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Alexanco, José Luis  

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...



Alfred Pacquement

[Fernandez, Armand]

(b Nice, Nov 17, 1928; d New York, Oct 22, 2005).

American sculptor and collector of French birth. Arman lived in Nice until 1949, studying there at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs from 1946 and in 1947 striking up a friendship with the artist Yves Klein, with whom he was later closely associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement. In 1949 he moved to Paris, where he studied at the Ecole du Louvre and where in an exhibition in 1954 he discovered the work of Kurt Schwitters, which led him to reject the lyrical abstraction of the period. In 1955 Arman began producing Stamps, using ink-pads in a determined critique of Art informel and Abstract Expressionism to suggest a depersonalized and mechanical version of all-over paintings. In his next series, the Gait of Objects, which he initiated in 1958, he took further his rejection of the subjectivity of the personal touch by throwing inked objects against the canvas.

Arman’s willingness to embrace chance was indicated by his decision in ...


Artschwager, Richard  

Marco Livingstone

(b Washington, DC, Dec 26, 1924; d in Albany, NY, Feb 9, 2013).

American sculptor and painter . He studied art in 1949–50 under Amédée Ozenfant in New York. During the 1950s he designed and made furniture in New York, but after a fire that destroyed most of the contents of his shop in 1958 he turned again to art, initially painting abstract pictures derived from memories of the New Mexican landscape.

Artschwager continued to produce furniture and, after a commission to make altars for ships in 1960, had the idea of producing sculptures that mimicked actual objects while simultaneously betraying their identity as artistic illusions. At first these included objets trouvés made of wood, overpainted with acrylic in an exaggerated wood-grain pattern (e.g. Table and Chair, 1962–3; New York, Paula Cooper priv. col., see 1988–9 exh. cat., p. 49), but he soon developed more abstract or geometrical versions of such objects formed from a veneer of formica on wood (e.g. Table and Chair...


Barker, Clive  

Marco Livingstone

(b Luton, Bedfordshire, Aug 29, 1940).

English sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at Luton College of Technology and Art from 1957 but abandoned the course in 1959, working instead on the assembly-line of the Vauxhall car factory in Luton for 18 months. The experience of helping to build beautiful, machine-made objects on the shop floor proved decisive on his choice of materials for his first sculptures in 1962: leather and chrome-plated metal. The idea of relying on specialist fabricators to achieve the best result made it easy for him to accept Marcel Duchamp’s notion of the ready-made, as applied to ordinary manufactured items designated as sculpture but not made by the artist’s own hands. Rather than simply taking things as he found them, however, Barker either commissioned fabricators to make them to his specifications as with his leather-clad Zip Boxes of 1962, which aligned him with Pop art or had the original objects recast or resurfaced so that the sculptures became non-functional surrogates for them. The techniques and materials he employed, the almost heroic elevation of the commonplace, the humorous touches and the acceptance of the banal and the kitsch all contribute to the provocative originality of Barker’s work of the 1960s and to its importance in anticipating and probably influencing the sculptures with which Jeff Koons made his name in the mid-1980s....


Blake, Peter  

Marco Livingstone

(b Dartford, Kent, June 25, 1932).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor. He studied at Gravesend Technical College and School of Art from 1946 to 1951, and from 1953 at the Royal College of Art, London, where he was awarded a First-Class Diploma in 1956. He then travelled through Europe for a year on a Leverhulme Research Award to study the popular and folk art that had already served him as a source of inspiration. While still a student Blake began producing paintings that openly testified to his love of popular entertainment and the ephemera of modern life, for example Children Reading Comics (1954; Carlisle, Mus. & A.G.), and which were phrased in a faux-naïf style that owed something to the example of American realist painters such as Ben Shahn. In these works Blake displayed his nostalgia for dying traditions not only by his preference for circus imagery but also by artificially weathering the irregular wooden panels on which he was then painting. His respect for fairground art, barge painting, tattooing, commercial art, illustration and other forms of image-making rooted in folkloric traditions led him to produce some of the first works to which the term ...


Boshier, Derek  

Marco Livingstone

(b Portsmouth, June 19, 1937).

