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Hu Zhengyan  

Suzanne Elaine Wright

[Hu cheng-yen; zi Yuecong; hao Cigong, Moan laoren, Shizhuzhai zhuren]

(b Wenchangfang, Anhui Province, 1584/1585; d 1673/1674).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, seal-carver, printer, and publisher. He moved from Anhui province to Nanjing, the southern capital of the Ming, by 1619 and established a publishing concern there named Shizhuzhai (“Ten Bamboo Studio”). He produced ink, seals, and printed stationery paper, as well as books on subjects including medical practice, etymology, phonetics, poetry, and the works for which he is best known today: Shizhuzhai shuhuapu (“Ten Bamboo Studio handbook of calligraphy and painting”) and Shizhuzhai jianpu (“Ten Bamboo Studio handbook of letter papers”). After the death of the Chongzhen emperor (reg 1627–1644) and the fall of Beijing to the Manchus, a rump court was established in Nanjing in 1644. Because of Hu’s reputation as a practitioner of seal script and seal-carver, he was commissioned to create a state seal for the Hongguang emperor (reg 1645). Hu was offered a position as zhongshu sheren (“Drafter in the Secretariat”), but turned it down. After the Manchus occupied Nanjing in ...