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Boulanger, Louis(-Candide)  

Michael Howard

(b Vercelli, Piedmont, March 11, 1806; d Dijon, March 5, 1867).

French painter, illustrator, set designer and poet. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Guillaume Lethière from 1821. The Punishment of Mazeppa (1827; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), inspired by the scene from Byron’s poem, in which Mazeppa is tied to the back of a wildly stampeding horse, is his most important early painting and one of the key images of the Romantic movement.

Early in his career Boulanger became friendly with Eugène and Achille Devéria. Through them he met Victor Hugo, who became his ardent supporter and the source of many of his most typical works. Among Boulanger’s illustrations were those for Hugo’s Odes et ballades (1829), Les Orientales (1829), Les Fantômes (1829) and Notre-Dame de Paris (1844). Boulanger interpreted the macabre and romantic quality of Hugo’s texts with an imaginative power and freedom that anticipated Redon (e.g. ‘...


Cano de la Peña, Eduardo  

Gerardo Pérez Calero

(b Madrid, 1823; d 1897).

Spanish painter, watercolourist and illustrator. He trained at the Escuela de Nobles Artes in Seville (1833–40) and subsequently at the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid. He became a member of the Academia de S Isabel de Hungria of Seville in 1848, where he taught from 1859 and reformed the teaching of art. His early work shows traces of Neo-classicism, although his art is essentially based on Romanticism. Between 1851 and 1861 he concentrated on portrait painting, depicting mainly female subjects or children; examples include Youth with a Dog (Seville, Neana Col.), Self-portrait (Seville, Mus. B.A.) and Josefa Garvey (Seville, priv. col.). He was an important link between Romanticism and Realism and stimulated a renewed interest in history painting in Spain, a genre he established at the Exposición Nacional in 1856 with his painting Christopher Columbus in the Convent of La Rábida (Madrid, Pal. de las Cortes), which was awarded first prize. He won the same prize in ...


Dauzats, Adrien  

Donald A. Rosenthal

(b Bordeaux, July 16, 1804; d Paris, Feb 18, 1868).

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter Julien-Michel Gué (1789–1843) and worked for the decorators of the Théâtre Italien.

From 1827 Dauzats provided lithographic designs for Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s series Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–78). He travelled in the French provinces, particularly Champagne, Dauphiné and Languedoc, often sketching the medieval monuments that had come into vogue during the Romantic period.

Dauzats also collaborated on lithographs for many other publications, including Taylor’s Voyage en Orient. For this last project Dauzats travelled to Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Turkey in 1830, a trip that he described in his book ...


Doré, Gustave(-Paul)  

Gilles Chazal

(b Strasbourg, Jan 6, 1832; d Paris, Jan 23, 1883).

French illustrator, painter and sculptor. He was born into a cultivated and well-to-do family. By the age of five he was drawing on every piece of paper that came within his reach. He was particularly fond of caricaturing his parents, friends and teachers. In 1838 he was already capable of producing entire series of illustrations such as Mr Fox’s Meeting (1839; priv. col.) and Scenes from the Public and Private Life of Grandville’s Animals (1845; Strasbourg, Mus. B.-A.). By 1843, while studying at the Lycée in Bourg-en-Bresse, he was making brilliant attempts at lithography such as La Martinoire du Bastion (1845; Bourg-en-Bresse, Mus. Ain). In 1847 Charles Philippon, founder of Caricature and Charivari, saw drawings by Doré, who was passing through Paris. He took Doré on, published his Labours of Hercules and urged his parents to set him up in the capital. From then on, while still a pupil at the Lycée Charlemagne, Doré found himself contractually bound to produce a drawing a week for Philippon’s ...


Du Faget, Jean François Scipion  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1776, in Les Vans (Ardèche).

Painter, copyist. Genre scenes.

A canvas in the museum in Nancy, Romantic Conversation in a Park, signed J.D.F.f., is often attributed to Jean du Faget, but also to Fragonard. Jean du Faget was chiefly a copyist, but he also did original watercolours and painting on glass, and worked at the Sèvres porcelain manufactory....


Egedius [Johnsen], Halfdan  

Tone Skedsmo

(b Drammen, May 5, 1877; d Kristiania [now Oslo], Feb 2, 1899).

Norwegian painter and illustrator. His artistic education began at the age of nine, when he enrolled at the school of art of Knud Bergslien (1827–1908) in Kristiania, where he was a pupil from 1886 to 1889. Even from this early period his painted studies and drawings, for instance of his sister Signe and brother Carl (both 1887; Oslo, N.G.), reveal striking maturity. In 1891 he was a pupil of Erik Werenskiold and from 1891 to 1892 he studied at the Arts and Crafts School in Kristiania. Egedius discovered his strongest impetus and greatest inspiration, however, on his first visit to Telemark in south-west Norway in summer 1892. The artist Torleif Stadskleiv (1865–1946), whom he met there and who became his closest friend, endeared the region to Egedius with stories of its traditions and people. In 1894 Egedius studied for a short period under Harriet Backer, and he made his début at the Kristiania Autumn Exhibition in ...


