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Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 28 April 1845, in Rouen; died September 1909, in Rouen.

Engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, architect, art writer.

Jules Adeline was a first-time exhibitor at the Paris Salon in 1873, when, as a young architect, he initially contributed sketches and architectural projects. From ...

Article

Isabel L. Taube

Late 19th-century movement in the arts and literature characterized by the pursuit and veneration of beauty and the fostering of close relationships among the fine and applied arts. According to its major proponents, beauty was found in imaginative creations that harmonized colours, forms, and patterns derived from Western and non-Western cultures as well as motifs from nature. The Aesthetic Movement gained momentum in England in the 1850s, achieved widespread popularity in England and the USA by the 1870s, and declined by the 1890s.

The principal ideologies and practices of British Aestheticism came to the USA through both educational and commercial channels. As early as 1873, the Scottish stained-glass designer, decorator, and art dealer Daniel Cottier opened a branch of his interior design shop in New York and played a significant role in introducing aesthetic taste and artefacts to Americans. The Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, with its extensive display of industrial and decorative arts, showcased British Aestheticism and the Japanese ceramics that influenced it. British art magazines and books, especially Charles Locke Eastlake’s ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Active in Londonc.1880.

Born 4 November 1826, in Paris; died 13 December 1906, in London.

Painter, poet, novelist, dramatist, musician. Landscapes.

Charles Hamilton Aidé is above all remembered as an accomplished dramatist and musician. He travelled extensively and made sketches on his travels. He submitted three canvases to the Grafton Gallery in ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...

Article

(b Montrouge, Paris, April 4, 1806; d Paris, April 29, 1885).

French painter and writer. A student of Ingres, he first exhibited at the Salon in 1830 with a portrait of a child. He continued exhibiting portraits until 1868. Such entries as M. Geoffroy as Don Juan (1852; untraced), Rachel, or Tragedy (1855; Paris, Mus. Comédie-Fr.) and Emma Fleury (1861; untraced) from the Comédie-Française indicate an extended pattern of commissions from that institution. His travels in Greece and Italy encouraged the Néo-Grec style that his work exemplifies. Such words as refinement, delicacy, restraint, elegance and charm pepper critiques of both his painting and his sedate, respectable life as an artist, cultural figure and writer in Paris. In contrast to Ingres’s success with mature sitters, Amaury-Duval’s portraits of young women are his most compelling. In them, clear outlines and cool colours evoke innocence and purity. Though the portraits of both artists were influenced by classical norms, Amaury-Duval’s have control and civility in contrast to the mystery and sensuousness of Ingres’s....

Article

Brazilian, 19th century, male.

Born 1843, in Areias (Pernambuco); died 1905.

Painter, writer. History painting.

Americo studied painting in Paris with Ingres. The German emperor owned one of his early works, Woman from Rio de Janeiro. He produced many paintings that celebrated Brazilian independence. He was also interested in literature, the natural sciences and politics. He spent a long period working in Florence, where he produced and successfully exhibited one of his large pictures, ...

Article

Lynn Boyer Ferrillo

(b Lyon, May 24, 1869; d Laudun, Gard, July 11, 1954).

French painter, writer and museum curator. He received his initial art training in Lyon and began his career designing patterns for silk, the city’s principal industry. After moving to Paris in 1889, he attended the Académie Julian and subsequently met Louis Valtat, Paul Ranson, Georges D’Espagnat and Henri Bataille (1872–1922). Perhaps the most important influence on his work was Auguste Renoir, who first saw André’s paintings in 1894 at the Salon des Indépendants and was so favourably impressed that he recommended André to the dealer Paul Durand-Ruel. The two artists struck up a close relationship, which lasted until Renoir’s death in 1919. André’s monograph Renoir (1919) is one of the most accurate contemporary accounts of the artist’s work.

By 1900 André had met the writers and artists associated with the Revue blanche, and in 1902 he helped to organize the journal’s exhibition of the Lyonese painter François Vernay (...

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Barcelona, 1755; d Barcelona, Sept 7, 1822).