English painter, sculptor, photographer and printmaker. He studied painting and lithography at Yeovil School of Art in Somerset (1953–7), Guildford College of Art (1957–9) and the Royal College of Art, London (1959–62), where he was one of the students associated with Pop art. Like R. B. Kitaj and David Hockney, Boshier juxtaposed contrasting styles within his paintings, but he favoured topical subject-matter such as the space race, political events and the Americanization of Europe. The satirical edge of such paintings as Identi-kit Man (1962; London, Tate), which pictured the threat posed by advertising to individual identity, was prompted by his reading of Marshall McLuhan, Vance Packard and other commentators. In the autumn of 1962 Boshier went to India on a one-year scholarship, producing paintings based on Indian symbolism (accidentally destr.). Returning to England he adopted a hard-edged geometric style, often using shaped canvases, abandoning overt figuration but continuing to allude through form to architectural structures and to the grid plans of cities....



Alfred Pacquement

[Baldaccini, César]

(b Marseille, Jan 1, 1921; d Paris, Dec 6, 1998).

French sculptor. He came from a working-class environment and spent his childhood in Marseille, where he studied from 1935 to 1943 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under a sculptor who had worked as a stonecutter for Auguste Rodin. In 1943, on gaining admission to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he completed his studies in 1950, he settled permanently in the capital, discovering the work of sculptors such as Constantin Brancusi, Alberto Giacometti and Germaine Richier; he was also impressed by the iron sculpture of Pablo Gargallo. César’s first sculptures, made of plaster and iron and dating from 1947–8, were in an academic style but in materials that consciously rejected Classical tradition. These were followed by works made of repoussé lead and soldered wire. Guided by a concern for economy, César assembled disparate elements including waste lead, copper pipe and other industrial metal scrap soldered or welded together so as to retain their rough appearance. In the first such sculptures, for example ...


Dine, Jim  

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...


Goode, Joe  

Tom Williams

(b Oklahoma City, OK, March 23, 1937).

American painter and sculptor. During the late 1950s he moved from Oklahoma City to Los Angeles and attended the Chouinard Art Institute (1959–61) with his childhood friend Ed Ruscha. He subsequently became associated with the emerging Pop art movement when his paintings of milk bottles appeared in Walter Hopps’s 1962 exhibition New Paintings of Common Objects at the Pasadena Art Museum.

Although Goode’s work has often been compared to that of such Pop artists as Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, it shares little of their preoccupation with either the mass media or technological reproduction. In many respects, his paintings and sculptures have much more in common with the work of Jasper Johns than they do with advertisements and consumer objects. In particular, his work develops the tension between the object and the image that was so central to Johns’s flag and target paintings during the late 1950s. In his milk bottle paintings, for example, he positioned painted bottles in front of low-hung, nearly monochrome canvases to explore the dynamic between the painting as an illusion and a decorative backdrop. During the late 1960s, he also constructed a series of staircases that ran up the walls or into the corners of the gallery. These works made coy reference to the recession of pictorial space in perspectival painting (not to mention Marcel Duchamp’s ...


Hains, Raymond  

Vanina Costa

(b St Brieuc, Côtes-du-Nord, Nov 9, 1926; d Paris, Oct 28, 2005).

French décollagist, photographer and sculptor. He began taking photographs in 1944 and in the following year, while studying sculpture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Rennes, met the French artist Jacques de la Villeglé (b 1926) with whom he worked collaboratively from 1950 to 1953. In 1949 Hains produced his first pictures using the technique of Décollage, ripping off the successive layers of posters found on city walls (for illustration see Nouveau Réalisme and Untitled, 1990). Although the emphasis in these works is often on abstract qualities of texture and colour, he had a particular eye for fragments of text and for their political implications, as in Peace in Algeria (375×325 mm, 1956; Paris, Ginette Dufrêne priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., p. 151). These works were first shown in 1957 alongside those of de la Villeglé, in an exhibition, Loi du 29 juillet 1881 (Paris, Gal. Colette Allendy), named after the law banning the display of posters; they led to his becoming one of the founder members of ...


Hay, Alex  

Julia Robinson

(b Valrico, FL, 1930).

American performance artist and sculptor. Hay started out in the performance scene at Judson Memorial Church in downtown New York City in the early 1960s. He arrived in New York from Florida in 1959, after studying at the Florida State University (1953–8). His wife, the dancer Deborah Hay, was a key figure in the Judson Dance Theater, launched in the summer of 1962, and Alex Hay performed in many of its productions. In the early 1960s he assisted Robert Rauschenberg on set designs for Merce Cunningham, and danced with him with roller-skates and parachutes in Rauschenberg’s now famous performance piece Pelican (1963). After these collaborations, Hay was invited to participate in 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering at New York’s 69th Regiment Armory (fall 1966). This initiative, conceived by Rauschenberg with critical contributions from the engineer Billy Klüver, was an idealistic effort to pair artists with engineers, to merge art and new technologies. That project evolved into ...


