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Bandurek, Wolf  

Ticio Escobar

(b Dobrzyn, 1906; d Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1972).

Paraguayan painter and engraver of Polish birth. He studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań and the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Düsseldorf. As a result of Nazi persecution he settled in Paraguay in 1936, where his work was particularly influential on the development of late 20th-century art. Although he was not an innovator from the point of view of form, he introduced into painting a dramatic content drawn from Paraguayan history and comment on social injustice and recent wars, thus giving new life to a school of painting that until then had been bucolic. His somber and moving oil paintings had vitality and an impassioned expressiveness. In the late 1930s and early 1940s this intensity of expression in his work provided a useful complement to the formal clarity of Jaime Bestard; both helped to undermine the prevailing academicism of art in Paraguay. Bandurek’s black-and-white wood engravings confirm the drama in his work and his persisting social concern. They were published in Buenos Aires in ...


Buvelot, Abram-Louis  

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, Mar 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer, and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of eighteen lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–1844. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...


Catherwood, Frederick  

Esther Acevedo

(b Hoxton, London, 1799; d at sea nr. Terranova, 1854).

English draftsman and printmaker, active also in Mexico. He studied architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in London and continued his studies in Rome. Active in the Middle East, he made drawings of antiquities in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the Holy Land. At the end of the 1830s, Catherwood worked for an architecture studio in the USA. During the assemblage of an exhibition about his first works, he met the American archaeologist John Lloyd Stephens (1805–1852), who proposed to travel with him to Yucatan.

Catherwood accompanied Stephens on two trips to Mexico. On the first one, in 1839–1840, he undertook the task of drawing the archaeological ruins of Palenque, Uxmal, Copan, and other places or monuments specified by Stephens. Under the terms of his contract, Stephens became the owner of the original drawings, with the right to reproduce them. The monuments were captured with great precision down to the minutest details. On their second trip, in ...


Charlot, (Louis Henri) Jean  

Esther Acevedo

(b Paris, Feb 8, 1898; d Honolulu, Mar 20, 1979).

French painter and printmaker, active in Mexico and the USA. As a child he was surrounded by the nostalgic presence of Mexico, as one of his great-grandmothers was Mexican, and one of his grandfathers had collected Pre-Columbian art. He specialized in murals, painting his first for the Exposition Saint-Jean, an exhibition of liturgical art at the Louvre in 1920. In 1921 he settled in Mexico to take up an offer of work from Alfredo Ramos Martínez at the open-air school in Coyoacán. He worked in Mexico City as one of Diego Rivera’s assistants on the mural The Creation (1923), executing two important murals of his own in the city during the same period: the Conquest of Tenochtitlán (1922–1923) in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, and Porters and Washerwomen (1923) in the building of the Secretaría de Educación Pública. Charlot collaborated on the magazine Mexican Folkways...


Chassériau, Théodore  

Donald A. Rosenthal

(b El Limón, nr Samaná [now in the Dominican Republic], Sept 20, 1819; d Paris, Oct 8, 1856).

French painter and printmaker (see fig.). In 1822 Chassériau moved with his family to Paris, where he received a bourgeois upbringing under the supervision of an older brother. A precociously gifted draughtsman, he entered Ingres’s studio at the age of 11 and remained there until Ingres left to head the Académie de France in Rome in 1834. He made his Salon début in 1836 with several portraits and religious subjects, including Cain Accursed (Paris, priv. col.), for which he received a third-class medal. Among his many submissions in subsequent years were Susanna Bathing (1839, exh. Salon 1839; Paris, Louvre), a Marine Venus (1838; exh. Salon 1839; Paris, Louvre) and the Toilet of Esther (1841, exh. Salon 1842; Paris, Louvre); these three paintings of nude female figures combine an idealization derived from Ingres with a sensuality characteristic of Chassériau.

By 1840–41, when Chassériau rejoined Ingres in Rome, he had begun to turn away from his teacher’s linear stylization. He became increasingly critical of the academic curriculum and passed his time making sketches of the Italian countryside and studying Renaissance frescoes, which later influenced his approach to painting monumental decorations. His best easel paintings of the early 1840s, the portraits of the Dominican friar ...


Egerton, Daniel Thomas  

Eloísa Uribe

(b England, 1797; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, Apr 27, 1842).

