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Chen Jiru  

Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-juzi Zhongshunhao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...


Okumura Masanobu  

Juliann Wolfgram


(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...


Sō Shii  

Norihisa Mizuta

[Bussai; Dokusō; Gakusen; Hanbutsu koji; Kyūsui Gyojin; Mandarakyo]

(b Kyoto, 1738; d Osaka, 1797).

Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from Kō Fuyō and was so successful in absorbing the characteristics of the Archaic school that he was known as ‘Fuyō’s shadow’. Together with Maegawa Kyoshū and Katsu Shikin, he was an important advocate of the Archaic school in the Naniwa (now Osaka) area (see Japan §XVII 20.).

Albums of seals he carved include the Rekiken sanbō inpu, Dokusōan in’in and the Gakusen in’in. Shii also researched the background to seal scholarship and wrote the works Insekikō (‘Thoughts on borrowed seals’) and Ingosan (‘Outline of seal terms’). The Insekikō, published posthumously in 1802, is a catalogue raisonné of Japanese and Chinese seal albums introduced to Japan at that time. It also assesses the state and level of seal scholarship. No such catalogue had hitherto been compiled, even in China, and it was highly praised. The ...


Yang Yuyu  

Su-hsing Lin

[Yang Ying-feng]

(b Yi lang County, Taiwan, 1926; d Xin Zhu City, Taiwan, 1997).

Chinese sculptor, illustrator, environmental designer, and architect. Yang additionally made a great number of cartoons, illustrations, and cover designs between 1945 and 1961 while in charge of artistic design for the Fengnian zazhi (“Harvest Rural Periodical”). Yang’s early styles display great influence from not only artistic developments in China and Tokyo in the 1940s, such as Art Deco and the New Woodcut Movement, but also the political situation as well as artistic trends in Taiwan during the 1950s. Many graphic artworks by Yang collected in the Harvest Rural Periodical were devoted chiefly to secular themes. They could be regarded as important genre paintings of 1950s Taiwan.

From 1964 to 1966 Yang received an opportunity from Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan to study art in Italy. Three years of sojourn in Rome gave Yang a great understanding of Western art history and aesthetics, and an appreciation for the differences between the East and the West, historically, culturally, and artistically. Upon returning to Taiwan, Yang made the ancient Chinese concept of ...


Hu Zhengyan  

Suzanne Elaine Wright

[Hu cheng-yen; zi Yuecong; hao Cigong, Moan laoren, Shizhuzhai zhuren]

(b Wenchangfang, Anhui Province, 1584/1585; d 1673/1674).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, seal-carver, printer, and publisher. He moved from Anhui province to Nanjing, the southern capital of the Ming, by 1619 and established a publishing concern there named Shizhuzhai (“Ten Bamboo Studio”). He produced ink, seals, and printed stationery paper, as well as books on subjects including medical practice, etymology, phonetics, poetry, and the works for which he is best known today: Shizhuzhai shuhuapu (“Ten Bamboo Studio handbook of calligraphy and painting”) and Shizhuzhai jianpu (“Ten Bamboo Studio handbook of letter papers”). After the death of the Chongzhen emperor (reg 1627–1644) and the fall of Beijing to the Manchus, a rump court was established in Nanjing in 1644. Because of Hu’s reputation as a practitioner of seal script and seal-carver, he was commissioned to create a state seal for the Hongguang emperor (reg 1645). Hu was offered a position as zhongshu sheren (“Drafter in the Secretariat”), but turned it down. After the Manchus occupied Nanjing in ...


Zhenxiang huabao  

Tian S. Liang

[The True Record]

Chinese pictorial journal launched in June 1912 by Gao Qifeng in Shanghai, who was the journal’s chief editor and publisher. The journal published seventeen issues in total from June 1912 to March 1913, and was released on a thrice-monthly basis. Many scholars suggested the journal was likely funded under the auspices of the Guangdong provincial government. In the words of Carrie Waara, Zhenxiang huabao not only created a new form of publication in China through its use of “advanced photographic printing technology,” but also set a tone for “hybrid magazines” that followed.

The publishing house of Zhenxiang huabao had two offices, one in Shanghai, and another in Guangzhou; most contributors of the journal also came from these regions. In Shanghai, the operational office of the journal Zhenxiang huabaoshe (The True Record Press) was first located at Shanghai No. 4 Road, Huifu Lane, and released sixteen issues of the journal; then its office relocated to the heartland of the Shanghai publishing world at the Middle Section No. 84 on the Chessboard Street, where they published the last issue (issue 17) in ...