1-20 of 228 Results  for:

  • Artist, Architect, or Designer x
  • Nineteenth-Century Art x
  • Writer or Scholar x
  • Art History and Theory x
Clear all

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Barcelona, 1755; d Barcelona, Sept 7, 1822).

Spanish writer and painter. He was a member of the Real Escuela de la Junta de Comercio in Barcelona, where he was primarily active in a political capacity rather than as an artist and professor in its Escuela de Nobles Artes. He was expelled from the Junta in 1814 because he had taken the oath of loyalty to the usurper King Joseph Bonaparte, and as a result of accusations of favouring the French he spent his last years in total isolation from public life. His work as a writer on art is of considerable interest. He strongly defended French Neo-classicism and, in particular, the artists François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David. In a lecture he gave to the Junta de Comercio in 1810 he proclaimed the absolute validity of academic classicism, and this belief also pervades such manuscript pamphlets as the Discurso sobre la enseñanza del dibujo, Máximas generales para la pintura...

Article

Lucio Franchini

(b Castel Bolognese, Ravenna, 1756; d Bologna, March 11, 1841).

Italian architect, engineer and theorist. He graduated from the University of Bologna in engineering and architecture. From 1775 to 1796 he was in Rome, where his design for the new sacristy of St Peter’s (1775) was admired by Pius VI, although the commission was awarded to Carlo Marchionni. Antolini took part in the scheme to drain the Pontine Marshes (1776–7), but caught malaria and resigned his appointment. Devoting himself to the study and practice of architecture, he became involved in the artistic controversies of the day, including the debate on the use of the Doric order (see Piranesi, Giovanni Battista) and the changing attitudes towards the restoration of ancient monuments, his own position becoming progressively more conservative. He published his first important archaeological work on the Temple of Hercules at Cori in 1785 and began his studies on the Temple of Minerva at Assisi. During this period he also produced schemes for palaces, chapels and other buildings for noble foreign clients, including a design for the façade of the palace and court chapel of the Duke of Courland at Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia). During the French intervention in Italy (...

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Santander, 1824; d Madrid, 1897).

Spanish painter and writer. He was a pupil of the landscape painter Carlos de Haes at the Escuela Superior in Madrid and exhibited at the National Fine Arts Exhibitions of 1858, 1860, 1862 and 1866. His artistic career, however, is less significant than his profound knowledge of art. He published articles in La Ilustración española y americana, El Día, Arte en España and the Revista de bellas artes (all published in Madrid), at a time when art criticism, understood as ‘a commentary on work, made with some degree of authority’, was still in its infancy in Spain. He gave several lectures at the Ateneo Cientifico, Literario y Artístico in Madrid, such as: ‘Observaciones sobre el concepto del Arte’ (15 May 1884), ‘Los desenvolvimientos de la pintura—López, Madrazo, Rosales, Fortuny’ (1887) and ‘La España del siglo XIX: Goya y su época’ (1895). His publications include the monographs ...

Article

Alan Crawford

(b Isleworth, Middx, May 17, 1863; d Godden Green, Kent, May 23, 1942).

English designer, writer, architect and social reformer . He was educated at King’s College, Cambridge. As a young man he was deeply influenced by the teachings of John Ruskin and William Morris, and particularly by their vision of creative workmanship in the Middle Ages; such a vision made work in modern times seem like mechanical drudgery. Ashbee played many parts and might be thought a dilettante; but his purpose was always to give a practical expression to what he had learnt from Ruskin and Morris. An intense and rather isolated figure, he found security in a life dedicated to making the world a better place.

In 1888, while he was training to be an architect in the office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906), Ashbee set up the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The School lasted only until 1895, but the Guild, a craft workshop that combined the ideals of the Arts and Crafts Movement with a romantic, apolitical socialism, was to be the focus of Ashbee’s work for the next 20 years. There were five guildsmen at first, making furniture and base metalwork. In ...

Article

Mark Castro

[Murillo, Gerardo]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, volcanologist, and politician. Murillo first studied art in his native Guadalajara with the painter Félix Bernardelli (1866–1905). Murillo relocated to Mexico City in 1896, studying briefly at the Academia de San Carlos, before securing support from the government to continue his education in Europe. He stopped briefly in Paris in 1897 before moving on to Rome and beginning his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti and the Real Academia de España. Murillo’s encounters with European art had a profound impact on him, particularly Impressionism. He also achieved a measure of success on the European art scene, and his Self-portrait (1899; priv. col.) was awarded the silver medal at the Paris Salon. During his six-year stay Murillo also became absorbed by French and Italian socialist political theory.