English painter, draftsman, and engraver, active in Mexico. He exhibited with the Royal Society of British Artists, of which he was a founder-member, between 1824 and 1829. Inspired by the writings of Alexander Humboldt, he traveled to Mexico in 1830 and from 1831 made a series of sketches of landscapes including views of mines, ranches, and cities. Twenty-five oil paintings and more than a hundred watercolors and drawings in red chalk date from this period. On his return to England, his pictures were made into prints to form an album of color lithographs. As the record of a traveling artist, the album contributed to a fashionable genre of the period. Egerton’s work depicted an abundant natural world and prosperous towns, with each urban or rural landscape inhabited by people dressed in traditional costume, who are generally positioned in the foreground and surrounded by typical local vegetation (e.g. View of the Valley of Mexico...


Estruch family  

Blanca García Vega

Spanish family of engravers and painters. Domingo Estruch y Jordán (b Muro, Alicante, 1796; d Madrid, 1851) trained in Valencia with his uncle, Francisco Jordán (c. 1778–1832), and after living in Mallorca and in Havana, Cuba, he established himself in Barcelona. He was an académico de mérito at the Academia de S Carlos in Valencia and a corresponding member of the Real Sociedad de Fomento in Havana. He engraved many religious prints, the funerary monument of Mariano Alvarez de Castro (1816) and illustrations for Alonso de Ercilla’s La Araucana (Barcelona, 1827) and for José Oriol y Bernadet’s Tratado elemental completo de dibujo lineal (Barcelona, 2/1850), as well as maps. His son Juan Estruch (b Barcelona, 1820; d Madrid, 1883) was his father’s pupil and between 1836 and 1840 also trained in Italy. Juan became the leading engraver for the Dirección de Hidrografía, Madrid, and engraved many maps and plans. His engraved portraits include those of the artist ...


Fabregat, José Joaquín  

Paul Niell

(b Torreblanca, 1748; d Mexico City, 1807). Spanish engraver, active also in Mexico. Fabregat was born in Torreblanca in the province of Castellón in 1748. He began his studies at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos in Valencia. He later obtained a prize in engraving from the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid and in 1774 was named ‘Académico Supernumerario’ by this institution and by the Academia de S Carlos in 1781. He engraved for some important printing presses in Spain, including those of Antonio Sancha, Joaquín Ibarra, the Imprenta Real in Madrid, and that of Benito Monfort in Valencia. By royal order, on 21 November 1787, the Crown appointed him director of metal engraving at the Real Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1783, after Fernando Selma declined the position. Fabregat embarked for the Americas in 1788. He is well known for the engraving that Manuel Toussaint titles the ...


Fernández Noseret, Luis  

Blanca García Vega

(fl Madrid, 1793–1828).

Spanish engraver. He trained at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, where he was a pupil of Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1795, under Salvador Carmona’s direction, he copied Gerard Edelinck’s print of the Holy Family, a painting (Venice, Pin. Manfrediniana) formerly attributed to Leonardo. Fernández Noseret engraved St Cecilia (Madrid, Pal. Real) by Guido Reni, after the drawing by León Bueno (1793); St Joseph and St Lawrence after the paintings by Alonso Cano; and 13 plates after drawings by Antonio Carnicero for Colección de las principales suertes de una corrida de toros (Madrid, 1795). He collaborated on Brigada de artillería volante (Madrid, 1796) and in 1828 copied two 18th-century prints: St Barnabas by Francisco Muntaner Moner and St Ferdinand (Madrid, Prado) by Murillo, the latter after the engraving by Salvador Carmona.

E. Paez Rios: Repertorio de grabados españoles de la Biblioteca Nacional, 1 (Madrid, 1981), p. 344...



Gustavo Navarro-Castro

revised by Iliana Cepero

[Goldschmidt, Gertrudis]

(b Hamburg, Aug 1, 1912; d Caracas, Sept 17, 1994).

Venezuelan architect, sculptor, draftsman, and printmaker of German birth. She studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart until 1938; one of her principal teachers was Paul Bonatz. The following year she traveled to Venezuela, where she combined her artistic career as a sculptor, draftsman, and engraver with teaching. In 1952 she adopted Venezuelan nationality and in 1953 she moved to the coastal town of Tarma where she made watercolors, drawings, and prints. Upon her return to Caracas in 1956, and inspired by the kinetic art movement, she began experimenting with the conversion of planes into three-dimensional forms, exploring the media of drawing, watercolor, engraving, collage, and sculpture and integrating them into architectural spaces, defying artistic conventions. A pioneering example of this approach was her 1962 design for the headquarters of the Banco Industrial de Venezuela in Caracas, which comprised a 10 m tower of interlocking aluminum and steel tubes....


Gil, Jerónimo Antonio  

Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y PérezGerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...


