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Article

Adams, Tate  

(b Holywood, County Down, Ireland, Jan 26, 1922).

Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between 1949 and 1951 Adams worked as an exhibition designer in London and studied wood-engraving with Gertrude Hermes in her evening class at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (now Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1951, after moving to Melbourne, Adams began a 30-year teaching commitment at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), where he instructed many of the younger generation of Australian printmakers, including George Baldessin and Jan Senbergs. A brief return to Britain and Ireland in 1957–8 provided experience with Dolmen Press, Dublin, which published his first book of engravings, ...

Article

Avont, Pieter van  

Jetty E. van der Sterre

(bapt Mechelen, Jan 14, 1600; d Deurne, Antwerp, Nov 1, 1652).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and printmaker . In 1622–3 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke, Antwerp. In 1625–6 he took on Peter van de Cruys (fl 1625–44) as his pupil, who was followed by Frans Wouters in 1629 and Wouters’s brother, Pieter Wouters (1617–after 1632), in 1631–2. In 1631 van Avont became a citizen of Antwerp.

A recurring motif in van Avont’s work is a group of figures dominated by children and putti; these appear in a variety of forms—the Infant Christ, John the Baptist, angels—in van Avont’s many pictures of the Holy Family. The figure groups in these pieces are often of the same type: angels paying tribute to the Virgin and Child. The grouping is identical in several paintings. Van Avont also used figures of children in his bacchanals and in such allegorical scenes as the Four Elements (Basle, Kstmus.) and ...

Article

Baltens [Balten; Balthazarszoon; Custodis], Peeter  

Jan Van der Stock

[Pieter]

(b Antwerp, c. 1526–28; d Antwerp, 1584).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, engraver and publisher. He was the son of the sculptor Balten Janszoon de Costere (fl 1524). In 1550 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp and in 1569 its dean. Primarily on the authority of van Mander, Baltens was long considered to be an inferior imitator of Bruegel family, §1 the elder. Baltens’s best-known work, the signed St Martin’s Day Kermis (e.g. versions Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), was formerly thought to be a free copy after Bruegel’s treatment of the subject, known through an engraving and the Gift of St Martin, a fragment on cloth (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). The relationship between Baltens and Bruegel is, however, more complicated. In 1551 they collaborated on an altarpiece (destr.) for the Mechelen Glovemakers. Baltens’s other works, for example the Ecce homo (Antwerp, Kon. Acad. S. Kst.), reveal that the two artists were closely associated: a group from the ...

Article

Beshkov, Il’ya  

Mariana Katzarova

(b Dolni Dŭbnik, nr Pleven, July 24, 1901; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1958).

Bulgarian cartoonist, illustrator, draughtsman, painter, teacher, editor and critic. In 1926 he studied painting at the Academy of Art, Sofia, and although he was later known for his paintings, he achieved greater fame as a political and social cartoonist and newspaper and magazine illustrator. His early cartoons are courageous commentaries on political events in Bulgaria from 1925 to 1934, wittily satirizing the monarchy and dictatorships. He also mocked the machinations of the various bourgeois political parties as they fought for power. Among his most celebrated cartoons are the Kidnapping of the Constitution and the Tsar’s Family, published in the Sofia newspapers Zemedelsko Zname and Sturetz, as well as Suvremennik and other left-wing publications. He also illustrated the series Spanish Chronicle (1936). In 1940 he began freelancing for the anti-Fascist satirical newspaper Sturshel (Sofia) and in 1941 became its editor. During World War II he executed many political cartoons opposing Fascism and Nazism (e.g. ...

Article

Boel, Pieter  

Arnout Balis

(b Antwerp, bapt Oct 22, 1622; d Paris, Sept 3, 1674).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher. He came from an artistic family: his father Jan Boel (1592–1640), was an engraver, publisher and art dealer; his uncle Quirin Boel I was an engraver; and his brother Quirin Boel II (1620–40) was also a printmaker. Pieter was probably apprenticed in Antwerp to Jan Fyt, but may have studied previously with Frans Snyders. He then went to Italy, probably visiting Rome and Genoa, where he is supposed to have stayed with Cornelis de Wael. None of Boel’s work from this period is known. In 1650 he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke (having given his first name as Jan, not Pieter). His marriage to Maria Blanckaert took place at about the same time. Boel dated only a few of his paintings, making it difficult to establish a chronology. He is best known for his hunting scenes, some of which clearly show his debt to Snyders, but the dominant influence on his work was that of Fyt, particularly evident in his emphatic brushwork. However, Boel was more restrained both in his treatment and in his handling of outline. He also borrowed the theme of open-air hunting still-lifes (e.g. ...

Article

Borcht, Pieter van der  

Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Mechelen, 1545; d Antwerp, 1608).

Flemish painter, engraver and draughtsman. His identity is confused: it is known that a painter called Pieter van der Borcht worked in Mechelen for the Antwerp publisher Christoph Plantin from 1564 onwards. From 1552 until at least 1592 this artist—referred to as Pieter van der Borcht IV by Hollstein and as Pieter van der Borcht II by Bénézit—made etchings as well as woodcuts with the inscription fecit petrus van der borcht.