Spanish writer and painter. He was a member of the Real Escuela de la Junta de Comercio in Barcelona, where he was primarily active in a political capacity rather than as an artist and professor in its Escuela de Nobles Artes. He was expelled from the Junta in 1814 because he had taken the oath of loyalty to the usurper King Joseph Bonaparte, and as a result of accusations of favouring the French he spent his last years in total isolation from public life. His work as a writer on art is of considerable interest. He strongly defended French Neo-classicism and, in particular, the artists François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David. In a lecture he gave to the Junta de Comercio in 1810 he proclaimed the absolute validity of academic classicism, and this belief also pervades such manuscript pamphlets as the Discurso sobre la enseñanza del dibujo, Máximas generales para la pintura...

Article

Fransje Kuyvenhoven

(b Amsterdam, Aug 6, 1762; d Amsterdam, Feb 10, 1844).

Dutch museum director and painter. He was a student at the Tekeningen Akademie in Amsterdam from 1784 to 1786. His teacher was the landscape painter Hendrik Meijer (1738–93), with whom he travelled to England in 1786. Between 1790 and 1795 Apostool produced some 80 aquatints after other masters. From 1796 he occupied a number of posts that once again took him to England, and to New York in 1806. The pen drawing made there, Flatland on Long Island (1806; Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.), is a valuable document within his sparse oeuvre.

Apostool’s career in artistic politics began in 1807. He was appointed secretary to the Legation to Naples, from where he travelled to Paris to report on the Dutch Prix de Rome artists working there. In Italy he made one of his few oil paintings, still entirely in the heroic 18th-century mode: the Anio Valley with the Waterfalls of Tivoli...

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Santander, 1824; d Madrid, 1897).

Spanish painter and writer. He was a pupil of the landscape painter Carlos de Haes at the Escuela Superior in Madrid and exhibited at the National Fine Arts Exhibitions of 1858, 1860, 1862 and 1866. His artistic career, however, is less significant than his profound knowledge of art. He published articles in La Ilustración española y americana, El Día, Arte en España and the Revista de bellas artes (all published in Madrid), at a time when art criticism, understood as ‘a commentary on work, made with some degree of authority’, was still in its infancy in Spain. He gave several lectures at the Ateneo Cientifico, Literario y Artístico in Madrid, such as: ‘Observaciones sobre el concepto del Arte’ (15 May 1884), ‘Los desenvolvimientos de la pintura—López, Madrazo, Rosales, Fortuny’ (1887) and ‘La España del siglo XIX: Goya y su época’ (1895). His publications include the monographs ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator, novelist.

Marcel Arnac illustrated François Villon's Works (1928) with miniature watercolours, and illustrated his own work, 83 Centimetres of Adventures (Les éditions Georges-Anquetil, 1925), with drawings. He also wrote and illustrated Le Brelan de Joie...

Article

(Rossi)

(b Alderstone, England, Jan 27, 1851; d Bondi, Sydney, April 27, 1942).

Australian painter and writer . He attended the West London School of Art and, following the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the Académie Julian in Paris. In 1878 the newspaper owner David Syme invited Ashton to Melbourne to produce black-and-white illustrations for the Illustrated Australian News. After a disagreement with the management he transferred to the rival Australasian Sketcher. In 1883 he went to Sydney, where he joined the staff of the Picturesque Atlas of Australia and also contributed to the Sydney Bulletin. Ashton was an ardent disciple of Impressionist painting and claimed to have executed the first plein-air landscape in Australia: Evening, Merri Creek (1882; Sydney, A.G. NSW). Much of his work, as in the watercolour A Solitary Ramble (1888; Sydney, A.G. NSW), had a strong sentimental streak. In addition to his outdoor works Ashton painted a number of portraits, such as that of Helen Ashton...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 20 February 1835, in Angers; died 24 May 1907, in Paris.

Sculptor, painter, watercolourist, poet, art critic.

Zacharie Astruc initially exhibited as a sculptor at the 1871 Salon des Artistes Français. As a painter, he participated in the first Impressionist Exhibition at Nadar's in ...

