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Article

Art Nouveau  

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Auberjonois, René  

Anne Pastori Zumbach

(b Lausanne, Aug 18, 1872; d Lausanne, Oct 11, 1957).

Swiss draughtsman, painter and illustrator. He began his career as an apprentice banker but abandoned this to study music and languages in Dresden, and then painting at the South Kensington School of Art, London (1895). In 1896 he went to Paris where he took courses in anatomy and became the pupil of Luc Olivier Merson and possibly of Whistler. In 1897 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts but continued to frequent Merson’s studio. At the end of 1899, after a short stay in Bavaria, Auberjonois went to Florence, where he passed several months studying and copying the paintings of the Old Masters and painting the Tuscan landscape. Returning to Paris in 1901, he began to work independently, exhibiting for the first time at the Salon in Paris and at the Exposition Nationale Suisse des Beaux-Arts in Vevey. From 1901 to World War I he lived alternately in Paris and in Switzerland....

Article

Bălăcescu, Lucia Dem.  

Ioana Vlasiu

(b Bucharest, Jan 22, 1895; d 1979).

Romanian painter, illustrator, watercolourist, draughtsman and pastellist . She studied at the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest (1913–16) and had private lessons with the painters Eustaţiu Stoenescu (b 1885) and Gheorghe Petraşcu. Between 1919 and 1922 she studied in Paris at the Académies Julian and Ranson, and the Academia Pedro Correja d’Aranjò with Paul-Albert Laurens (b 1870), Othon Friesz, Maurice Denis, Paul Sérusier and Edouard Vuillard. During this period she showed works at the Salon des Artistes Français and the Salon d’Automne. In Romania between the World Wars she exhibited at the official Salon and with the groups New Art (Arta Nouă) and the Association of Women Painters (Asociaţia Femeilor Pictore). She was awarded prizes in Romania and abroad, for example at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Paris, 1937. Her work included illustrations for books by Tudor Arghezi, ...

Article

Bergler, Josef, the younger  

Roman Prahl

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

Bernhard, Lucian  

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

Beshkov, Il’ya  

Mariana Katzarova

(b Dolni Dŭbnik, nr Pleven, July 24, 1901; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1958).

Bulgarian cartoonist, illustrator, draughtsman, painter, teacher, editor and critic. In 1926 he studied painting at the Academy of Art, Sofia, and although he was later known for his paintings, he achieved greater fame as a political and social cartoonist and newspaper and magazine illustrator. His early cartoons are courageous commentaries on political events in Bulgaria from 1925 to 1934, wittily satirizing the monarchy and dictatorships. He also mocked the machinations of the various bourgeois political parties as they fought for power. Among his most celebrated cartoons are the Kidnapping of the Constitution and the Tsar’s Family, published in the Sofia newspapers Zemedelsko Zname and Sturetz, as well as Suvremennik and other left-wing publications. He also illustrated the series Spanish Chronicle (1936). In 1940 he began freelancing for the anti-Fascist satirical newspaper Sturshel (Sofia) and in 1941 became its editor. During World War II he executed many political cartoons opposing Fascism and Nazism (e.g. ...

Article

Burra, Edward  

Andrew Causey

(b London, March 29, 1905; d Hastings, Oct 22, 1976).

English painter, illustrator and stage designer. As a student at the Chelsea Polytechnic (1921–3) and the Royal College of Art (1923–5) he became a talented figure draughtsman. In the second half of the decade he spent much time in France painting intricately detailed urban scenes, which depicted the low life of Toulon and Marseille. Works such as the watercolour Toulon (1927; priv. col., see Causey, cat. no. 33) were executed in a meticulously finished and vividly coloured decorative style. Burra usually used watercolour and tempera and occasionally collage oil paints.

Burra took ideas from Cubism, Dada (notably George Grosz) and, especially, Surrealism, but his work is also linked with the English satirical tradition of William Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson and Isaac Cruikshank: Burra loved burlesque and poked fun at people’s pretensions and excesses of style and behaviour, as in John Deth (Homage to Conrad Aiken) (...