Indiana [Clark], Robert  

Kristine Stiles

(b New Castle, IN, Sept 13, 1928).

American painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1949–53), the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine (summer 1953) and Edinburgh University and Edinburgh College of Art (1953–4), before settling in New York in 1954. There in the late 1950s he began assembling wood sculptures from found materials, often stencilling painted words on to them, as in Moon (h. 1.98 m, 1960; New York, MOMA). He called these works Herms after the quadrangular, stone stelae guardian figures that served as signposts in crossroads in ancient Greece and Rome. Indiana called himself a ‘sign painter’ to suggest the humble origins of his artistic activity in the American work ethic and to indicate his fascination with the use of words in signs. Joining his interest in Americana with the formal and signifying elements of signs, he visualized the superficial and illusory American Dream in paintings characterized by flat bright colours and clearly defined contours influenced by the hard-edge paintings by friends such as Ellsworth Kelly and Jack Youngerman....


Jacquet, Alain  

Elisabeth Lebovici

(b Neuilly-sur-Seine, nr Paris, Feb 22, 1939; d New York, Sept 4, 2008).

French painter, sculptor and printmaker. He briefly studied architecture in 1960 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris but was self-taught as a painter. Sympathetic to Nouveau Réalisme but wishing to counter the lyricism of Art informel in the context of painting, he adopted a cool representational style, often using clichéd imagery. Such works brought him within the orbit of Pop art. Among his first paintings exhibited at the 2e Biennale de Paris (Paris, Mus. A. Mod. Ville Paris, 1961) next to an installation by Martial Raysse were visual puns on several vividly coloured compositions entitled Jeu de Jacquet (1961; see 1978 exh. cat.), a pun on his name and the game of backgammon, on which he based their formats. In 1962 he instituted a series of paintings entitled Camouflages, in which he superimposed a vulgar symbol on to a reproduction of a work of art: a Shell petrol pump on Botticelli’s Venus (...


Johns, Jasper  

Michael Crichton

(b Augusta, GA, May 15, 1930).

American painter, sculptor, and printmaker. With Robert Rauschenberg, he was one of the leading figures in the American Pop art movement, and he became particularly well known for his use of the imagery of targets, flags, maps, and other instantly recognizable subjects. Although he attended the University of South Carolina for over a year, and later briefly attended an art school in New York, Johns is considered a self-taught artist. His readings in psychology and philosophy, particularly the work of Wittgenstein; his study of Cézanne, Duchamp, Leonardo, Picasso, and other artists; and his love of poetry have all found expression in his work. His attention to history and his logical rigour led him to create a progressive body of work.

In 1954, after a dream, Johns painted a picture of the American flag (see fig.). At the time he was living in New York, as a struggling young artist. During the three years that followed, Johns painted more flags, as well as targets, alphabets, and other emblematic, impersonal images. None of this work was formally exhibited until ...


Jones, Allen  

Marco Livingstone

(b Southampton, Sept 1, 1937).

English painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied at Hornsey College of Art, London (1955–9, 1960–61), spending 1959–60 at the Royal College of Art, where he was associated with the rise of Pop art. Like Hockney and Kitaj he mixed conflicting styles, for instance in the Battle of Hastings (1961–2; London, Tate), but he drew less from contemporary culture than from the colour abstractions of Kandinsky and Robert Delaunay. Klee’s writings encouraged him to adopt a pedagogical approach, as shown in his representation of movement through canvas shape in 3rd Bus (1962; Birmingham, Mus. & A.G.). Motivated by the theories of Jung and Nietzsche, he began in paintings such as Hermaphrodite (1963; Liverpool, Walker A.G.) to depict fused male/female couples as metaphors of the creative act. While living in New York (1964–5) he discovered a rich fund of imagery in sexually motivated popular illustration of the 1940s and 1950s. Henceforth, in paintings such as ...


King, William  

Deborah A. Middleton


(b Jackson, FL, 1925; d East Hampton, NY, March 4, 2015).

American sculptor. King’s figurative human representations are recognized for their often humorous character models, which blend smooth and rough surfaces to form a unique signature style. King’s sculptures are identified as Pop art and abstraction, and are represented by a diverse range of scales from the miniature to the monumental and executed with a versatile range of media, from clay to ceramics, wood, and welded or bent metals. His early influences were Isamu Noguchi and Elie Nadelman.

