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Amiet, Cuno  

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 March 1868, in Solothurn; died 1961, in Oschwand (Bern).

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, sculptor. Figure compositions, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes.

Die Brücke group. School of Pont-Aven.

Cuno Amiet began his artistic training under Frank Buchser in Feldbrunnen from 1884 to 1886. From 1886 to 1888 he trained at the academy of fine art in Munich. From 1888 to 1891 he trained under the guidance of William Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury at the Académie Julian in Paris. Up to that point he had been influenced by Impressionism, which was still very much in evidence. Then in 1892, he went to Pont-Aven and made contact with O'Connor, Émile Bernard, Sérusier and Armand Seguin. They introduced him to the ideas and techniques suggested by Gauguin to those who would soon be classed as the École de Pont-Aven. They would also call themselves 'Nabis'....


Beerman, Miriam  

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1923, in Providence (Rhode Island).

Painter, printmaker. Figures, animals, beasts.

Figurative Expressionism.

Miriam Beerman studied painting with John Frazier at Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) and received her BFA in 1945. After RISD, Beerman studied with Japanese-American painter Yasuo Kuniyoshi at the Art Students League in New York, and Latvian-American abstract painter Adja Yunkers at the New School for Social Research. Beerman also spent two years in France on a Fulbright Scholarship (1954–1956), where she briefly studied at Atelier 17 in Paris. In the 1960s, Beerman and her husband moved to Brooklyn, New York, and she gave birth to her son Bill. Beerman had a one-woman show in 1971 at the Brooklyn Museum called The Enduring Beast. It was an aptly titled show for an artist whose work deals with human tragedy and who had witnessed the horrors of contemporary post–World War II society. The family lived in Brooklyn for 13 years before moving to Montclair, New Jersey, where she lived, worked, and taught painting for many years. In ...


Carréga, Nicolas  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 21 February 1914, in Bonifacio, Corsica; died 1992.

Painter, sculptor, lithographer, engraver.

Carréga attended art classes in studios around Montparnasse. His work is figurative with Expressionist undertones. Initially, he drew inspiration from the sea but as time went on his work became increasingly abstract and he started employing large areas of flatly-applied colour against transparent backgrounds....


Dean, Peter  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 8 June 1934, in Berlin; died 14 March 1993, in New York.

Painter, printmaker. Figures, portraits, landscapes, animals, mythology.

Figurative Expressionism, Political Art.

Rhino Horn Group.

Peter Dean was born to Jewish parents during the rise of the Nazi regime. In 1938, when he was four years old, his family left Berlin and moved to the United States. They settled in the Bronx where Dean was raised. Dean received his bachelor’s degree in geology from the University of Wisconsin in 1956. There he studied art history and became passionate about painting, although he never took a studio art class. After graduation, he was hired as a mining engineer for the Anaconda Copper Company in Montana and Nevada. Dean meanwhile devoted his free time to painting.

Dean moved back to New York in 1962 with a desire to be a full-time painter. He studied with French painter André Girard at the City College of New York. During the late 1960s, Dean co-founded two artist groups that were motivated by political art. The first, called the Torque Group, was founded in ...


Désiro, Jean-Pol  

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1949.

Painter, engraver, lithographer.

Désiro went through a major Expressionist period. His Crucifixion in Red ( Crucifixion en Rouge) shows the painter in a studio cluttered with paintings, in the middle of painting or crucifying a larger than life, suffering Christ. In his later work, he gave his abstract compositions a circular dynamism....


Detoni, Marijan  

Croat, 20th century, male.

Born 1905, in Križevci.

Painter, engraver.

Marijan Detoni studied at the academy in Zagreb, where he became professor in 1945. His first works were close to Expressionism, and revealed a profound anguish and violent social satire. After World War II, he adhered to the doctrine of Socialist Realism. He then evolved towards a somewhat abstract kind of painting, evoking complex imaginary worlds....


Ganay, Sébastien de  

French, 20th century, male.


Sébastien de Ganay first exhibited in Paris in a solo exhibition at the Galerie Jacqueline Moussion.