Gérard, François(-Pascal-Simon), Baron  

Paul Spencer-Longhurst

(b Rome, May 4, 1770; d Paris, Jan 11, 1837).

French painter and illustrator.

He spent most of his childhood in Rome. His talent as an artist revealed itself early and during this period he acquired a love of Italian painting and music, which he never lost. In 1782 his family returned to Paris, where, through the connections of his father’s employer Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier, Baron de Breteuil, Minister of the King’s Household, Gérard was admitted to the Pension du Roi, a small teaching establishment for young artists which had been founded by the Marquis de Marigny. After 18 months he entered the studio of the sculptor Augustin Pajou, where he remained for two years, before transferring to that of the painter Nicolas-Guy Brenet. He became a pupil of David in 1786 and quickly found special favour with his master.

In 1789 Gérard competed for the Prix de Rome and his entry, Joseph Revealing himself to his Brethren (Angers, Mus. B.-A.), was placed second; the winner was Girodet. He did not submit in ...


Kaaz, Carl Ludwig  

Hans Joachim Neidhardt

(b Karlsruhe, Jan 22, 1773; d Dresden, July 14, 1810).

German painter and draughtsman. His training began with an apprenticeship in bookbinding in Pforzheim. From 1792 Kaaz trained as an engraver and miniature painter with Moise Perret-Gentil (1744–1815) in La Chaux de Fonds, Switzerland, and he then studied at the Kunstakademie in Stuttgart. In 1796 he went to Dresden, where from 1797 he attended the Kunstakademie, being influenced particularly by his teacher Johann Christian Klengel and by the landscape painter Jacob Wilhelm Mechau (1745–1808). These two painters recommended that Kaaz study the paintings of Jacob Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain in the Dresden Gemäldegalerie, and these works had a lasting influence on Kaaz’s landscape style. This may be seen in the earliest of his few surviving paintings, for example the Landscape with Waterfall (1800; Dresden, Gemäldegal. Neue Meister). Kaaz’s work from this time is marked by wide orderly spaces and an arcadian harmony. In Dresden he benefited from the patronage of Baroness ...


Kreuger, Nils (Edvard)  

Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Kalmar, Oct 11, 1858; d Stockholm, May 11, 1930).

Swedish painter, draughtsman and illustrator. From 1874 he studied at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, where he soon became a friend of Richard Bergh and Karl Nordström, both of whom were later prominent exponents of the more advanced Swedish painting of the 1880s and 1890s. After being forced to interrupt his studies because of illness, Kreuger trained from 1878 at the art school of Edvard Perséus (1841–90) in Stockholm before he travelled to Paris, where he stayed for the most part until 1887. He made his début at the Paris Salon in 1882, and he also resided in the artists’ colony in Grez-sur-Loing. During this period he painted such works as Old Country House (1887; Stockholm, Nmus.) with a free brushwork and sense of light that owed much to Jules Bastien-Lepage. In 1885 Kreuger was active in organizing the Opponenterna, a protest movement led by Ernst Josephson against the conservative establishment of the Konstakademi in Stockholm, and the following year he helped to found the ...


Minton, (Francis) John  

Virginia Button

(b Cambridge, Dec 25, 1917; d London, Jan 20, 1957).

English painter and illustrator. He attended St John’s Wood School of Art from 1935 to 1938. A celebrity of London’s bohemia and a key figure of Neo-Romanticism in the 1940s, he lived and worked with most of the younger generation Neo-Romantics including Michael Ayrton (1921–76), Robert Colquhoun, Robert MacBryde and Keith Vaughan. Invalided out of the army in 1943, he devoted himself to art, producing work for seven one-man shows between 1945 and 1956.

Minton’s eclectic style combined elements of French and British Neo-Romanticism. His main theme, partly homoerotic, was the young male figure in emotionally charged settings. Five phases in his work have been identified, ranging from landscapes reminiscent of those of Samuel Palmer, for example Recollections of Wales (1944; Brit. Council; for illustration see Neo-Romanticism), to scenes of urban decay, such as Rotherhithe from Wapping (1946; Southampton, C.A.G.). In the post-war years he was attracted to exotic places in search of new subjects....


Reznicek, Ferdinand (Freiherr Von)  

German, 19th century, male.

Born 16 June 1868, in Sievering, near Vienna; died 11 May 1909, in Munich.

Draughtsman, illustrator.