Goeldi, Oswaldo  

Roberto Pontual

revised by Alana Hernandez

(b Rio de Janeiro, Oct 31, 1895; d Rio de Janeiro, Feb 15, 1961).

Brazilian draftsman and printmaker. In 1901 he returned to Switzerland with his father, the Swiss naturalist Emil Goeldi, who served as the director of the Museu de História Natural e Ethnografia do Para (later the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi) in Belém. In 1917 he enrolled in the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Geneva, but left soon after. He settled in Rio de Janeiro in 1919 and began a career as an engraver and illustrator for popular magazines, and became attached to a group of avant-garde artists. In 1921 Goeldi had his first solo exhibition, which later led to his participation in the 1922 Semana de Arte Moderna in São Paulo with a group of drawings.

Goeldi took up printmaking in 1924, particularly favoring woodcuts, and he illustrated numerous books, reviews, and literary supplements, especially after the success of his illustrations for Raul Bopp’s poem Cobra Norato (Rio de Janeiro, 1937...


Greenwood, John  

Richard H. Saunders

(b Boston, MA, Dec 7, 1727; d Margate, Kent, Sept 16, 1792).

English painter, engraver and auctioneer of American birth. In 1742 he was apprenticed to the Boston engraver Thomas Johnston, though he abandoned engraving for painting (e.g. the group portrait of his own family, the Greenwood-Lee Family, c. 1747; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.). In 1752 he went to Paramaribo, Surinam, where in the space of five years he painted 113 portraits, which he recorded along with numerous other events and observations in a notebook. While there he painted his best-known work, Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam (c. 1752–8; St Louis, MO, A. Mus.). It is the only tavern scene conversation piece painted in colonial America and was most likely inspired by a print of William Hogarth’s Midnight Modern Conversation (New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A).

Greenwood remained in Surinam until May 1758, when he departed for Amsterdam, where he helped reopen the Amsterdam Art Academy, returned to engraving and produced numerous mezzotints. While in the Low Countries he began buying Dutch Old Masters for English collectors and moved to London by ...


Herrería, Julián de la  

Ticio Escobar

[Cervera, Andrés Campos]

(b Asunción, 1888; d Valencia, Spain, 1937).

Paraguayan painter, engraver, and ceramicist. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, and spent six years studying in Paris in private studios. His first exhibition, in Asunción in 1920, marked a turning-point in the history of Paraguayan art. He showed oil paintings inspired principally by Cézanne and the Fauvists, and the arbitrary colors and heavy impasto of his stylized landscapes introduced local artists to the innovations of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism previously unknown in Paraguay; as a result, other painters began to use them in their work. In his engraving, Herrería used a simplified line based on flat contrasts of color. From 1922 he began to work in ceramics, developing themes derived from Pre-Columbian Latin American traditions and scenes of daily rural life in Paraguay. His plates and small sculptures had designs influenced by Art Deco. The series of motifs used in his ceramics show a deep understanding of Paraguayan humor and popular art and give a vivid portrait of everyday life that transcends the merely picturesque....


Jensen, Alfred  

Alberto Cernuschi


(b Guatemala City, Dec 11, 1903; d Glen Ridge, NJ, April 4, 1981).

American painter and printmaker of Guatemalan birth. Of Polish, German, and Danish heritage, he started school in Denmark and completed high school in San Diego, CA, after working as a seaman and as a farmer in Guatemala. He eventually decided to train as a painter, studying at the San Diego Fine Arts School in 1925 and with Hans Hofmann in Munich in 1926–7. He settled permanently in the USA only in 1934. The patronage of Saidie Alder May (d 1951), a wealthy woman whom he met in 1927 as a fellow student of Hofmann, made it possible for him to dedicate himself to the study of colour theory (especially that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), Mayan and Inca cultures, science, mathematics, and philosophy. Much of this knowledge was later transposed into complex, diagrammatic pictures such as Family Portrait (1958) and The Great Mystery II (1960...


Krajcberg, Frans  

Roberto Pontual

revised by Marco Pasqualini de Andrade

(b Kozienice, Apr 12, 1921; d Rio de Janeiro, Nov 15, 2017).

