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Giancarlo Gentilini

(b Camerata, Florence, Sept 17, 1830; d Florence, June 29, 1868).

Italian sculptor. He began as a stonecutter in the quarries at Fiesole. He was sent by the learned printer Francesco Inghirami to study in Florence, first (1844–5) with Pio Fedi (1816–92) and then (1845–8) with Girolamo Torrini (d before 1858), with whom he collaborated on the statue of Donatello for the portico of the Uffizi. In line with the prominence of the Purismo movement in Florence in that period, Bastianini greatly admired Renaissance sculpture, which became his main source of inspiration. From 1848 to 1866 he was under contract to the antique dealer Giovanni Freppa (fl 1842–66), who supplied him with casts and models as well as a stipend in exchange for which he executed numerous neo-Renaissance works, especially busts and bas-reliefs, most of which were sold as authentic.

Among Bastianini’s first forgeries are two probably stone bas-reliefs: The Singer...


Vanina Costa

(b Nantes, Sept 17, 1907; d Paris, May 8, 1977).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman and poet. He moved in 1926 to Paris, where he became involved with Surrealism, soon afterwards publishing his first collection of poems, Opoponax (Paris, 1927). In 1934 he exhibited a series of automatic drawings, which were followed by images produced with the assistance of objets trouvés: in Street Object (1936; Paris, Pompidou), for instance, he placed a sheet of paper on the road and then drove a car over it so as to leave the imprint of the tyre tracks. Another work of this period consisted of a bus sign bearing the same letters as his initials, so that it could be read as his signature. He also produced assemblages in a Surrealist spirit, such as Morphology of Desire (wood, plaster, metal, candle and torch, 1934–7; Paris, Pompidou). After World War II Bryen turned increasingly towards painting, through which he became a leading exponent of ...


Françoise Jestaz

(b Verona or Parma, c. 1500–05; d ?Kraków, Aug 26, 1565).

Italian engraver, goldsmith and medallist, active also in Poland. He is first recorded in 1526 in the entourage of Marcantonio Raimondi in Rome. There the printer and publisher Baviera introduced him to Rosso Fiorentino, whose allegory Fury he engraved (b. 58). Caraglio continued to collaborate with Rosso and engraved several suites, such as the Labours of Hercules (b. 44–9), Pagan Divinities in Niches (b. 24–43) and Loves of the Gods (b.9–23; two after Rosso and eighteen after Perino del Vaga). After the Sack of Rome (1527), Caraglio took refuge in Venice, where he made engravings after Titian (b. 3, 64). His presence is recorded there until 1537.

By 1539 Caraglio was in Poland, probably at the recommendation of his friend Pietro Aretino, who had contacts in the court of Bona Sforza (1494–1557), wife of Sigismund I, King of Poland. By ...


Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...


Christine van Mulders

(b Antwerp, 1576; d Antwerp, March 29, 1650).

Flemish engraver and publisher, son of Philip Galle. He was also a pupil of his father. In 1596 he visited Rome with his brother Theodor and remained there perhaps until 1610, when he was in Antwerp and became a member of the city’s Guild of St Luke. Shortly thereafter he founded a school of engraving in the city where many notable artists trained. The oeuvre of Cornelis Galle (the elder) includes engravings after his own drawings as well as after compositions by other artists. During his stay in Rome, he made drawn copies of works by such artists as Raphael, Titian, Annibale Carracci, Giudo Reni and Jacopo Bassano, which he later used as preparatory designs for reproductive engravings after these Italian masters. Cornelis’s work for Rubens includes Judith Beheading Holofernes, known as the ‘Great Judith’ (Hollstein, no. 31), the Raising of the Cross (Hollstein, no. 58), the Passion (Hollstein, nos 85–105) and the illustrations for the ...


Christine van Mulders

(b Antwerp, bapt Feb 23, 1615; d Antwerp, Oct 18, 1678).

Flemish engraver and publisher, son of Cornelis Galle (the elder). He was a pupil of his father and became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1638–9. The engraved oeuvre of Cornelis Galle (the younger) is extensive and consists chiefly of prints after such artists as Rubens (e.g. ...


Christine van Mulders


(b Antwerp, bapt Sept 27, 1600; d Antwerp, Dec 20, 1676).

Flemish engraver, publisher and print dealer, son of Theodor Galle. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1627–8 and its dean in 1638–9. Although various engravings have been attributed to him, he was probably only their publisher. However, engravings after Rubens’s Crucifixion (Hollstein, no. 2) and ...