Reznicek started working for the journal Simplissimus in 1896, becoming its specialist in romantic, even risqué, drawings. He also collaborated on the journal Jugend. In Munich, he published an album, ...


Richter, (Adrian) Ludwig  

Hans Joachim Neidhardt

(b Dresden, Sept 28, 1803; d Dresden, June 19, 1884).

German painter, printmaker and illustrator. He ranks with Moritz von Schwind as the most important representative of late Romantic painting and printmaking in Germany. In contrast to the work of such leading masters of early Romanticism as Philipp Otto Runge and Caspar David Friedrich, which was ambitious in content and innovative in form, Richter’s art was more modest in its aims, in line with the restrained intellectual climate of the Biedermeier period.

Richter came from a lower middle-class background and was first taught by his father, the copperplate engraver Carl August Richter (1770–1848). His early work consists of etched landscape views in the style of Adrian Zingg (1734–1816). In 1820–21 Richter accompanied the Russian Prince Narishkin on a journey to France as a veduta draughtsman, and then he lived in Italy from 1823 to 1826. He was in contact with the circle of the Lukasbrüder (Nazarenes) in Rome and was a pupil of the landscape painter ...


Schrödter [Schroedter], Adolf  

Barbara Lange


(b Schwedt am Oder, June 28, 1805; d Karlsruhe, Dec 9, 1875).

German painter, illustrator and printmaker. After training as an engraver and lithographer in the workshop of his father, Karl Friedrich Heinrich Schrödter, he went to Berlin, where he became a pupil of Ludwig Buchheim. He studied painting in Düsseldorf with Wilhelm Schadow from 1829. His work of this period represents a critique of the sentimental Romanticism of contemporary painting in Düsseldorf. His paintings also had a comic element, derived from his interest in English works; this subsequently became an essential feature of genre painting in Düsseldorf. Tavern in the Rhineland (1833; Bonn, Rhein. Landesmus.) shows Schrödter’s attempt to create truth to nature by incorporating impressions from studies into the finished painting. The detailed activity and light colours contribute to the unusually fresh atmosphere of the pictures.

Schrödter’s illustrative work and decorative initials for books were imitated by many other artists. In 1835 he produced a decorative frontispiece for the first volume of ...


Schwind, Moritz (Ludwig) von  

Rudolf M. Bisanz

(b Vienna, Jan 21, 1804; d Niederpöcking, nr Munich, Feb 8, 1871).

Austrian painter and illustrator.

He studied at the Akademie der Bildende Künste in Vienna (1821–3), where he was influenced by the Biedermeier genre painter Peter Krafft and the Nazarene painter Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld. He made copies after the Old Masters at the Belvedere in Vienna, exploring especially Dürer, Albrecht Altdorfer, Raphael and Titian, which completed his early, largely autodidactic experience of art. His friendship with Franz Schubert, the poet and playwright Franz Grillparzer and the painters Ferdinand and Friedrich Olivier, as well as the cultural environment of Biedermeier Vienna in his years there between 1823 and 1828, shaped his spiritual development as a painter. His love of music inspired his later ‘symphonic’ compositions and flowing linear rhythms. Extensive reading of the work of Romantic writers such as Achim von Arnim, Clemens von Brentano, Ludwig Tieck, Friedrich Heinrich von Hagen and the brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm helped prepare his mature pictorial themes of fairytales, legends and sagas. He was unsuccessful as a painter and eked out a meagre livelihood by drawing naturalistic genre scenes for engravers, while occasionally selling a painting. ...


Sonne, Jørgen  

Erik Mortensen


(b Birkerød, N. Zealand, June 24, 1801; d Copenhagen, Sept 24, 1890).

Danish painter. His father, Jørgen Sonne (1771–1833), a map engraver and book illustrator, originally intended that Sonne should have a military career. However, after a brief period at the military academy Sonne enrolled at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. He became a private pupil of Christian David Gebauer (1777–1831), a painter of animals and battle scenes. In the life class he was taught by Johan Ludvig Lund (1777–1867), who had been influenced by the German Nazarenes. He was awarded a grant to continue his studies abroad, and in January 1829 he was admitted to the academy in Munich, where he was influenced by the battle and genre painter Peter von Hess (1792–1871). From November 1831 until late 1840 or early 1841 he was in Rome, featuring in Constantin Hansen’s A Group of Danish Artists in Rome (Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst), painted in 1837...


Wyspianski, Stanislaw  

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 15 January 1869, in Cracow; died 28 November 1907, in Cracow.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, pastellist, illustrator, designer, poet, writer. Portraits, figures, figure compositions, landscapes. Designs for stained glass, stage sets, furniture.

Neo-Romanticism, Symbolism, Japonisme.

Stanislaw Wyspianski was the son of the sculptor Franc Wyspianski and he studied at academy in Cracow with Jan Matejko ...