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Arcimboldo [Arcimboldi], Giuseppe  

Thomas Dacosta Kaufmann

(b ?Milan, 1527; d Milan, July 11, 1593).

Italian painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer, active also in Austria and Bohemia. He came from a distinguished Milanese family that included a number of archbishops of the city; his father was the painter Biagio Arcimboldo. Giuseppe is first documented in 1549, working with his father for Milan Cathedral; he received payments until 1558 for supplying paintings, designs for an altar baldacchino and stained-glass windows for the cathedral: the Story of Lot and the Life of St Catherine in the south transept windows are usually attributed to him. He collaborated with Giuseppe Meda in designing the gonfalone of St Ambrose in Milan, probably sometime soon after 1558. In 1556 he received a commission to paint the south wall and vault of the south transept of Monza Cathedral, also in Lombardy, a work that must have been completed by 1562. Portions of a fresco of the Tree of Jesse on the south wall there can be attributed to him. In ...


Baldung [Grien], Hans  

Christiane Andersson

(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd, 1484 or 1485; d Strassburg [now Strasbourg, France], 1545).

German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and stained-glass designer. Such contemporaries as Jean Pélerin (De artificiali perspectiva, 1521) and the Alsatian humanist Beatus Rhenanus in 1526 counted him among the greatest artists of his time. In the opinion of specialists today, Baldung’s work places him only half a step behind Grünewald, Dürer and Hans Holbein the younger. A prodigious and imaginative artist of great originality, versatility and passion, Baldung was fascinated with witchcraft and superstition and possessed a desire for novelty of subjects and interpretation that sometimes borders on the eccentric. The new themes he introduced include the supernatural and the erotic. He was the first to show the erotic nature of the Fall in his chiaroscuro woodcut of Adam and Eve (1511; Hollstein, no. 3) and illustrated the successive stages of mating behaviour of horses in his woodcut series of Wild Horses in the forest (1534; Hollstein, nos 238–40); and he is remembered especially for his images of witches. Dürer influenced him only in an early stage but not lastingly. Baldung had a very different sensibility and lacked Dürer’s sense of decorum. Grünewald, whose monumental ...



Shirley Millidge

Drawing, sometimes coloured, made specifically as a pattern for a painting, textile or stained-glass panel. It is produced on the same scale as the final work and is usually fairly detailed. The transfer of the image works best if the drawing in the cartoon is of a linear nature and if the composition has crisp, clear outlines.

In painting there are two methods of transferring a cartoon to the support, which may be a canvas, panel or wall. The first is similar to Tracing. The back of the cartoon is rubbed over with chalk; the paper is attached to the support; and the main lines are drawn over with a stylus, thus transferring the chalk from the back of the cartoon to the new support. In the second method, which is called Pouncing, the main lines of the cartoon are pricked through with a needle or stylus, the size and closeness of the holes varying according to the detail in the drawing. Sometimes in order to preserve the drawn cartoon, a supplementary cartoon or ...


Coecke [Cock; Coeck; Coeke; Kock; Koecke] van Aelst [van Alost], Pieter, I  

Jane Campbell Hutchison

(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...


Coustain, Pierre  

Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b ?Burgundy, c. 1420; d Bruges, before 1502).

Franco-Flemish painter and designer. He is first documented painting stained glass in Philip the Good’s Burgundian castle of Argilly in 1448 and 1452. He was appointed a painter to the Duke in January 1454, just before he worked with Colard le Voleur, Master of the Entertainments at Hesdin, on fountains and other machines for the Banquet of the Pheasant in Lille. During the next years, Coustain was responsible for painting the banners and heralds’ tabards for several court festivities and funerals. He coloured statues of St Philip and St Elizabeth on the ducal palace in Brussels in 1462 and painted a Crucifixion and a Virgin and Child on the panels placed at the head and foot of the Duke’s catafalque in 1467.

Coustain was most active under Charles the Bold. In 1468 he and the Duke’s other painter, Jean Hennecart, were in Bruges, supervising 166 painters and sculptors in the production of the decorations for the meeting of the Order of the Golden Fleece as well as decorations, mechanical devices, props and sets for ...


Dombet [Dombay], Guillaume  

Dominique Thiébaut

(b Cuisery, nr Chalon-sur-Saône; fl 1414; d before Aug 19, 1461).

