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Christina Lodder


(b Ivanovskoye, nr Moscow, April 24, 1889; d Moscow, May 25, 1924).

Russian painter and designer. She was born into a wealthy family and trained as a teacher before beginning her artistic studies with Stanislav Zhukovsky (1873–1944) and Konstantin Yuon. Their influence, particularly through their interest in luminous tonalities reminiscent of Impressionism, can be seen in early works by Popova such as Still-life with Basket of Fruit (1907–8; Athens, George Costakis Col.; see Rudenstine, pl. 725). Popova travelled extensively: in Kiev (1909) she was very impressed by the religious works of Mikhail Vrubel’; in Italy (1910) she admired Renaissance art, especially the paintings of Giotto. Between 1910 and 1911 she toured many parts of Russia, including Suzdal’, Novgorod, Yaroslavl’ and Pskov. Inspired by Russian architecture, frescoes and icons, she developed a less naturalistic approach. A more crucial influence was the first-hand knowledge of Cubism that she gained in Paris, which she visited with Nadezhda Udal’tsova during the winter of ...



Nicholas Wegner

[Svobodniye (gosudarstvenniye) khudozhestvenniye masterskiyeRus.: Free State Art Studios]

Art schools set up in several cities in the USSR, including Moscow and Petrograd (St Petersburg), after the October Revolution of 1917. The teaching was dominated by the avant-garde, including Futurists and Productivists, and the schools supported numerous artists in conditions of the harshest subsistence. In December 1918 the First Free Art Studio and the Second Free Art Studio were set up on the basis of, respectively, the Stroganov School of Applied Art and the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In November 1920 these merged to form Vkhutemas (Higher (State) Artistic and Technical Workshops).

J. Bowlt: ‘Russian Art in the 1920s’, Soviet Studies, 20/4 (1971), pp. 574–94J. Bowlt: Russian Art of the Avant-garde: Theory and Criticism, 1920–1934 (London and New York, 1976/R 1988)

Belogrud, Andrey

Brik, Osip

Drevin, Aleksandr

Efros, Abram

Grigor’yev, Boris

Kandinsky, Vasily, §2: Russia, 1914–21

Kobro, Katarzyna

Lebedev, Vladimir

Mansurov, Pavel