Article

Carneiro, António Teixeira  

(b Amarante, Sept 16, 1872; d Oporto, March 31, 1930).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman and illustrator. He was brought up in an orphanage in Oporto, where he attended the drawing class of the Escola de Belas-Artes; there he was a pupil of António Soares dos Reis and then studied painting from 1890 to 1896. In 1897 he went to Paris with a grant from the Marquês de Praia e Monforte. From 1897 to 1899 he attended the Académie Julian, where he was a pupil of Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant. The Parisian fin-de-siècle ambience helped form his style. The influence of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Eugène Carrière and the Symbolism of Edvard Munch were important in his work. In his first major painting, the triptych Life (1899–1901; Vila Nova de Famalicão, Fund. Cupertino de Miranda), Carneiro developed his personal vision of Symbolism on the theme of hope, love and saudade (longing or nostalgia), inspired by Puvis de Chavannes and with the crisp, sweet drawing and pale colours of that artist....

Article

Cattermole, George  

Scott Wilcox

(b Dickleburgh, Norfolk, Aug 10, 1800; d London, July 24, 1868).

English painter and illustrator. From the age of 14 Cattermole worked with his brother Richard (?1795–1858) for the antiquarian John Britton, producing architectural drawings. This training equipped him with a repertory of accurate architectural backgrounds, and from the later 1820s his work shifted from delineations of historic buildings to imaginative depictions in watercolour of episodes from literature and history and genre subjects with historical settings. He became the foremost historical watercolour painter, recreating the medieval, Elizabethan and 17th-century past. The intimate history pictures of Richard Parkes Bonington were undoubtedly influential, while Cattermole’s bold and loose handling of watercolour owed much to David Cox, an admirer of his work. As an illustrator, his works included The Great Civil War of Charles I and Parliament (written by his brother Richard and published in two volumes in 1841 and 1855) and Evenings at Haddon Hall (1846). He also contributed illustrations to some of the novels of his friend ...

Article

Cissarz, Johann Vincenz  

A. Ziffer

(b Danzig [now Gdańsk], Jan 22, 1873; d Frankfurt am Main, Dec 23, 1942).

German painter, illustrator, designer, teacher and architect. He studied painting at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Dresden (1891–6), under Leon Pohle (1841–1908), Georg-Herman Freye (1844–1921) and F. W. Pauwels (1830–1904). After producing monumental altarpieces and murals he took up book illustration and poster design. By 1899 he was actively involved in the Dresden craft workshops, with designs for furniture, commercial art and wallpaper. He was recognized widely for the quality of his posters and typography. He took part successfully in the Deutsche Kunstausstellung (Dresden, Städt. Ausstellungshalle) in 1899 and the Heim und Herd exhibition (1899–1900), Dresden. In 1903 he moved from Dresden to the artists’ colony at Matildenhöhe, near Darmstadt, designing furniture for the Blaues Haus. His typographic work on the catalogues for the exhibitions of 1904 and 1905 of the Darmstadt artists (see Darmstadt) and his posters and advertisements for Bad Nauheim in ...

Article

Conconi, Luigi  

Paul Nicholls

(b Milan, May 20, 1852; d Milan, Jan 23, 1917).

Italian painter, printmaker, illustrator and architect. Although he was the nephew of the painter Mauro Conconi (1815–60), he studied architecture at the Accademia di Brera and the Scuola Politecnica in Milan. His pictorially imaginative approach reflected the artistic ideals of the contemporary Italian writer Giuseppe Rovani. Despite having failed in his first competition, Conconi embarked in 1876 on an architectural project for Palazzo Marino, Milan, together with the architect Guido Pisani Dossi. Courtyard of the Palazzo Marino, an evocative etching conceived as part of the project (untraced; see Giolli, pl. xxxv), was shown in 1877 at the Brera exhibition in Milan and also at the Salon in Paris, through the architect Luca Beltrami, who was resident there at that time. After collaborating briefly in the construction of the Palazzo Turati in Milan, Conconi entered two competitions for public monuments: the first, in 1880, to commemorate the Milanese anti-Austrian uprising of ...

