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Article

Abatt, Agnes Dean  

American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 23 June 1847, in New York; died 1917.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtswoman, illustrator. Landscapes, flowers.

Agnes Abatt studied art at the Cooper Institute and the International Academy of Art in New York, and later received advice from R. Swain Gifford and James D. Smilie....

Article

Abbe, James  

(Edward)

(b Alfred, ME, July 17, 1883; d San Francisco, Nov 11, 1973).

American photographer. Self-taught, Abbe started to produce photographs at the age of 12. From 1898 to 1910 he worked in his father’s bookshop and then worked as a reporter for the Washington Post, travelling to Europe in 1910. Having earlier produced photographs of ships and sailors for tourist cards, from 1913 to 1917 he worked as a freelance photojournalist in Virginia. In 1917 he set up a studio in New York, where he produced the first photographic cover for the Saturday Evening Post as well as photographs for Ladies Home Journal, the New York Times and other publications. From 1922 to 1923 he worked as a stills photographer, actor and writer for film studios. Though this was mainly for Mack Sennett in Hollywood, he also worked for D. W. Griffiths as a stills photographer on Way Down East (1920) and accompanied Lilian Gish to Italy to provide stills for Griffiths’s ...

Article

Abbey, Edwin Austin  

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1 April 1852, in Philadelphia; died 1911, in London.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink), pastellist, illustrator. Historical subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, figures.

Edwin Austin Abbey's apprenticeship consisted of making drawings for a wood engraver before studying at the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadelphia and starting work as an illustrator. The drawings he supplied for ...

Article

Abbey, Edwin Austin  

Pamela H. Simpson

(b Philadelphia, PA, April 1, 1852; d London, Aug 1, 1911).

American painter, illustrator, and muralist, active also in England. Abbey began his art studies at the age of 14 in his native Philadelphia where he worked with Isaac L. Williams (1817–95). Two years later he enrolled in night classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art working under Christian Schussele (1824–1979), but by then Abbey was already a published illustrator. In the 1870s his drawings appeared in numerous publications, but it was his work for Harper & Brothers that proved most important to his career. In 1871 he moved to New York, and in 1878, Harper’s sent him on a research trip to England. He found such affinity with the country that he made it his home for the rest of his life. After 1889 he devoted more time to painting, was elected a Royal Academician in 1898, and in 1902 was chosen by Edward VII (...

Article

Abbott, Samuel Nelson  

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1874, in Mechanicsville; died 1953.

Painter (gouache), illustrator. Genre scenes.

New York, 3 June 1982: Archery Lesson (gouache, 11 × 9½ ins/28 × 24.2 cm) USD 850

Article

Adams, Frank  

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in New York in 1903.

Illustrator.

Article

Adams, J.  

American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Exeter, USA, from 1770 to 1810.

Engraver. Ex-libris plates.

Article

Adney, Edwin Tappau  

American, 19th century, male.

Born 23 July 1868, in Athens (Ohio).

Painter, draughtsman.

Edwin Tappau Adney studied in New York, where he had a considerable reputation as a book illustrator. Among his works are drawings for a book on the birds of the west of North America, for which he carried out research in Carolina. Adney went in search of subjects that would interest the public, such as the gold prospectors of the Klondyke. After this journey he published some remarkable illustrations in ...

Article

Ahrens, Ellen Wetherald  

American, 19th century, female.

Born 6 June 1859, in Baltimore; died 1935.

Painter, illustrator.

Ellen Wetherald Ahrens studied at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts School, then at the Pennsylvania Fine Arts School and the Drexel Institute. She was notably successful at the exhibitions she entered, winning a $1,000 prize at the Carnegie Institute and a silver medal in Pittsburgh. Her miniatures were among the best on show at the St Louis Exhibition. Her most successful illustrations were for Louisa M. Alcott's ...

Article

Akin, James  

American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1773, in Charleston (South Carolina); died 1846, in Philadelphia.

Engraver (line-engraving), illustrator.

James Akin was born in South Carolina, but moved first to Philadelphia and then to Newburyport and Salem in Massachusetts. Among his works are a portrait of ...

Article

Alexander, Clifford Grear  

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1870, in Springfield (Massachusetts).

Painter, illustrator.

Article

Alexander, John White  

Eleanor Jones Harvey

(b Allegheny, PA, Oct 7, 1856; d New York, May 31, 1915).

American painter and illustrator. He began his career in New York in 1875 as a political cartoonist and illustrator for Harper’s Weekly. In 1877 he went to Paris for his first formal art training, and then to Munich, where he enrolled at the Kunstakademie under Gyuala Benczúr. In 1878 he joined a colony of American painters established by Frank Duveneck in Polling, Bavaria. In 1879 they travelled to Italy, where Alexander formed friendships with James McNeill Whistler and Henry James. In 1881 he returned to New York, working as an illustrator for Harper’s, as a drawing instructor at Princeton and as a highly successful society portrait painter (see fig.). He also exhibited at the National Academy of Design. By 1893 his reputation in both Europe and America had soared, and in 1895 he was awarded a prestigious commission for a series of murals entitled the Evolution of the Book...

Article

Alexander, John White  

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Europe 1877-1881, and in Paris 1891-1901.

Born 7 October 1856, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania; died 31 May 1915, in New York.

Painter, muralist, illustrator. Portraits, figures, landscapes.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

John White Alexander worked as an office boy for ...

Article

Alke, Stephen  

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 May 1874, in Augusta (Kentucky); died 1941, in Cincinnati.

Painter, illustrator.

Stephen Alke studied in Cincinnati and was a pupil of Duveneck, Noble and Nowottny. He was a member of the Cincinnati Art Club.

Article

Anderson  

American, 19th century, male.

Activec.1880.

Engraver, illustrator.

A wood engraver, Anderson worked as an illustrator for several American newspapers.

Article

Anderson, Alexander  

American, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1775, in New York; died 17 January 1870, in New Jersey.

Engraver, draughtsman, illustrator.

Alexander Anderson, the son of a Scotsman, was the first person to practise wood engraving in the USA. He first studied medicine and qualified as a doctor in ...

Article

Anderson, Hugh  

American, 19th century, male.

Active in Philadelphia 1811-1824.

Engraver (line-engraving).

Hugh Anderson engraved portraits for several books.

Article

Anthony, Andrew Varick Stout  

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1835, in New York; died 2 July 1906, in West Newton (Massachusetts).

Watercolourist, engraver, illustrator.

Andrew Varick Stout Anthony travelled for several years and then went to live in Boston and, later, New York. He was a member of the American Watercolor Society and produced a variety of woodcuts, including ...

Article

Armbruster, Otto Herman  

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 August 1865, in Cincinnati (Ohio); died 1908, in New York.

Painter, illustrator.

Otto Herman Armbruster was taught by M. Armbruster. He was a teacher and a member of the Salmagundi and Kit-Kat Clubs in New York City, where he settled....

Article

Arts and Crafts Movement  

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....