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Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1435; died 1504.

Painter, miniaturist, illuminator, writer, printer. Religious subjects.

School of Alsace.

Hans Baemler's name appears for the first time in 1453. He established himself in Augsburg as a printer. His name appears on two miniatures, a Crucifixion...

Article

Gryphe  

German, 16th century, male.

Born probably, in Reutlingen (Baden-Württemberg).

Printer, engraver (wood).

The brother of Sébastien Gryphe (1493-1556), he lived from 1532 to 1545 in Paris and Lyons where he was a printer and bookseller. Rondot (in his Art and Artists at Lyons...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Died between 1522 and 1531.

Engraver, draughtsman, printer.

Thielmann Kerver is believed to have produced woodcuts for prayer books.

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active in Nuremberg.

Died 1601.

Painter, illuminator, printer.

Coburg (Prints Collection)

London (British Mus.)

Nuremberg (Germanisches Nationalmus.)

Article

Swiss, 15th century, male.

Born in Schlettstadt (now Sélestat, France); died 12 December 1478.

Illuminator, printer.

Hans Mentelin was a printer and learned his trade in Gutenberg's workshop before setting up on his own in Strasbourg in 1460. He has sometimes been called the inventor of printing....

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Died 12 December 1478.

Illuminator, printer.

Described as 'aurarius et miniarius scriba' (gilder, miniaturist and scribe), Joh. Meutel started his career as an excellent illuminator in Strasbourg. Later, seeing the possibilities and progress being made in printing, he changed direction and became a distinguished printer....

Article

Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born 1485, in Bourges; died 1533, in Paris.

Miniaturist, copyist, engraver, illustrator, printer (?), potter.

Tory was one of the eminent Renaissance artists in France. Like many of the notable figures of his day, he was learned and skilled in several areas. After education in Rome and Bologna (1503), he returned to Paris, where he was nominated professor at the Collège du Plessis; he also taught at the Collège de Coquerel and the Collège de Bourgogne. Initially in collaboration with Henri Estienne and then in collaboration with Gilles de Gourmont, he published several scholarly works, among them the ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Died 4 June 1521.

Printer, print publisher, miniaturist (?), engraver (wood).

Vostre was active at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th. He produced printed books of hours on vellum illustrated with woodcuts (some experts suggest metal engravings). The initials and miniatures are hand-painted and the woodcuts are also coloured; at first sight the appearance of these books is very similar to that of earlier manuscripts. Simon Vostre is believed not only to have been the printer and publisher of these works but also the artist who made the woodcuts and miniatures decorating them. Three such books are in the Musée de Cluny in Paris: 1. ...