Burgundian painter. He is first mentioned in Avignon in 1414. His three sons, Aubry, Jacques and Jean (who returned to Cuisery in 1452 or 1453), were also painters. His daughter Peyronnette married a painter from Tournai, Arnolet de Catz (fl 1430–34), who became Guillaume’s associate in 1430. When suffering from a serious illness, Guillaume made his will on 4 December 1458 and requested to be buried in Notre-Dame-la-Principale, Avignon.

Guillaume Dombet appears to have had a flourishing career as a master glazier. He supplied stained-glass windows for the Papal Palace in Avignon (1414), for Aix Cathedral (1415; 1444; 1449), for the synagogue in Aix (1418), for the Franciscan church in Marseille (1425), for Ste Marthe in Tarascon (1432), and for the St Pierre-de-Luxembourg Chapel near the Celestine church in Avignon (1448). At the same time he worked on many altarpieces, often in collaboration with his sons. He received commissions for Aix Cathedral (...


Graf, Urs  

Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...


Katzheimer, Wolfgang  

Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...


Kriechbaum, Ulrich  

Lothar Schultes


(fl 1450–72).

German painter, sculptor, glass painter, and embroiderer. He took over the workshop of the Munich painter Conrad Sachs around 1450. In 1468 he received the Aubing tithe from Polling Abbey, probably as payment for work. Shortly afterwards he contracted to deliver ‘ein grosse Tafel mit pildren, flügn und anderen notdurften’ (a big altar panel with pictures, wings, and other essentials) to Göttweig Abbey (Wachau, Lower Austria); this altar, dedicated to the Virgin, was completed after Ulrich’s death by his ?stepbrother Martin. Erasmus Grasser probably took over Ulrich’s workshop.

Ulrich painted a view of the city (destr.) formerly in the Munich Rathaus. Undocumented works attributable to him are: the painted Crucifixion (c. 1455) in the Frauenkirche at Munich; the figures of enthroned Virgins at Maria Ramersdorf and Andechs (c. 1467 or after); the altar fragments at the former Cistercian abbey of Fürstenfeldbruck (c. 1470); and the enthroned Virgin in the shrine of the winged altar at Maria Laach am Jauerling (Wachau, Lower Austria), which must have been carved ...


Kulmbach, Hans Süss [Suess] von  

Barbara Butts

(b ?Kulmbach, Upper Franconia, c. 1485; d Nuremberg, between 29 Sept and Dec 13, 1522).

German painter and draughtsman. Described by Sandrart as a ‘disciple’ of Dürer, Kulmbach emerged as the foremost interpreter of the great German master’s art following the departure from Nuremberg of both Hans Schäufelein (i) and Hans Baldung in 1509. Indeed, in the second decade of the 16th century Kulmbach was the most important designer of stained glass and designer and painter of altarpieces in Nuremberg. As Dürer himself concentrated increasingly on the graphic arts and accepted only select commissions from the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and a small group of eminent patrons, Kulmbach received the lion’s share of commissions for highly visible works of art in the major churches of Nuremberg. In the years just before the Reformation, he thus played a key role in shaping the city’s church interiors, most notably the eastern choir of St Sebaldus.

The name ‘von Kulmbach’ suggests that he was born in Kulmbach in Upper Franconia. It is uncertain whether ‘Süss’ is a surname or a nickname (corresponding to Hans Baldung’s nickname ‘Grien’). Judging from Kulmbach’s stylistic development, he was probably born later (...


Kunst, Pieter Cornelisz  

Jane L. Carroll

[Cornelisz., Pieter]

(b Leiden, c. 1484; d Leiden, between Oct 31, 1560 and early July 1561).

North Netherlandish painter and designer of maps, furniture and glass paintings. He was the eldest son of Cornelis Engebrechtsz.; in 1509 he married Marytgen Gerytsdr. van Dam. In 1514 and 1519 his name appeared in the Leiden civic guard lists, where he is recorded as a painter and not as a glass painter (contrary to van Mander’s report). On 9 April 1530 Pieter moved to Bruges to be with his younger brother, the painter Cornelis Cornelisz. Kunst (1493–1544), and to take charge of his sibling’s business affairs. Pieter had returned to Leiden by 1532, when he designed a pulpit for the St Pieterskerk, his only important documented work.

His earliest recorded work is a glass window from 1516 for the Marienpoel cloister near Leiden. The work is described as a small pane with a drinking scene (a Prodigal Son?), which was executed for Lambert Johansz. Such a piece may support van Mander’s claim that Pieter Cornelisz. taught the art of glass painting to ...


Guillaume [Guglielmo] de Marcillat  

Frank Dabell

[Guillaume de Pierre]

(b La Châtre, nr Bourges, 1467–70; d Arezzo, July 30, 1529).