Murillo returned to Mexico in 1904, joining the staff of the Academia de San Carlos, where he became an agitator for reform, clashing with the school’s administration over teaching methods and becoming a hero to students, among them José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The debates culminated in the student strike of ...

Article

Leland M. Roth

(b Detroit, MI, July 7, 1869; d Southampton, NY, Oct 18, 1956).

American architect, urban planner and writer. Atterbury studied at Yale University, New Haven, CT, and travelled in Europe. He studied architecture at Columbia University, New York and worked in the office of McKim, Mead & White before completing his architecture studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Atterbury’s early work consisted of suburban and weekend houses for wealthy industrialists, such as the Henry W. de Forest House (1898) in Cold Springs Harbor on Long Island, NY. De Forest was a leader in the philanthropic movement to improve workers’ housing, an interest that Atterbury shared; through him Atterbury was given the commission for the model housing community of Forest Hills Gardens, NY, begun in 1909 under the sponsorship of the Russell Sage Foundation; the co-planners and landscape designers were the brothers John Charles Olmsted (1852–1920) and Frederick Law Olmsted Jr (1870–1957), the sons of Frederick Law Olmsted. Atterbury developed a system of precast concrete panels to build a varied group of multiple units and town houses suggesting an English country hamlet. He continued his research into prefabrication largely at his own expense throughout his life....

Article

(b Elgin, 1838; d New York, 1925).

Scottish architect, designer and writer. Trained as an architect, he moved to Liverpool, Lancs, in 1856 and set up an architectural practice with his brother William James Audsley (b 1833) in 1863. With him he wrote Handbook of Christian Symbolism (1865), and together they designed a number of buildings in and around Liverpool, among them the Welsh Presbyterian Church, Prince’s Road, Toxteth (1865–7), Christ Church, Kensington (1870), and the church of St Margaret, Belmont Road, Anfield (1873). For the merchant William Preston they designed the church of St Mary (1873) in the grounds of his house, Ellel Grange, Lancs. Other commissions were for a synagogue and a tennis club. He was among the earliest publishers to exploit the graphic potential of chromolithography, and, contrary to other major books on ornament, he made a case for classifying designs by their basic motif rather than by nationality. He was an expert on Japanese art, lecturing on the subject and between ...

Article

Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Valenciennes, April 7, 1810; d Paris, 1890).

French sculptor and writer . At an early age he showed a talent for drawing and enrolled at the Académie in Valenciennes under the sculptor Léonce de Fieuzal (1768–1844). In 1830 he received a scholarship from the city of Valenciennes to study in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in the atelier of David d’Angers. In 1835 he first exhibited at the Salon and continued to show there regularly until 1884 without, however, receiving many awards. He mainly exhibited portrait busts of figures from various historical periods (e.g. Antoine Watteau, 1846; Paris, Louvre) and he received important official commissions for the decoration of public buildings in Paris. Portrait busts by him are found in the foyer of the Opéra (Jean-François Le Sueur, 1852), the Institution des Sourds-Muets (Abbé Sicard, 1852) and the vestibule of the library of the Institut de France (Etienne de Condillac...

Article

James D. Kornwolf

(b Ramsgate, Oct 23, 1865; d Brighton, Feb 10, 1945).

English architect, interior designer, garden designer and writer . He was articled to Charles Davis (1827–1902), City Architect of Bath, from 1886 until 1889 but learnt little and was largely self-taught. In 1889 he started his own practice on the Isle of Man, where he built a number of buildings, including his own Red House, Douglas (1893). He was a leading member of the second-generation Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and was among the first to build on the simpler, more abstract and stylized designs of C. F. A. Voysey, a refinement of the ideas of William Morris, Philip Webb, R. Norman Shaw and others from the period 1860–90. From about 1890 until World War I, the Arts and Crafts Movement, as represented by Baillie Scott, Voysey, C. R. Ashbee, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Parker & Unwin and others, became the most important international force in architecture, interior design, landscape and urban planning. The work of these architects influenced Adolf Loos and Josef Hoffmann in Austria, Joseph Maria Olbrich and Peter Behrens in Germany, Eliel Saarinen and others in Scandinavia, and Frank Lloyd Wright, Irving Gill, Greene & Greene in the USA....