Article

Caran d’Ache  

Michel Melot

[Poiré, Emmanuel]

(b Moscow, 1859; d Paris, Feb 26, 1909).

French draughtsman and illustrator. Born into a French family in Moscow, he was the grandson of a squadron leader in Napoleon’s Guides who had remained in Russia after being wounded in the Battle of Moscow. He left Russia in 1878 and enlisted in the French army in Paris. After designing uniforms for the army, he worked on the Chronique parisienne in 1880 and then on a number of other French as well as American, Italian and Russian magazines. He adopted as his pseudonym the Russian word for pencil (‘karandash’) and specialized in amusing military scenes, some of which were published in Nos soldats du siècle (1890). His ‘Lundis’ in Le Figaro, a series of satirical drawings that appeared each Monday from 1899, were particularly celebrated and many of his satirical plates on the Dreyfus affair appeared there. He also co-founded with Jean-Louis Forain the anti-Dreyfus weekly satirical journal ...

Article

De Maria, Mario  

Silvia Lucchesi

[Marius Pictor]

(b Bologna, Sept 8, 1852; d Venice, March 18, 1924).

Italian painter, photographer, architect and illustrator. He trained initially as a musician and only later became a painter, studying (1872–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna under the history and portrait painter Antonio Puccinelli (1822–97). He made several short trips to Paris and London before moving to Rome where he became friends with Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), a plein-air painter, and joined the group founded by Nino Costa, In Arte Libertas (see Rome, §III, 7). He made his name in 1885 when he exhibited 18 paintings at the group’s first exhibition. In the 1880s he experimented with photography, and in certain cases photographs acted as preliminary stages for his paintings. In 1892 he settled definitively in Venice and two years later adopted the pseudonym ‘Marius Pictor’. His work expressed the romantic and literary climate of the fin-de-siècle, and his painting is linked with the work of such writers as Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe. De Maria’s work derives from flower painting and from the painting of Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps; brushstrokes are carefully built up, and rough, chalky colour is thickly applied. He was extremely skilful in his manipulation of colour and light to express the richness of his imagination. He liked to create evocative images and to represent the most fantastic and unusual aspects of nature, as in the famous painting the ...

Article

Gandy, Joseph Michael  

David Leatherbarrow

(b London, 1771; d London, Dec 1843).

English architect, writer and illustrator. A brilliant draughtsman, speculative archaeologist and an avid reader of ancient myth, he was one of England’s most remarkable visionary architects. His career began in 1787, when he was apprenticed to James Wyatt. Two years later he entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won the Silver Medal in his first year and the Gold in the next. He then left for Italy, where he visited all the important Classical sites as well as less well-known sites in the Roman Campagna. He usually travelled with painters and architects, most often with C. H. Tatham and G. A. Wallis (1770–1847). Gandy won a special medal in an Accademia di S Luca competition in 1795 but was forced to return to London in 1797 because of the advance of Napoleon’s army into Italy and the bankruptcy of his financial supporter John Martindale.

Gandy was unable to set up an architectural practice when he returned to England owing to financial difficulties and worked for ...

Article

Gell, William (Sir)  

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1774, in Hopton; died 4 February 1836, in Naples.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, architect. Topographical views.

William Gell was educated at the Academy School. He was an architect by profession, but was better known as a publisher of illustrated volumes on Greek and Italian antiquity. Examples of his topographical studies include ...

Article

Goujon, Jean  

Jacques Thirion

(b c. 1510; d ?Bologna, c. 1565).

French sculptor, illustrator and architect. He was one of the great masters of relief sculpture. Through his collaboration with the architect Pierre Lescot he was involved in many major building projects, and in his refined relief sculptures, such as the carved panels for the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, he achieved a highly personal synthesis between the mannered style of the Fontainebleau school and a classicism derived from his study of antique sculpture. He illustrated with skilful and lively wood-engravings Jean Baptiste Martin I’s first complete French translation (Paris, 1547) of Vitruvius, De architectura: Architecture ou art de bien bastir, an edition that was to have considerable influence on the revival of the classical style in France.