French stained-glass maker and painter, active in Italy. He was called to Rome before 1509, perhaps by Donato Bramante. Marcillat was employed by the popes Julius II and Leo X in the Vatican and at S Maria del Popolo, where the two Serlian windows in the choir are his earliest surviving works (1509; heavily rest.). Summoned to Cortona in 1515 by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, he established a workshop and began keeping a detailed account-book, which has survived; his prolific output there included a two-part window for the chancel of Cortona Cathedral, comprising the Nativity (1516; Detroit, MI, Inst. A., no. 37.138) and the Adoration of the Magi (London, V&A, no. 634.1902). Based in Arezzo by 1519, he produced the most skilfully executed windows of his age, notably the five splendidly illusionistic Gospel scenes, including the Expulsion from the Temple and the Raising of Lazarus, in Arezzo Cathedral (...


Mocetto [Moceto; Mozeto; Mozetto], Girolamo  

Serena Romano

(b Murano, c. 1470; d ?Venice, after Aug 21, 1531).

Italian engraver, painter and designer of stained glass. He was born into a family of glass painters, and, although there is no documentary evidence that he worked outside Venice, his early paintings and engravings show the influence of Domenico Morone and of Mantegna and his circle, which would suggest that Mocetto’s training may not have been exclusively Venetian. His artistic evolution is most clearly seen in a comparison of early works still close to Morone, such as a series of three engravings of the Battle between Israel and the Amalekites (see Hind, nos 719–20) or the painting of the Battle (Pavia, Pin. Malaspina), to works of a few years later, such as the two small paintings of the Massacre of the Innocents (London, N.G.) and the engravings of Pagan Sacrifices (h 726–7), the Metamorphosis of Amymone (h 728) and the Calumny of Apelles (h. 727), all datable to ...


Montorfano family  

Janice Shell

Italian family of painters. Paolino da Montorfano (fl Milan, 1402–30) worked in Milan Cathedral as a painter and as a painter of stained glass. Abramo (di Alberto) da Montorfano (fl Milan, 1430–38), in 1430 also employed in Milan Cathedral, apparently worked regularly for the Visconti and was a member of the painters’ guild, as was his son Alberto (di Abraam) de Montorfano (fl Milan, c. 1450–81). Giovanni da Montorfano (fl 1452–70) worked in Milan Cathedral in 1452 and 1454, and in Genoa from 1457; a signed St Martin and the Beggar exists (Cernuschi sale, Paris, Gal. Petit, 25–6 May 1900, lot 65). Giovanni Donato (di Alberto) da Montorfano (b Milan, c. 1460; d Milan, 1502/3), who may have been active from the late 1470s, is best known for his fresco of the Crucifixion (signed and dated 1495; Milan, S Maria delle Grazie). Several frescoes in S Pietro in Gessate, Milan, in the chapels of St Anthony, St John the Baptist and the Virgin, are attributed to him, but their dating and attribution are problematic; his hand is most plausibly seen in the St Anthony frescoes. Frescoes of scenes from the ...


Pietersz. [incorrectly Sweelinck], Gerrit  

Christiaan Schuckman

(b Amsterdam, 1566; d Amsterdam, c. before 1612).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher. He trained with the stained-glass artist Jacob Lenartz in Amsterdam and from c. 1588–9 to 1590 in Haarlem with Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem; after his apprenticeship he stayed there for a number of years as an independent master. He is one of the first important Dutch painter–etchers before Rembrandt. His work is distinguished by the wavy, exaggerated and contorted style typical of late Mannerism. The composition, style and pastel colours of the Flood (1592; Oldenburg, Landesmus.), his earliest dated painting, clearly show the influence of Cornelis Cornelisz., as do the pen-and-wash drawings Outdoor Party in a Garden (1593; Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.) and Mercury (c. 1594; Rotterdam, Boymans–van Beuningen), the verso of which is addressed to the Utrecht goldsmith Adam van Vianen. He also made six etchings of religious subjects, five of which are dated 1593 and were probably made while he was still in Haarlem. His lines do not vary in thickness in imitation of engraved lines but end abruptly....


Pleydenwurff, Hans  

Peter Strieder


(b ?Bamberg, c. 1425; d Nuremberg, Jan 9, 1472).

German painter and stained-glass designer. He was already a master when he became a citizen of Nuremberg in 1457, having almost certainly worked previously in Bamberg. As early as 10 October that year he received permission to move from Nuremberg’s outer suburbs, where new citizens were supposed to live, into the city centre, which presupposes the purchase of a substantial house. In 1464 he bought the house (now Burgstrasse 21) of the late painter Lukas Landauer (fl 1423; d 1456).