His work is suggestive of Abstract Expressionism but is based on an original process. He covers the stretcher with sheets of plastic film containing paint and waits for several weeks for the colour to set....


Grub, Émile  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 11 February 1893, in Metz; died 1983.

Painter, engraver.

Grub's style is Expressionistic.


Grus, Jaroslav  

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in Pardubice.

Painter, illustrator, engraver.

Jaroslav Grus studied with H. Schwaigra at the academy of arts in Prague. A figurative painter influenced by the Fauvist and Expressionist movements in Central Europe, he also executed engravings and illustrated books. He participated in numerous exhibitions of Czech painting....


Haas, Aad de  

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1920, in Rotterdam; died 1972, in Schaesberg.

Painter, engraver.

Aad de Haas's art is connected to an Expressionism deriving directly from the German School, where religion and sexuality are closely intermingled. His painting is defined by a fantastical interpretation of familiar subjects. He exhibited from ...


Heckel, Erich  

German, 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1883, in Döbeln (Saxony); died 1970, in Radolfzell.

Painter, engraver.

Die Brücke group.

Erich Heckel studied architecture at the technical university in Dresden in 1904–1905; his fellow students included Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Fritz Bleyl, and Karl Schmitt-Rottluf. As a group, they were passionate about the ferment of artistic expression resulting from the Munich Jugenstil movement, which would later come to be regarded as one of the wellsprings of 20th century art. Heckel settled in Berlin on his return from World War I, having served in the medical corps in Belgium for the duration. In 1937, the Nazis confiscated 729 of his canvases, declaring his work ‘degenerate’. During World War II, his studio was destroyed in a bombardment in 1944, and he then settled in Hemmenhofen. After the war, he was appointed professor at the academy of arts in Karlsruhe from either 1945 or 1949 to 1954....


Himmelfarb, John  

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver.

John Himmelfarb is an architecture graduate from Harvard University. He is an exponent of Abstract Expressionism whose development of line has been described as 'dramatic'. His often calligraphic drawings and paintings spring from jazz rhythms or an allusive imagery. Himmelfarb is best known for the gigantism of his 'works in progress' executed in full view of the public, much in the way of a performance. He has benefited from grants from the National Education Association and the Pollock-Krasner Foundation. He has shown his works in solo exhibitions mostly in the Midwest but also at the University of Connecticut, Fairfield, and at the Centre for Contemporary Art, Christchurch, New Zealand....


Hirsch, Karl Jakob  

German, 20th century, male.

Born 13 November 1892, in Hanover.

Painter, engraver.

Karl Hirsch studied in Munich, Berlin and Paris. After World War I, he was part of the Expressionist movement in Germany.


Klee, Paul  

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany and Switzerland.

Born 18 December 1879, in Münchenbuchsee; died 29 June 1940, in Muralto, near Locarno.

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, watercolourist.

Die Blaue Vier, Der Blaue Reiter, Bauhaus..

Paul Klee’s German father was a singing teacher, and his half-French, half-Swiss mother was also very musical. Klee himself played the violin and toyed with the idea of a career in music. In 1898, having hesitated between music and painting, he chose painting. He went to Munich, where he studied at Heinrich Knirr’s free academy (1898–1900). He then went to Franz von Stuck’s studio at the Munich Academy (1900–1901). In 1901, he travelled to Italy for the first time with the sculptor Hermann Haller. There he admired Roman architecture and sculpture, the ruins of Pompeii, the work of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, and the work of Raphael in the Stanze della Segnatura, although he preferred Leonardo da Vinci over both. In 1902, he settled in Bern, before moving to Munich in 1906, the year he married his wife, Lily Stumpf, a pianist. She earned their livelihood giving piano lessons, and the two gave small concerts for their own pleasure and that of their close friends, as well as attending many classical concerts at the city’s concert halls. He was only ever attracted to traditional classical music and did not like the music of the composers of the Vienna School, such as Arnold Schönberg or Alban Berg, although he knew them personally. During this period he admired Aubrey Beardsley and James Ensor....


Lemoine, Benoît  

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1961.