Goujon was possibly of Norman origin, and the knowledge of the sculpture and architecture of anti-quity and the Italian Renaissance displayed in his works suggests that he spent time in Italy. He is first recorded at Rouen in ...

Article

Grasset, Eugène(-Samuel)  

Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, May 25, 1841; d Paris, Oct 23, 1917).

French illustrator, decorative artist and printmaker of Swiss birth. Before arriving in Paris in the autumn of 1871, Grasset had been apprenticed to an architect, attended the Polytechnic in Zurich and travelled to Egypt. In Paris he found employment as a fabric designer and graphic ornamentalist, which culminated in his first important project, the illustrations for Histoire des quatre fils Aymon (1883). Grasset worked in collaboration with Charles Gillot, the inventor of photo-relief printing and an influential collector of Oriental and decorative arts, in the production of this major work of Art Nouveau book design and of colour photomechanical illustration. Grasset used a combination of medieval and Near Eastern decorative motifs to frame and embellish his illustrations, but most importantly he integrated text and imagery in an innovative manner which has had a lasting influence on book illustration.

In 1881 he was commissioned by Rodolphe Salis to design furnishing in a medieval style for the latter’s new Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre. This project brought him in direct contact with Montmartre avant-garde artists such as Adolphe Willette, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Henri Rivière and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Grasset’s numerous posters include ...

Article

Griggs, F(rederick) L(andseer Maur)  

Justine Hopkins

(b Hitchin, Herts, Oct 30, 1876; d Campden, Glos, June 7, 1938).

English etcher, illustrator and designer. Originally trained as an architect, he remained fascinated by ruins, and these formed his principal subject-matter. His first exhibited work at the Royal Academy, in 1897, was an architectural perspective. His first illustrated book was an edition of Tennyson’s In Memoriam (1900). From 1902 he worked for Macmillan Publishers, illustrating their Highways and Byways series, completing nine volumes and thirty-nine drawings for the Essex volume (on which he was working when he died).

Reception into the Roman Catholic church in 1912 (taking the baptismal name of Maur) had a profound influence on him and confirmed a nostalgic reverence for pre-Reformation England inherited from William Morris. This appears in his etchings in a preference for buildings in the Gothic style and a deliberately archaizing manner. He recognized the symbolic and emotive potential of architecture, which he used to express not only passionate devotion to the lost Gothic order, but also his sense that the modern world was fundamentally inferior to the past. This gives his work a curious hallucinatory quality: ruins are restored to completeness and inhabited by medieval figures, as though viewed in a timewarp (his etching, ...

Article

Hamilton, William (ii)  

Geoffrey Ashton

(b Chelsea, London, 1751; d London, Dec 2, 1801).

English painter and illustrator. The son of one of Robert Adam’s assistants, Hamilton was sent to Rome to be trained as an architectural draughtsman. He studied under Antonio Zucchi (who was later Adam’s chief decorative painter), possibly in Rome from 1766 and in London from 1768. At the Royal Academy Schools from 1769, Hamilton developed into a figure painter and exhibited portraits and subject pictures at the Royal Academy from 1774 to 1801. He became ARA in 1784 and RA in 1789.

Hamilton’s most interesting work pertains to the theatre, particularly Shakespearean. His most distinguished large pictures are the 23 he painted for John Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery, including A Scene from ‘Love’s Labour’s Lost’ (Act 4, scene i; London, Drury Lane Theat.). Also in the 1790s he contributed illustrations to Bowyer’s History of England and Thomas Macklin’s Bible and British Poets. Nevertheless, his pleasantly plump and youthful figures were better suited to the less pretentious format of book illustration than that of history painting. His attractive romantic scenes appear in many editions of 18th-century poets as well as in John Bell’s second editions of ...

Article

Hiller, Karol  

Polish, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in Lódz; died 1939, in Lódz, murdered.

Painter, graphic designer, illustrator.

Karol Hiller studied chemistry in Darmstadt in Germany, and then architecture in Moscow, before studying painting at the academy of fine art in Kiev in 1916. There he particularly focused on the techniques used in traditional Russian icon painting. During the Revolution of ...