Brazilian sculptor, printmaker, painter, draftsman, and photographer of Polish birth. During World War II his Jewish family was persecuted and killed by the Nazis, forcing Krajcberg to leave Poland in 1943. He studied engineering and art in Minsk and Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) at the Leningrad State University. After the war he went to Germany where he encountered modern and abstract art while studying with Willi Baumeister in Stuttgart (1945–1947). He moved to Brazil in 1948, first working as an art assistant in São Paulo and later in a paper factory in Paraná (1952–1956). The experience with deforestation and forest fires in the Paraná jungle aroused an interest in nature that was first expressed in paintings and drawings of organic forms. In 1956 he moved to Rio de Janeiro where he shared his studio with the abstract artist Franz Weissmann (1911–2005). The next year he won the Biennale of São Paulo National Painting Award with abstract paintings. After ...


Landesio, Eugenio  

Eloísa Uribe

(b Venária Reale, Jan 27, 1809; d Rome, Jan 29, 1879).

Italian painter, printmaker, teacher, and writer, active in Mexico. He was a pupil of the Hungarian painter Károly Markó (i) and studied at the Accademia Nazionale di San Luca in Rome. There he met the Spanish Catalan painter Pelegrín Clavé, who in 1854 proposed to the governing body of the Academia de las Nobles Artes de San Carlos in Mexico that Landesio be engaged as professor for the perspective and landscape class, recommending him for his skill as a painter, engraver, lithographer, and restorer. His work, which was influenced in particular by the landscapes of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, was already known at the academy, since five of his paintings had been shown in the exhibitions of 1853 and 1854 and had subsequently been bought for the academy’s collection (e.g. View of Rome, 1853; Mexico City, Pal. B.A.). Once in Mexico, Landesio taught the students to work from nature and concentrated on perfecting their drawing before allowing them to use color. His pupils included ...


Leufert, Gerd  

Ana Tapias

revised by Susanna Temkin

(b Memel [now Klaipéda], Jun 9, 1914; d Caracas, Jan 22, 1998).

Venezuelan graphic designer, printmaker, painter, photographer, sculptor, museum curator, and teacher of Lithuanian birth. He studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hannover, at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Mainz, and, after briefly completing his obligatory military service, at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich with typographer Fritz H. Ehmcke (1878–1965). He moved to Venezuela in 1951, becoming a citizen in 1954. He is acknowledged for his contributions to the Venezuelan postwar art scene and, in particular, to the field of graphic design.

In Venezuela he briefly worked for the Grant Advertising company, and later as Director of Art of McCann Erickson, taking over the position from Carlos Cruz-Diez. In 1952 he met the artist Gego, who became his life partner and with whom he collaborated on projects at the Centro Comercial Cediaz (1967) and the Instituto de Cooperación Educativa (INCE) (1968). From 1957 to 1959 he was art director of the magazine ...


Linati (de Prevost), Claudio  

Esther Acevedo

(b Parma, 1790; d Tampico, Dec 11, 1832).

Italian lithographer, active in Mexico. He was a member of the Carbonari (a secret society dedicated to the unification of Italy) who used lithography and journalism to diffuse his revolutionary ideas. His revolutionary activism caused him to travel to Spain, Belgium, and Mexico.

In 1809 he completed his studies in Paris, but after returning to Italy he was sentenced to death in 1824 for revolutionary activities. He went to Mexico with his colleague Gaspar Franchini in 1825, apparently attracted by the idea of putting his revolutionary ideas into practice. After considerable bureaucratic problems, Linati and Franchini arrived in Veracruz on September 25, 1825 and were responsible for assembling the first lithographic workshop in Mexico City. Since his youth in Parma, Linati had belonged to the Sociedad del Sublime Maestro Perfecto, where he was initiated as a Carbonario. With his lithography machine, he founded the publication El Iris whose first issue was published on ...


Montenegro (Nervo), Roberto Fabrés  

Leonor Morales

revised by Deborah Caplow

(b Guadalajara, Feb 19, 1887; d Mexico City, Oct 13, 1968).

Mexican mural and easel painter, printmaker, illustrator, and stage designer. In 1903 he began studying painting in Guadalajara under Félix Bernardelli, an Italian who had established a school of painting and music there. He produced his first illustrations for Revista moderna, a magazine that promoted the Latin American modernist movement and to which his cousin, the poet Amado Nervo, also contributed poetry. In 1905 he enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Arte in Mexico City; his teachers included Antonio Fabrés, Julio Ruelas, Leandro Izaguirre (1867–1941), and Germán Gedovius. Some of his fellow students were Diego Rivera, Francisco de la Torre, Saturnino Herrán, Angel Zárraga, and Jorge Enciso. In 1905 Montenegro won a grant to travel to Europe, first studying at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. In 1907 Montenegro moved to Paris, where he continued his studies and immersed himself in the world of contemporary art, meeting Cocteau, Picasso, Braque, and Gris, among others....