Christine van Mulders


(b Haarlem, 1537; d Antwerp, 12 or March 29, 1612).

Flemish draughtsman, engraver, publisher, print dealer, writer and historian. It is possible that he was a pupil in Haarlem of Dirk Volkertsz. Coornhert, but more than likely he was trained in the Antwerp workshop of Hieronymous Cock, who published Galle’s first prints in 1557 and for whom he worked for many years. Shortly after 1557 Philip Galle started his own publishing and print business, for which he travelled extensively: in 1560–61 he visited the southern Netherlands, France, Germany and Italy. After 1564 he settled in Antwerp, where he acquired citizenship in 1571, the same year in which he became a master in the city’s Guild of St Luke. He served as dean of the guild from 1585 to 1587. His documented pupils were H. van Doort in 1580, Karel van Mallery (1571–1635) in 1586, Jean-Baptiste Barbé (1578–1649) in 1594 and Peter Backereel (d 1637) in ...


Christine van Mulders


(b Antwerp, bapt July 16, 1571; d Antwerp, bur Dec 18, 1633).

Flemish engraver, publisher and print dealer, son of Philip Galle. He was a pupil of his father. In 1596 he was admitted to the Antwerp Guild of St Luke and about the same time established a print-selling business. He travelled to Italy with his brother Cornelis (the elder) in the same year. Theodor married the daughter of the Antwerp publisher Jan Moretus the elder and after his father’s death in 1612 took over the direction of the Galle workshop and publishing house. Theodor Galle was chiefly active as a publisher and print dealer. However, while in Rome, he engraved, after his own designs, the Imagines ex antiquis marmoribus, numismatibus et gemmis expressae (Hollstein, nos 226–376). He also reproduced compositions by others including Hans Bol (e.g. the Story of Abraham, Hollstein, nos 1–4), Joannes Stradanus (e.g. the History of the Romans, Hollstein, nos 390–95) and Peter Paul Rubens (e.g. the title-pages for the ...


Elisabeth Gurock

(b Strasbourg, 1573; d Brussels, 1645).

Flemish engraver, print publisher, sculptor and painter. His father, Jan van der Heyden (fl 1590; d before 1645), was a painter from Mechelen who left to settle in Strasbourg because of religious turmoil. Jacob trained in Brussels with Raphael Coxie (1540–1616), who was also from Mechelen; it seems probable, however, that Jacob continued to make his home in Strasbourg until 1635, subsequently moving to Brussels, where he worked until his death.

Van der Heyden’s extensive artistic activity extended over several genres. Among his documented paintings and sculptures were a painting of the Adoration of the Magi, listed in a Strasbourg catalogue of 1668, a Portrait of a Man with the Neck-chain of an Order (ex-Hollandt Col., Brunswick), and a gilt-bronze sculpture of Venus (all untraced). His principal work, however, lay in the domain of engraving and publishing. At the time when he founded his own publishing house, Strasbourg was a flourishing centre of graphic production. He published prints by numerous artists, including ...


Roberta K. Tarbell

(b Concarneau, June 29, 1890; d Cape Neddick, nr. Ogunquit, ME, April 20, 1970).

American sculptor and teacher of French birth. In 1901, the painter, writer, critic, gallery proprietor and publisher Hamilton Easter Field (1873–1922) brought Laurent to New York as his protégé and sponsored Laurent’s study of avant-garde art in Paris and Rome from 1905 to 1909. Laurent was intrigued by African art which he saw in Picasso’s studio, Cézanne’s paintings and the sculptures of Gauguin and Maillol. Except for a few painting lessons with Cubist Frank Burty Haviland (1886–1971), brother of Paul B. Haviland (associate editor of Camera Work), and American modernist Maurice Sterne, Laurent had little formal training. Field and Laurent founded a modern art school in Ogunquit, ME (1910), where Laurent taught each summer for the rest of his life. Field, Laurent and Marsden Hartley were among the first to collect folk art in Maine.

Laurent’s pioneering directly-carved wood sculptures include the primitivist relief ...


Roberta K. Tarbell

(b Concarneau, June 29, 1890; d Cape Neddick, nr Ogunquit, ME, April 20, 1970).

