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Romanian, 20th century, male.

Born 14 September 1938, in Bucharest; died 4 December 2000, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor. Church interiors, landscapes, architectural views, still-lifes.

Conceptual Art.

Horia Bernea studied mathematics and physics at the University of Bucharest from 1955 to 1958, then followed courses at the city's school of architecture ...


British, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Sheffield.

Sculptor, assemblage artist. Multimedia, artists’ books.

Conceptual Art.

Victor Burgin attended the Royal Academy of Art in London from 1962 to 1965 and Yale School of Art and Architecture from 1965 to 1967. He taught for a number of years at the Film and Photography School of Central London Polytechnic (now the University of Westminster). After spending 13 years in the USA, he returned to London and taught at Goldsmiths College. In addition to his work as an artist, he has also published several books on the theory of art. He is acknowledged as one of the driving forces behind the British photography school founded on semiology and psychoanalysis (rather than on sociology or the history of ideas)....


Filipino, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines; died 13 April 2013.

Painter, conceptual artist.

Roberto Chabet studied architecture at the University of Santo Tomas and graduated in 1961, the year he held his first solo exhibition, at the Luz Gallery. He achieved early critical success when he won first prize for his painting ...


German, 20th century, male.

Born 15 January 1955, in Leipzig, Germany.

Photographer. Landscapes, architecture, genre scenes.

Conceptual Art.

Düsseldorf School of Photography.

The son of a commercial photographer, Andreas Gursky attended the Folkwangschule, Essen, from 1978 to 1981 and studied under Bernd and Hilla Becher at the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf (1981–1987). His work has both a taxonomic and conceptual thrust. His large-scale photographs of crowds, stock exchanges, and nighttime high-rise buildings of late capitalism have formal similarities to Abstract Expressionist ‘all-over’ paintings. Likewise, his photographs of the Rhine at Düsseldorf, composed of horizontal bands and devoid of figures or structures, can be read as abstract paintings. From the 1990s Gursky began to digitally manipulate his photographs. Gursky lives and works in Düsseldorf.

1986, 7 Fotografien, Galerie Rüdiger Schöttle, Munich

1989, In Between and Beyond, Powerplant, Toronto

1989, 1995, International Foto Triennale, Esslingen

1990, 2004, Venice Biennale

1992, Doubletake, Hayward Gallery, London...


German, 20th century, female.

Born 4 February 1944, in Eberswalde, Germany.

Photographer. Architectural photography. Photobooks.

Conceptual Art.

Düsseldorf School of Photography.

From 1968, Candida Höfer worked as a portrait photographer for newspapers. She studied photography under Bernd and Hilla Becher at the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf (1973–1976). They influenced the absence of people from her photographs, her typological agenda in creating series, and her elevated straight-on viewpoint, but her use of colour was a major departure from their work. In 1979 she started to take photographs in colour of the interiors of public buildings, such as museums, libraries, opera houses, emptied of people—often grouped in series. But she has also taken photographs of zoos and artworks—whether of installations of Rodin’s Burghers of Calais or of On Kawara’s ‘Date Paintings’. She is based in Cologne.

1976, Nachbarschaft, Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf

1982, Work by Young Photographers from Germany, Art Galaxy, New York



Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, in Achel.

Painter, potter.

Neo-Constructivism, Conceptual Art.

Research Group.

Jos Jans was educated at the provincial institute of architecture and the applied arts in Hasselt. He was a founder member of the Research Group . Jans was awarded the Limbourg fine arts prize in ...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1922.


Conceptual Art.

Matsuzawa Yutaka graduated in architecture from Waseda University, Tokyo, in 1946. In 1955 he went to the USA, where he spent two years studying the philosophy of religion at Columbia University and gave up architecture. In ...


British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 29 July 1943, in Huddersfield; died 23 January 2004, in London.

Sculptor, installation artist.

Conceptual Art.

Carl Plackman worked as an architect's apprentice (1959-1960), studied history and mathematics in Bath (1960-1962), then studied art at West of England College of Art in Bristol (...



Italian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1947, in Leonforte (Sicily).

Painter, collage artist. Figures, portraits, architectural views, still-lifes.

Conceptual Art, Body Art.

Salvator Mangione, known as Salvo, settled in Turin. In 1969 in his 12 Self-portraits he added pieces cut from photographs to his own painted portrait so that he appeared as an American soldier in Vietnam, a German SS officer or a Cuban guerrilla. During this period, working in a conceptual mode, he engraved his name or statements about his name on precious metals. After ...


Polish, 20th century, male.

Active since 1977 in the USA.

Born 1943, in Warsaw.

Sculptor, assemblage artist, intervention artist, draughtsman.

Conceptual Art.

Krzystof Wodiczko studied in the design and interior architecture section of the academy of fine art in Warsaw. In the 1960s he taught at the technology institute in Warsaw. He initially settled in Canada, then in New York. He taught at the school of fine art in Paris in ...