Article

Nicholas Bullock

(b Krnov, Moravia [now in Czech Republic], 1872; d Vienna, 1938).

Austrian architect and writer of Moravian birth. He studied with Carl Hasenauer (1893), and with Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–6). He was one of the most successful of Wagner’s pupils. Along with Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich he was a founder-member of the Siebenerklub and one of the first members of the Secession (see Secession, §3). During 1902 he was one of the editors of Ver Sacrum and between 1900 and 1905 he was responsible for the design of the decoration and fitting out of a number of rooms at the annual exhibitions of the Secession.

Bauer’s early commissions were mainly suburban and country houses, first in Bohemia but later in Silesia and Vienna. With his international success in the competition for ‘Ein Haus eines Kunstfreundes’, organized by Alexander Koch in 1900, he acquired the reputation of being an adventurous and sympathetic interpreter of the new domestic style. His early designs show how the vernacular forms inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement could be simplified and reworked in a stark geometrical fashion, while the planning of such early houses as Villa Larisch (...

Article

Anne van Loo

(b Liège, March 18, 1896; d 1995).

Belgian painter, designer and writer. He was a pupil of the Symbolist painter Jean Delville but started using geometric forms after discovering the work of František Kupka. In 1923 he began to collaborate on the avant-garde journal 7 Arts together with Pierre-Louis Flouquet (1900–67) and Karel Maes (1900–74). Also in 1923 he married the dancer Akarova (b 1904) who inspired his ‘Kaloprosopies’ (1925), an album of nine woodcuts, and for whom he designed costumes and stage sets. At the same time he embarked on the design of functional furniture, first in traditional materials and then in metal tubing (1930) and polychrome, cellulose-based lacquer. He opened his own decorating business in Brussels (1930–70) and showed his ‘Standax’ furniture, which could be assembled and dismantled, at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937) in Paris. Baugniet was a promoter of the ...

Article

Jack Quinan

(b Hartland, CT, June 15, 1773; d Springfield, MA, July 26, 1845).

American architect and writer. Benjamin was one of the most influential architect–writers of the first half of the 19th century in the USA and was trained as a housewright in rural Connecticut between 1787 and 1794. Two of his earliest commissions, the carving of Ionic capitals (1794) for the Oliver Phelps House in Suffield, CT, and the construction of an elliptical staircase (1795) in Charles Bulfinch’s Connecticut State Capitol at Hartford, reveal an exceptional ability with architectural geometry that was to help to determine the direction of his career. Benjamin worked as a housewright in a succession of towns along the Connecticut River during the 1790s. In 1797, dissatisfied with the publications of William Pain, an English popularizer of the Neo-classical style of Robert Adam, Benjamin wrote The Country Builder’s Assistant, a modest handbook for carpenters that was the first such work by an American writer. In ...

Article

Pieter Singelenberg

(b Amsterdam, Feb 21, 1856; d The Hague, Aug 12, 1934).

Dutch architect, urban planner, designer and writer. He abandoned early his intention to become a painter and instead trained in architecture at the Bauschule of the Eidgenössiche Polytechnikum (now Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich under Gottfried Semper’s followers. Semper was a major influence on Berlage, especially for Berlage’s emphatic use of a variety of materials and an acute attention to construction. The other major influence was the work of Viollet-le-Duc. After his training Berlage visited Germany and Italy from 1878 to 1881, returning to Amsterdam to become an associate of the classicist architect and businessman Theodorus Sanders, who very soon handed over to him the task of designing. The shop and office-block for Focke & Meltzer (1884–5), Kalverstraat, Amsterdam, was critically acclaimed for its correct application of the Venetian Renaissance style favoured by Semper and for the grandeur of its shopping area, with its unusually large windows. Berlage voiced doubts in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

Belinda Thomson

(b Lille, April 28, 1868; d Paris, April 15, 1941).

French painter and writer. He was the son of a cloth merchant. Relations with his parents were never harmonious, and in 1884, against his father’s wishes, he enrolled as a student at the Atelier Cormon in Paris. There he became a close friend of Louis Anquetin and Toulouse-Lautrec. In suburban views of Asnières, where his parents lived, Bernard experimented with Impressionist and then Pointillist colour theory, in direct opposition to his master’s academic teaching; an argument with Fernand Cormon led to his expulsion from the studio in 1886. He made a walking tour of Normandy and Brittany that year, drawn to Gothic architecture and the simplicity of the carved Breton calvaries. In Concarneau he struck up a friendship with Claude-Emile Schuffenecker and met Gauguin briefly in Pont-Aven. During the winter Bernard met van Gogh and frequented the shop of the colour merchant Julien-François Tanguy, where he gained access to the little-known work of Cézanne....