American sculptor and teacher of French birth. In 1901, the painter, writer, critic, gallery proprietor, and publisher Hamilton Easter Field (1873–1922) brought Laurent to New York as his protégé and sponsored Laurent’s study of avant-garde art in Paris and Rome from 1905 to 1909. Laurent was intrigued by African art which he saw in the studio of Pablo Picasso, the paintings of Paul Cézanne, and the sculptures by Paul Gauguin and Aristide Maillol. Except for a few painting lessons with Cubist Frank Burty Haviland (1886–1971), brother of Paul B. Haviland (associate editor of Camera Work), and American modernist Maurice Sterne, Laurent had little formal training. Field and Laurent founded a modern art school in Ogunquit, ME (1910), where Laurent taught each summer for the rest of his life. Field, Laurent, and Marsden Hartley were among the first to collect folk art in Maine....


M. N. Sokolov

(Mikhaylovich)[Chemiakin, Mihail]

(b Moscow, May 4, 1943).

Russian painter, graphic designer, sculptor and publisher. One of the most important representatives of the St Petersburg tradition of nonconformist art, he was born to a military family and spent his early years in the German Democratic Republic. His family returned to the USSR in 1957 and until 1961 he studied at the secondary school of art attached to the Il’ya Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Leningrad (now St Petersburg). His work combines the World of Art tradition with the surreal grotesque, portraying the world as a colourful carnival, intimidating in its terrifying metamorphoses, but drawing upon a wealth of artistic styles and psychologically striking tones. He was a master of the anarchic, bohemian life, and the poet Andrey Voznesensky (b 1933) described him as the ‘black prince of the Russian Underground’. After confrontations with the authorities, notably his participation in a group exhibition by underground artists of the ...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Bussai; Dokusō; Gakusen; Hanbutsu koji; Kyūsui Gyojin; Mandarakyo]

(b Kyoto, 1738; d Osaka, 1797).

Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from Kō Fuyō and was so successful in absorbing the characteristics of the Archaic school that he was known as ‘Fuyō’s shadow’. Together with Maegawa Kyoshū and Katsu Shikin, he was an important advocate of the Archaic school in the Naniwa (now Osaka) area (see Japan §XVII 20.).

Albums of seals he carved include the Rekiken sanbō inpu, Dokusōan in’in and the Gakusen in’in. Shii also researched the background to seal scholarship and wrote the works Insekikō (‘Thoughts on borrowed seals’) and Ingosan (‘Outline of seal terms’). The Insekikō, published posthumously in 1802, is a catalogue raisonné of Japanese and Chinese seal albums introduced to Japan at that time. It also assesses the state and level of seal scholarship. No such catalogue had hitherto been compiled, even in China, and it was highly praised. The ...


Adrian Lewis

(b Dundee, Jan 11, 1922; d London, Nov 15, 2012).

Scottish sculptor, painter and printmaker. He worked as an illustrator for a national periodical publisher in Dundee (1939–41) before wartime service in the RAF. He then studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, London, from 1946 to 1948 before spending two years in Paris. On his return to London he shared a studio with Eduardo Paolozzi, with whom he exhibited at the Hanover Gallery in 1950. Turnbull’s reputation grew with the generation of British sculptors acclaimed at the Venice Biennale of 1952. His interest in the interrelationship of blunt, self-evident components differed significantly, however, from the more psychological approach of his co-exhibitor in Venice, Reg Butler, and even, despite certain similarities and their close friendship, the metamorphic interests of Paolozzi. In the early 1950s Turnbull was involved with the Independent Group at the ICA, whose lectures on recent scientific, sociological and philosophical ideas interested Turnbull.

Turnbull’s early work used simple linear elements as basic signs, often implying play and movement. These were followed by paintings in which the motion of groups of figures was suggested by gestural line. The motif of the head as an object became predominant in the mid-1950s, for example in works entitled ...


Mark Stocker

(b Glasgow, Jan 21, 1869; d London, Nov 12, 1933).

Scottish sculptor. He studied at the Glasgow School of Art before selling his family publishing business and moving to London in 1890, where Hamo Thornycroft engaged him as an assistant while he studied at the Royal Academy Schools. Tweed’s admiration for the work of Rodin took him in 1893 to Paris, where he worked under Alexandre Falguière. Later that year he returned to London to execute his first major commission, a bronze relief of Jan van Riesbeeck (in situ) for Cecil Rhodes’s residence, Groote Schuur (Cape Town). Further African commissions followed, including a characterful bronze statue of Rhodes (1902; Bulawayo; bronze statuette version, Duke of Westminster priv. col.)

