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Alberti, Pier Francesco  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born 1584, in Borgo San Sepolcro; died 1638, in Rome.

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects.

Son of Durante Alberti and brother of Alberto Alberti; studied in his father's studio and went on to produce paintings that hang in the cathedral of his native town, in San Giovanni and in Rome. Among these is an ...


Alberti, Romano  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Rome.

Born 1593, in Borgo San Sepolcro.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, art theorist. Religious subjects. Frescoes.

Served as Secretary to the Accademia di San Luca in Rome (founded by Zuccharo). In 1585, he published in Rome a benchmark Treatise on the Noble Art of Painting...


Antonelli, Vincenzo  

Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Romec.1775.

Painter, engraver (burin), sculptor. Religious subjects. Statues.

Antonelli's work includes Halt During the Flight into Egypt (after Maratti), Christ on the Mount of Olives (Correggio), a Madonna and Child (Trevisani), and copies of various statues from the basilica of St Peter's....


Armstead, Henry Hugh  

British, 19th century, male.

Born 18 June 1828, in London; died 4 December 1905.

Sculptor, engraver, metal worker, draughtsman. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, figures. Busts.

Henry Armstead studied at the Royal Academy in London and became a member of the Academy in 1875. He exhibited a large number of busts and reliefs ...


Aspertini, Amico  

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born c. 1474, in Bologna; died 1552, in Bologna.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits. Miniatures.

Bolognese School.

Amico Aspertini was the younger brother of Guido Aspertini. He studied with E. Roberti Grandi and Lorenzo Costa but appears to have developed his style mainly from visiting the great art centres of Italy. From ...


Barocci, Federico  

Italian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1526 or 1528, in Urbino; died 1612, in Urbino.

Painter, pastellist, draughtsman, engraver. Religious subjects, figures, portraits.

Federico Barocci was the great-grandson of the sculptor Ambrogio Barocci da Milano, and son of Ambrogio di Federico Barocci. He was first taught by his father and by the painter Battisto Franco, a Venetian disciple and imitator of Michelangelo. At the age of 20 he left for Rome to complete his studies at Raphael's studio. In Rome he won the patronage of Cardinal della Rovere and worked with Taddeo Zuccaro, who introduced him to Michelangelo. On returning to Urbino he discovered Correggio, whose influence he came under. In 1560, now famous, he returned to Rome where he collaborated with Federico Zucchero on frescoes at the Vatican and on the decoration of the Palazzo del Bosco at the Belvedere. He executed the famous ...


Bastien-Lepage, Jules  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1 November 1848, in Damvillers (Meuse); died 10 December 1884, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver. History painting, religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, still-lifes.

From early childhood, Bastien-Lepage showed a taste and aptitude for drawing. He was the son of a prosperous farmer who taught and encouraged him. He continued to draw while attending school in Verdun, where the professor of drawing and composition, Fouquet, was impressed by his talent. On leaving school, however, he bowed to his family's wishes and entered the postal service (1867) rather than pursuing a career as an artist. It was soon apparent to him that he could not be both a civil servant and a painter. He promptly left his job with the postal service and started to paint full time. He was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts, where he studied under Cabanel. He made his Salon debut in 1870 with ...


Beham, Hans Sebald  

German, 16th century, male.

Born in Nuremberg; died, in Frankfurt.

Painter, sculptor, engraver (etching/burin/wood), draughtsman. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, military subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, animals.

Nuremberg School.

Elder brother of Barthel Beham, Hans Sebald Beham is said to have been instructed by Albrecht Dürer, whose influence he certainly shows. He was also influenced by the work of Albrecht Altdorfer. Like his brother, Hans Sebald was already producing works when very young. In ...


Bell, Robert Anning  

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1863, in London; died 27 November 1933, in London.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, religious subjects, mythological subjects, landscapes.

Robert Anning Bell was the pupil of Aimé Morot in Paris and of Sir George Frampton in London. He taught at University College, Liverpool (...


Bella, Stefano della  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born 18 May 1610, in Florence; died 22 July 1664, in Florence.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Son of the sculptor Francesco della Bella. His father wanted him to follow in his footsteps but relented when Stefano's talent for drawing manifested itself at an early age. His family sent him to study painting under Cesare Dandini, but Stefano opted instead to study engraving, joining the workshop of Remigio Cantagallina (who had previously instructed Jacques Callot). Della Bella worked in Italy from 1633 to 1639, then moved to Paris - where he was known as Étienne de la Belle. He remained in Paris from 1640 to 1649, although he spent some time in Holland in 1646. In Paris, he engraved for Silvestre, notably a remarkable ...


Bellomi, Federico  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1928, in Colognola ai Colli, near Verona.

Painter, engraver, graphic designer, fresco artist, sculptor. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Bellomi studied initially at the Cignaroli Academy in Verona. After World War II, he worked as a coal miner in St-Étienne in France. However, he spent most of his life in Verona where, ...


Bernard, Émile  

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1868, in Lille; died 16 April 1941, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, nudes, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes, landscapes, urban landscapes. Designs for tapestries.


School of Pont-Aven.