Painter, draughtsman, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Artists' books.

Benoît Lemoine graduated from the École Nationale des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1983. Initially Expressionist and Kinetic, his work developed into a form of Gestural Abstraction, consisting of signs and writings. His canvases are often painted on slightly eccentric cross-shaped stretchers and composed of canvases that have been assembled or placed close together. He has illustrated many books, such as ...


Mueller, Otto  

German, 20th century, male.

Born 16 October 1874, in Liebau (Silesia); died 24 September 1930, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Painter, lithographer. Figures, nudes, figure compositions.

Groups: Die Brücke, Arbeitsrat für Kunst.

Otto Mueller's gypsy mother was raised in the home of the authors Carl and Gerhart Hauptmann. Her origins would prove a recurrent theme throughout his career. Mueller studied lithography in Görlitz from 1880 to 1894, then studied until 1896 at the academy in Dresden and under Franz von Stuck in Munich. Between 1894 and 1896, Mueller lived alternately in Switzerland and Italy and also spent time in Munich, Dresden and Liebau. He eventually settled in Berlin in 1908, meeting the sculptor Wilhelm Lehmbruck and the painter Erich Heckel. Mueller was excluded from the Secession in 1910 and aligned himself with ...


Muller, Bruno  

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1929, in Basel.

Painter, engraver.

Bruno Muller studied for a year with Pierre Francastel at the École des Hautes Études in Paris. He evolved an Expressionist style which took on a progressively Abstract Expressionist flavour, with large, violently coloured, concise forms which bring to mind not the content but the sculptural vocabulary of Pouget or Cristoforou. He produced single designs....


Münter, Gabriele  

German, 20th century, female.

Born 19 February 1877, in Berlin; died 19 May 1962, in Murnau.

Painter, engraver. Portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes.

Der Blaue Reiter group.

After attending drawing courses in Düsseldorf in 1897, Gabriele Münter continued her artistic studies in Munich from May 1901 at the Künstlerinnen-Verein (association for women painters) in Munich, the academy there being restricted to men at that time. In 1902, she entered the Die Phalanx School, run by Wassily Kandinsky, under whose guidance she studied. She initially followed Wilhelm Hüsgen’s courses, then those of Kandinsky, who was responsible for the painting class (still-lifes, portraiture, landscapes, nudes). She became intimate with Kandinsky, travelling with him from 1904 to 1908 – a one-month trip to Holland, the winter 1904–1905 in Tunisia, summer 1905 in Dresden, winter 1905–1906 in Rapallo, followed by Sèvres near Paris where she remained for a whole year. In summer 1908 she was in Murnau (Upper Bavaria) with Kandinsky, Alexei Jawlensky, and his companion Marianne Werefkin. She bought a house there, under Kandinsky’s influence. They stayed there intermittently together or alone until ...


Nolde, Emil  

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 August 1867, in Nolde; died 13 April 1956, in Siekbüll (Schleswig).

Painter, engraver, lithographer, sculptor. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, landscapes, seascapes.

Die Brücke, Dachau Artists’ Colony.

The son of a farmer, Emil Nolde’s early economic and social conditions were not conducive to an artistic career. He developed his talents as an apprentice woodcarver from 1884 to 1888 in Flensburg, with Heinrich Sauermann. He then worked as a designer in furniture factories in Munich, Karlsruhe, and Berlin. It was in Karlsruhe, from 1888, that he took up drawing and painting, initially at evening classes, then full-time at the Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Arts and Crafts). From 1889 to 1892, he lived in Berlin, where he worked as a design draughtsman for the Pfaff furniture factory. In 1892, he taught ornamental draughtsmanship at the Gewerbemuseum at St Gall, Switzerland, where he stayed for seven years. It was here that he began to draw and paint watercolours of landscapes and faces in his spare time....


Pasqualini, Wilma  

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 1930, in Rio de Janeiro.

Painter, collage artist, engraver.

Pasqualini studied engraving with Friedländer. As well as her painting, which is both figurative and Expressionist, she has sometimes created collages using various materials, such as cotton and nylon.