In addition, there was a Pieter van der Borcht active in Mechelen, who, after 1552, made woodcuts which he signed p.b. Thus, either one artist had a steady output of woodcuts and etchings over a long career (1552–c. 1600) or there were a number of artists with the same name. The second hypothesis seems the more likely. It is supported by other facts. In 1580 a ‘Pieter Verborcht, painter’ became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp, of which he served as dean in ...

Article

Bryen, Camille  

Vanina Costa

(b Nantes, Sept 17, 1907; d Paris, May 8, 1977).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman and poet. He moved in 1926 to Paris, where he became involved with Surrealism, soon afterwards publishing his first collection of poems, Opoponax (Paris, 1927). In 1934 he exhibited a series of automatic drawings, which were followed by images produced with the assistance of objets trouvés: in Street Object (1936; Paris, Pompidou), for instance, he placed a sheet of paper on the road and then drove a car over it so as to leave the imprint of the tyre tracks. Another work of this period consisted of a bus sign bearing the same letters as his initials, so that it could be read as his signature. He also produced assemblages in a Surrealist spirit, such as Morphology of Desire (wood, plaster, metal, candle and torch, 1934–7; Paris, Pompidou). After World War II Bryen turned increasingly towards painting, through which he became a leading exponent of ...

Article

Havell family  

Patrick Conner

English family of artists. Daniel Havell (d ?1826) was an engraver and publisher of topographical and architectural works distinguished by a delicacy of line. He worked in London and was for a time in partnership with Robert Havell I (1769–1832), a painter, engraver and publisher. According to their descendants, Robert was undeniably Daniel’s son, though there is evidence to suggest that he may have been his uncle. The family firm engraved work by William Havell, a cousin of Daniel Havell, and a painter and traveller. Robert Havell I later became self-employed and set up in business for a time in Oxford Street with his son Robert Havell jr. In 1839 Robert Havell jr went to the USA at the invitation of John James Audubon, for whom he had engraved many of the plates for Birds of America. Ernest Binfield Havell, a great-nephew of William Havell, seems to have inherited the family love of travel and painting and became a distinguished art teacher in India and a scholar of Indian art....

Article

Sá Nogueira(Rolando de)  

Ruth Rosengarten

(b Lisbon, May 19, 1921).

Portuguese painter, printer, tapestry designer and illustrator. He studied architecture and painting, without completing either course, at the Escola Superior de Belas Artes in Lisbon. His early works show an affinity with Neo-Realism in their melancholic atmosphere and ironic depiction of daily life in Lisbon. This tendency was tempered by his love of Bonnard and interest in the abstract qualities of colour and light. A sojourn in London (1962–4) marked the beginning of a new phase in which a revivalism deriving from the influence of British Pop art overlaid his own innate nostalgic lyricism. The canvases treated with photosensitive emulsion of the late 1960s and early 1970s are of a greater eroticism and violence, and were followed by paintings on intimist themes with a local flavour and an emphasis on light.

M. T. Chicó, A. Vieira Santos and J.-A. Fraņca: Diccionário universal da pintura, 3 (Lisbon, 1973)

Article

Ponti, Gio(vanni)  

Guido Zucconi

(b Milan, Nov 18, 1891; d Milan, Sept 16, 1979).

Italian architect, painter, writer, designer and publisher. After serving in World War I, he graduated (1921) from the polytechnic in Milan, where he later held a professorship (1936–61). Working first (1923–7) with architects Mino Fiocchi and Emilio Lancia, and later (1927–33) in partnership with Lancia only, in his early years of practice he was attracted to the simplified classicism of the Novecento Italiano. As designer (1923–7) to the ceramic manufacturer Richard-Ginori he produced a porcelain that was exhibited at the first Monza Biennale (1923) and at the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925) in Paris, where the chairman of Cristoffle, Tony Bouilhet, commissioned him to make a new range of cutlery; he also asked him to design his villa (completed 1926) at Garches, Paris. This villa, together with the slightly earlier house (...

Article

Yang Yuyu  

Su-hsing Lin

[Yang Ying-feng]

(b Yi lang County, Taiwan, 1926; d Xin Zhu City, Taiwan, 1997).

Chinese sculptor, illustrator, environmental designer, and architect. Yang additionally made a great number of cartoons, illustrations, and cover designs between 1945 and 1961 while in charge of artistic design for the Fengnian zazhi (“Harvest Rural Periodical”). Yang’s early styles display great influence from not only artistic developments in China and Tokyo in the 1940s, such as Art Deco and the New Woodcut Movement, but also the political situation as well as artistic trends in Taiwan during the 1950s. Many graphic artworks by Yang collected in the Harvest Rural Periodical were devoted chiefly to secular themes. They could be regarded as important genre paintings of 1950s Taiwan.

From 1964 to 1966 Yang received an opportunity from Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan to study art in Italy. Three years of sojourn in Rome gave Yang a great understanding of Western art history and aesthetics, and an appreciation for the differences between the East and the West, historically, culturally, and artistically. Upon returning to Taiwan, Yang made the ancient Chinese concept of ...