard University Press, ...

Article

Darger, Henry J.  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 12 April 1892, in Chicago; died 1973, in Plains (Illinois).

Painter, watercolourist, collage artist, illustrator.

Art Brut.

Henry J. Darger worked as a handyman at the Catholic mission of the Little Sisters of the Poor, who took him in when his father died, and then in various hospitals in Chicago....

Article

Day, F. Holland  

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 23 July 1864, in South Dedham, Massachusetts; died 2 November 1933, in Norwood, Massachusetts.

Photographer, publisher. Portraits, nude studies, religious and mythological subjects.

The Linked Ring.

Pictorialism.

During the 1880s F. Holland Day worked for A.S. Barnes and Company booksellers in Boston and began experimenting with the camera. In 1893 he established, along with Herbert Copeland, the Copeland and Day publishing house, and over the course of the decade his photographic work flourished. In 1896 he began making pictures of male nudes, often highly accessorized and posed, and also pursued religious themes, culminating in 1898 with a series of 250 photographs of Day performing the life of Christ. Following this controversial pursuit, he organized a major exhibition of Pictorialist photography, ...

Article

Dodson, Sarah Paxton Ball  

American, 19th century, female.

Born 22 February 1847, in Philadelphia; died 8 January 1906, in Brighton.

Painter. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects, landscapes.

Sarah Dodson studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. She spent most of her life in Europe, notably in Paris in the 1880s where she was a pupil of Jules Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger at the Académie Julian. She exhibited at the Salons of Paris, Munich and Philadelphia....