Article

Mark Castro

[Murillo, Gerardo]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, volcanologist, and politician. Murillo first studied art in his native Guadalajara with the painter Félix Bernardelli (1866–1905). Murillo relocated to Mexico City in 1896, studying briefly at the Academia de San Carlos, before securing support from the government to continue his education in Europe. He stopped briefly in Paris in 1897 before moving on to Rome and beginning his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti and the Real Academia de España. Murillo’s encounters with European art had a profound impact on him, particularly Impressionism. He also achieved a measure of success on the European art scene, and his Self-portrait (1899; priv. col.) was awarded the silver medal at the Paris Salon. During his six-year stay Murillo also became absorbed by French and Italian socialist political theory.

Murillo returned to Mexico in 1904, joining the staff of the Academia de San Carlos, where he became an agitator for reform, clashing with the school’s administration over teaching methods and becoming a hero to students, among them José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The debates culminated in the student strike of ...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 24 October 1798, in Turin; died 15 January 1866, in Turin.

Painter, draughtsman, caricaturist, lithographer, writer. Historical subjects, battles, figures, landscapes with figures, landscapes, waterscapes, seascapes, architectural views.

Massimo Azeglio was the son of Marquis Cesare Taparelli d'Azeglio who was made minister plenipotentiary to the Holy See by King Victor Emmanuel in ...

Article

Anne K. Swartz

(Francisca )

(b East Los Angeles, CA, Sept 20, 1946).

American muralist, activist and teacher. Born to Mexican–American parents, Baca is recognized as one of the leading muralists in the USA. She was involved from a young age in activism, including the Chicano Movement, the antiwar protest and Women’s Liberation. She studied art at California State University, Northridge, where she received Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. Baca started teaching art in 1970 in East Los Angeles for the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks and became interested in the ways murals could involve youth, allowing them to express their experiences. She founded the City of Los Angeles Mural Program in 1974, which evolved into the Social and Public Resource Center, a community arts organization, where she served as artistic director. She held five summer mural workshops from 1976 through 1983 for teenagers and community artists to help her paint a huge mural on the ethnic history of Los Angeles, called the ...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 30 September 1830, in Neuchâtel; died 3 August 1890, in Bern.

Painter, writer. Historical subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, flowers.

Initially a pupil of William Moritz in his native city, he moved to Paris in 1850, where he worked in the studios of Charles Gleyre and Thomas Couture. In ...

Article

Russian, 19th century, male.

Born 18 August 1801, in Riga; died 29 September 1869, in Dresden.

Painter, writer. History painting, portraits.

Baehr was a pupil at the Dresden and St Matthew's academies. During visits to Italy in 1827 and 1834, he met Thorvaldsen, J.A. Koch, Cornelius, F. Reinhart and Horace Vernet. In ...

Article

(b Brussels, Aug 20, 1848; d Ixelles, Brussels, Dec 13, 1914).

Belgian architect, designer, painter and writer . He came from a family of artists: one brother, Charles Baes, was a glass painter and two others, Henri Baes and Pierre Baes, were decorative painters. Jean Baes studied decorative design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and, from 1867 to 1871, in the firm of Charle-Albert. He subsequently trained in architecture in the studios of Emile Janlet, Wynand Janssens and Alphonse Balat. Baes devoted most of his professional career—which was cut short in 1895 by a debilitating illness—to architecture but he also worked as an interior designer, a graphic designer, an architectural draughtsman and, especially, as a watercolourist of architectural subjects. In 1872 he was a founder-member of Belgium’s Société Centrale d’Architecture and after 1874 he collaborated on its journal, L’Emulation. In 1886 he became Assistant Director of the newly established Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Brussels, where his pupils included Paul Hankar and ...

Article

Belgian, 19th century, male.

Born 24 June 1837, in Ostend.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver (etching), writer.

Edgar Baes painted seascapes and landscapes in both oils and watercolour. His paintings include Martyrdom of Marguerite of Louvain and Storm in the Dunes, his engravings include Death of Marguerite of Bourgogne...