Émile Bernard plays a singular role in the history of painting in the late-19th century. As demonstrated by the important retrospective of his work mounted by the Fondation Mona Bismarck in Paris in 1991, he was the often-overlooked originator of a number of highly innovative movements (Cloisonnism, Synthetism, even Symbolism), whose paternity he claimed with vehemence in his writings, before he turned his back on them all with equal forcefulness later in life. He moved to the western Paris suburb of Asnières with his family in 1881, and showed an early interest in painting, studying at the Atelier Cormon from the age of 16. Here he met his mentor, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and subsequently Van Gogh. Expelled from the studio in 1886 for insubordination and lack of discipline, he travelled to Normandy and Brittany, where he encountered Gauguin and his followers from the Pont-Aven School. In the same year, he painted the ...


Burckhardt, Carl  

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 13 January 1878, in Lindau (Zurich); died 1923, in Ligornetto (Ticino).

Sculptor, painter, engraver. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, local scenes. Statues, busts.

Carl Burckhardt was educated from 1896 to 1898 at the painter Erwin Knirr's private art academy in Munich. He spent some time in Basel and travelled to Rome in ...


Campi, Antonio (Cavaliere)  

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born shortly before 1536, in Cremona; died c. 1591.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits.

Antonio Campi was the son of Galeazzo and brother of Giulio and Vincenzo Campi. He worked first with his father and later at the studio of his brother Giulio. Before moving to Milan in 1561 he had worked in many different towns, notably Piacenza, Lodi, Brescia, Mantua, Cremona and Rome....


Chagall, Marc  

real name: Mark Zakharovich Chagal

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active naturalised in France from 1937.

Born 7 July 1887, in Vitebsk; died 28 March 1985, in St-Paul-de-Vence, France.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, ceramicist, engraver, decorative artist, illustrator.

Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures. Murals, designs for stained glass, designs for mosaics, low reliefs.

Poetic Reality.

Marc Chagall came from a Jewish family. His father was a clerk in a herring factory so they were not well off, one might even say poor. He first learned how to draw by copying book illustrations. In 1906, he studied with Jehudo Pen in Vitebsk. The following year he managed to leave for St Petersburg where he enrolled at the School for the Encouragement of the Arts. Not altogether satisfied with the teaching he was receiving there, he arranged to have himself admitted to the Zvanseva School in 1908, where his teacher, Leon Bakst, introduced him to the work of Cézanne, Gauguin, and Van Gogh. In 1910, thanks to a bursary, he was able to achieve his dream and move to Paris, where he set up home in ‘La Ruche’, in those days a haven for struggling artists. There he met Max Jacob, Guillaume Apollinaire, and Blaise Cendrars, and later Amedeo Modigliani, Delaunay, and La Fresnaye. In 1911, he took part for the first time in the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in Paris, and in 1914 exhibited for the first time at the Der Sturm Gallery in Berlin. That same year he returned to Russia and married Bella Rosenfeld in 1915. Their daughter Ida was born a year later. During its early years, Chagall supported the Russian Revolution and in 1917 he was appointed Commissar for Fine Arts in Vitebsk and founded an academy at which El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, and Ivan Puni taught. In 1919, he participated in the first official exhibition of revolutionary art in Petrograd (now St Petersburg). But before long he clashed with the Suprematists, particularly Malevich who, with the support of his friends, took advantage of Chagall’s absence to seize control of the academy. Chagall resigned and left for Moscow in 1920, where his art took on a new direction with the commission he was given by Granovsky, the director of the Theatre of Jewish Art in Moscow and for which Chagall not only designed stage sets and costumes, but also painted murals and created stage curtains. Chagall completed six large-scale panels within just a few months. Stalin’s anti-Semitic policy, however, led to the theatre’s closure in 1949. The Tretiakov Gallery kept the canvases in its vaults for more than 40 years and in 1973 Chagall, back home in Russia, was able to see them again and sign them. In 1920, he started writing his autobiography ...


Chavanne, Jean Marie  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 2 January 1797, in Lyons; died, in Lyons.

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects, historical subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Busts, groups, statuettes.

The son of Lyons medal engraver Jean-Marie Chavanne (1766-1826), Jean Marie was a pupil at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons from ...


Cock, Jan Claudius de  

Flemish School, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1667, or 1668, in Antwerp; died 1735.

Painter, engraver, sculptor (ivory). Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Jan Claudius de Cock studied with Peter Verbruggen in 1682. He decorated the château of William III at Breda under the direction of Jacob Romans. Admitted as master in ...


Cordier, Nicolas  

French, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1567, in Lorraine; died 25 November 1612, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects. Statues, monuments, busts.

As a young man Nicolas Cordier went to Rome and became a pupil of Michelangelo. His best-known works in Italy are ...


Cousin, Jean, the Younger  

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1522, probably in Sens (Yonne); died c. 1594, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Fontainebleau School.

Jean Cousin the Younger was a pupil of his father Jean Cousin the Elder and worked for most of his life in Sens....


Derain, André  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 June 1880, in Chatou; died 10 September 1954, in Garches, as the result of an accident.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman (red chalk/charcoal/ink), sculptor (including bronze), engraver (wood/metal), lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, hunting scenes, scenes with figures, horse racing scenes, landscapes, waterscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, seascapes, architectural views, still-lifes, flowers, fruit...