Article

Franco Bernabei

(b Rome, Sept 18, 1803; d Rome, Feb 27, 1884).

Italian writer and painter. He studied theology and Classical literature at the Seminario in Rome and took a degree in theology at the Università degli Studi in Rome, then becoming a respected translator of Ancient Greek. His literary interests led him to join the Arcadia Academy, Rome, and he came into contact with such linguistic scholars as Antonio Cesari (1760–1828) and Pietro Giordani. Like them, he was greatly interested in Italian writers of the 14th century and also in the 19th-century movement called Purismo. As a painter Bianchini specialized in watercolours and miniatures, producing mainly copies of Renaissance masters. He painted an altarpiece of S Giovanni Battista de’ Rossi (Rome, Santa Trinità dei Pellegrini). He was secretary of the Società degli Amatori e Cultori di Belle Arti in Rome (1833–53), where he gave several lectures that developed aesthetic doctrines linking literary and pictorial Purismo. He was engaged in restoration, in the Galleria delle Carte Geografiche of the Vatican and in the chapel of S Scolastica in Subiaco, and also took part in the Amministrazione Comunale of Rome....

Article

(b Castres, Tarn, Nov 15, 1813; d Paris, Jan 17, 1882).

French writer, arts administrator and engraver. The younger brother of the journalist and politician Louis Blanc, he settled in Paris around 1830 to study engraving under Luigi Calamatta and Paolo Mercuri (1804–84). He engraved a series of portraits in the 1830s of famous contemporary figures such as François-Pierre-Guillaume Guizot and the composer and conductor Philippe Musard. However, his interest lay principally in art criticism: between 1836 and 1840 he wrote reviews of the Salons and articles on art for journals such as Bon Sens and Le Progrès and also contributed to Courrier français, L’Artiste and Journal de Rouen. By this time he had already joined the Republican opposition to Louis-Philippe and was running Propagateur de l’Aube.

Blanc’s experience as an art critic and his support for the Republican–Socialist cause, as well as the protection of his elder brother (who became a member of the provisional government after the Revolution of ...

Article

Richard A. Fellows

(Theodore)

(b Bow, Devon, Dec 20, 1856; d Hampstead, London, Dec 27, 1942).

English architect and writer. He was educated at Haileybury College, Herts, and then read Classics at Oxford University. In 1881 he entered into articled pupillage with his uncle, Arthur W. Blomfield (1829–99), a Gothic Revival architect, and attended classes at the Royal Academy schools under R. Phené Spiers (1838–1916).

Blomfield set up his own practice in 1884, with early commissions coming from church, school and family connections. This work is mainly in the Old English style. Through E. S. Prior he met the circle of R. Norman Shaw’s young pupils and assistants, who were the main instigators of the Art Workers’ Guild and the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. Blomfield became a leading member of both organizations and in 1890 was a founder of Kenton & Co., a furniture manufacturing company established in London and based on Arts and Crafts principles. Although he eventually became unsympathetic to some of the more simplistic dogmas of the ...

Article

Lisa B. Reitzes

(b Passy, Oct 6, 1795; d Paris, May 17, 1853).

French architect and theorist. He began studying architecture in 1817 under Pierre-Jules-Nicolas Delespine (1756–1825) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in 1821 he won the Prix de Rome. While in Rome, Blouet became the protégé of Antoine Quatremère de Quincy and executed restoration drawings for a series of ancient monuments. With Quatremère’s support, the Académie Royale d’Architecture published his Restauration des thermes d’Antonin Caracalla à Rome. The support given to Blouet is said to have encouraged Henri Labrouste to proceed with his own controversial study of the temples at Paestum. Blouet’s interest in archaeology and building construction continued after his return to France. He became associated with the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris and in 1828 joined its expedition to the Peloponnese, which was to excavate at Olympia and Aegina. His subsequent publication L’Expédition scientifique de Morée included polychromatic reconstructions of major Greek monuments but also featured comparative examples from the Byzantine era in this region....