King attended the University of Florida between 1942–4, and moved to New York in 1945 to study at Cooper Union where he graduated in 1948 and continued studies in art at the Brooklyn Museum Art School in New York. King traveled to Europe on a Fulbright Grant to study in Rome Italy (1949–50) and in London at the Central School (1952). King’s first solo exhibition of sculpture was in ...


Klasen, Peter  

John-Paul Stonard

(b Lübeck, Aug 18, 1935).

German painter and sculptor. He studied at the Hochschule der Bildenden Künste, Berlin (1956–9), where he met the painter Georg Baselitz. In 1959 he won a scholarship to study in Paris, where he remained. Klasen’s paintings, assemblages and sculptures frequently contain motifs taken from late 20th-century industrial society, exploring the tension between human life and an inhumane, potentially threatening, technology. His paintings of the 1960s were composed as collages and executed with an airbrush, often portraying female pin-ups, whose body fragments are captured in abstract diagrams and divided by elements of consumer technology. The strong graphic sense of these works indicated an affinity with advertising images, but primarily with Pop art, in particular the varied work of James Rosenquist, Richard Hamilton and Sigmar Polke. In 1964 Klasen exhibited with Gerhard Richter in the Galerie Friedrich, Munich, in one of the first displays of Pop art in Germany. Towards the end of the decade Klasen simplified his compositions, developing a strong sense of design using an up-front picture plane, often based on a flat metal surface articulated with switches, symbols, and other emblems of industrial technology. The immediacy of his images was enhanced by the addition of objects, either stuck to the paintings themselves or included as part of an overall installation. The female nudes and references to the human form were replaced in the early 1970s by metal grids and covers, the backs of industrial transporters, shut and locked tight....


Klein, Yves  

Ulrike Lehmann

(b Nice, April 28, 1928; d Paris, June 6, 1962).

French painter, sculptor, performance artist and writer.

He was the son of the Dutch-born painter Fred Klein (b 1898), whose work was representational, and Marie Raymond (b 1908), who developed a reputation in the 1950s as an abstract artist, and whose abstraction was influential on the development of her son’s work. Although he had had no formal art training, he was already making his first serious attempts at painting by 1946 and showing his interest in the absoluteness of colour by formulating his first theories about monochrome. In 1946 he befriended Arman, with whom he was later to be associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement, and the writer Claude Pascal, whom he met at a judo class. Together they developed their interest in esoteric writing and East Asian religions. Klein became a student of the Rosicrucian Fellowship in 1946 and was influenced both by its mystical philosophy and by judo. In ...


Laing, Gerald  

John-Paul Stonard


(b Newcastle upon Tyne, Feb 11, 1926; d Black Isle, Nov 23, 2011).

English painter and sculptor. Laing attended the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst (1953–5), and served in the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers (1955–60). He then studied at St Martin’s School of Art, London (1960–4), receiving swift recognition as part of a generation of British Pop artists in his final year. For the following five years he lived and worked as a painter and sculptor in New York, and in 1965 was artist in residence at the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, Colorado. In the early 1960s he made figurative Pop art paintings such as Brigitte Bardot (1963; oil on canvas, 1.83×1.14 m, London, coll. Roddy Maude Roxby) and then, from 1965, produced highly finished abstract painting and sculpture. Several, including Indenty (1965; lacquer on aluminium, chrome plates on brass, 2.13×3.66 m, Aspen, CO, coll. John G. Powers) were shown in the important exhibition Primary Structures...


Lichtenstein, Roy  

Ernst A. Busche

(b New York, Oct 28, 1923; d New York, Sept 29, 1997).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, and decorative artist. His paintings based on the motifs and procedures of comic strips and advertisements made him one of the central figures of American Pop art.

He first studied under Reginald Marsh in a summer course at the Art Students League, New York, in 1939, continuing from 1940 to 1943 at Ohio State University in Columbus. He was particularly influenced by the teaching of Hoyt L. Sherman, a late Fauvist painter, designer, and architect who introduced his students to modernism in a period dominated by American Scene painting. Sherman was interested in the psychology of perception and problems of pictorial representation. In his teaching he insisted that the act of representation should be separated from everyday experience and considered solely for its formal qualities, as an ‘abstraction’.

After military service in Europe in World War II Lichtenstein returned to Columbus in 1946, completing his Master of Fine Arts in ...