In 1901 Tweed was engaged to complete Alfred Stevens’s bronze equestrian figure for the Wellington Monument (London, St Paul’s Cathedral). His appointment aroused the hostility of Sir Edward Poynter, President of the Royal Academy, who considered Tweed an undesirable exponent of the ‘new art’, probably because of his allegiance to Rodin. The successful outcome, however, led to further large-scale commissions in London, such as bronze statues of ...


Richard Cork

British artistic and literary movement, founded in 1914 by the editor of Blast magazine, Wyndham Lewis, and members of the Rebel Art Centre . It encompassed not only painting, drawing and printmaking but also the sculpture of Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and Jacob Epstein and the photographs of Alvin Langdon Coburn. Notable literary allies were Ezra Pound, who coined the term Vorticism early in 1914, and T. S. Eliot. T. E. Hulme’s articles in The New Age helped to create a climate favourable to the reception of Vorticist ideas.

The arrival of Vorticism was announced, with great gusto and militant defiance, in a manifesto published in the first issue of Blast magazine, which also included work by Edward Wadsworth, Frederick Etchells, William Roberts and Jacob Epstein. Dated June 1914 but issued a month later, this puce-covered journal set out to demonstrate the vigour of an audacious new movement in British art. Vorticism was seen by Lewis as an independent alternative to Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism. With the help of ...


Morgan Falconer

(b London, Aug 17, 1943).

English conceptual artist and sculptor. He studied at Ealing School of Art (1962–3), began editing and publishing Control Magazine in 1965 and in 1972–3 was Director of the Centre for Behavioural Art in London. Consistently interested in art as an intervention in social patterns and identities, Willats frequently grounded his work in research-based projects. His early art, however, was more object-based. Light Modulator No. 2 (1962; see 1979–80 exh. cat., p. 13), for example, was a project for an outdoor public sculpture made of moving vertical panels, perspex and painted wood, through which people would pass and interact. Willats soon developed these more phenomenological and behavioural concerns into sets of problems concerned with social interaction and cognition. Another early work, Meta Filter (1973; Lyon, Mus. St Pierre A. Contemp.), demonstrates this: a very large installation organized around a large computer, it invites two participants to seek agreement over the meanings of a set of images and statements. Throughout his career Willats continued to design similar interactive projects aimed at encapsulating problems of social conflict. Often his exhibitions evolved out of complex research-based initiatives and extensive collaboration with the public. ...


Su-hsing Lin

[Yang Ying-feng]

(b Yi lang County, Taiwan, 1926; d Xin Zhu City, Taiwan, 1997).

Chinese sculptor, illustrator, environmental designer, and architect. Yang additionally made a great number of cartoons, illustrations, and cover designs between 1945 and 1961 while in charge of artistic design for the Fengnian zazhi (“Harvest Rural Periodical”). Yang’s early styles display great influence from not only artistic developments in China and Tokyo in the 1940s, such as Art Deco and the New Woodcut Movement, but also the political situation as well as artistic trends in Taiwan during the 1950s. Many graphic artworks by Yang collected in the Harvest Rural Periodical were devoted chiefly to secular themes. They could be regarded as important genre paintings of 1950s Taiwan.

From 1964 to 1966 Yang received an opportunity from Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan to study art in Italy. Three years of sojourn in Rome gave Yang a great understanding of Western art history and aesthetics, and an appreciation for the differences between the East and the West, historically, culturally, and artistically. Upon returning to Taiwan, Yang made the ancient Chinese concept of ...


Suzanne Elaine Wright

[Hu cheng-yen; zi Yuecong; hao Cigong, Moan laoren, Shizhuzhai zhuren]

(b Wenchangfang, Anhui Province, 1584/1585; d 1673/1674).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, seal-carver, printer, and publisher. He moved from Anhui province to Nanjing, the southern capital of the Ming, by 1619 and established a publishing concern there named Shizhuzhai (“Ten Bamboo Studio”). He produced ink, seals, and printed stationery paper, as well as books on subjects including medical practice, etymology, phonetics, poetry, and the works for which he is best known today: Shizhuzhai shuhuapu (“Ten Bamboo Studio handbook of calligraphy and painting”) and Shizhuzhai jianpu (“Ten Bamboo Studio handbook of letter papers”). After the death of the Chongzhen emperor (reg 1627–1644) and the fall of Beijing to the Manchus, a rump court was established in Nanjing in 1644. Because of Hu’s reputation as a practitioner of seal script and seal-carver, he was commissioned to create a state seal for the Hongguang emperor (reg 1645). Hu was offered a position as zhongshu sheren (“Drafter in the Secretariat”), but turned it down. After the Manchus occupied Nanjing in ...