Pleydenwurff, whose name is mentioned frequently in Nuremberg records, is the first painter in the city to whom works can confidently be ascribed. This is made possible by a document stating that Master Hans Pleydenwurff executed the high altar of the Elisabethkirche in Breslau (now Wrocław), erecting it in situ before 30 June 1462. Parts of this retable, which was furnished with a double pair of wings, have survived, though it was replaced by an altar by Michael Willmann in the mid-17th century. Three fragments remained in Breslau—from the ...


Prévost, Jacques  

Marianne Grivel

(fl 1521–80).

French painter, sculptor and engraver. Born at Gray or Pesmes (both in Haute-Saône), he began work in Dijon, on ephemeral decorations for the ceremonial entry of Francis I in 1521. He probably also produced some stained-glass windows with coats of arms at Gray in 1530. Two engravings in the Flemish style, Roman Charity and Venus, are signed with his full name and dated 1546. Pierre-Jean Mariette ascribed to him a series of prints (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.; 4, after Polidoro da Caravaggio, of terms and 12 of architectural details) engraved in Italy, probably in Rome, between 1535 and 1538, bearing the monogram p.s., although Michel de Marolles, writing in 1666, thought this referred to a certain Perjeconter, otherwise unknown. Although they are very different in style to Prévost’s other works, these works may be by him. If he went to Italy, he was back in France before 1550, when he painted the retables of the high altars at Dôle and Gray for ...


Pupini [dalle Lame; de’ Pini; Pini], Biagio  

Anna Maria Fioravanti Baraldi

(b Bologna; fl 1511–51).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was probably a pupil of Francia, Francesco. In 1511 he collaborated with Bagnacavallo on frescoes (destr.) in S Pietro in Vincoli, Faenza, and in 1519 on a stained-glass window for the Cappella della Pace, S Petronio, Bologna. In 1524 Pupini painted the Virgin and Child with Saints—a copy of Raphael’s Holy Family (Paris, Louvre)—in the upper cloister of the Collegio di Spagna, Bologna. In 1525 he participated, with Girolamo da Carpi and Giovanni Borghese, in the decoration of the sacristy of S Michele in Bosco, Bologna. Thereafter he produced works that have Ferrarese elements and echoes of Parmigianino, evidently also influenced by the works of Girolamo da Carpi, as in the Nativity (Bologna, Pin. N.), the Madonna and Child with Saints (Baltimore, MD, Walters A.G.) and the Virgin and Child with Saints (Bologna, S Giuliano). In 1536 Pupini worked with Girolamo da Carpi, Garofalo...


Roome [Brussel], Jan van  

Louise S. Milne

[Jean de Bruxelles]

(fl 1498–1521).

South Netherlandish painter and designer of tapestry cartoons, stained-glass windows, and sculpture. He is first documented in 1498, as a Brother of Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows, and later became court painter at Mechelen and Brussels to Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Spanish Netherlands. Jan’s widely imitated tapestry designs, filled with graceful, melancholic figures set in a mixture of Late Gothic and Renaissance architecture, helped to create a uniform style in Brussels tapestries in the first quarter of the 16th century. The basis for attributing tapestries to Jan, or his workshop, is the documented series of the Story of Herkinbald (Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.), which was made for the Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament at Leuven and for the design for which Jan was paid 2.5 Rhenish guilders and some wine in 1513. His collaborators were the painter ‘Philips’ [Maître Phillipe] and the weaver ‘...


Spicre, Pierre  

Scot McKendrick

(fl 1470–78).

Burgundian painter. He was probably the son of Guillaume Spicre of Dijon, a stained-glass painter in the service of Philip the Good, 3rd Duke of Burgundy, from 1450 to 1468. He is first recorded in June 1470 as an expert called to judge the newly completed tomb of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria, Duke and Duchess of Burgundy, carved by Juan de la Huerta and Antoine le Moiturier for the Charterhouse (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). On 4 March 1473, with the aid of money bequeathed by Bishop Georges de Saluces (d 1461), he was engaged to paint a retable (untraced) for the high altar of Lausanne Cathedral. On 13 September 1474 he was employed to make for the choir of Notre-Dame, Beaune, certain ‘patrons’ on cloth depicting 21 scenes (untraced) from the Life of the Virgin to include the figures of Cardinal Jean II Rolin and his dog. On their completion early in ...