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Article

Andersen, Hans Christian  

Danish, 19th century, male.

Born 2 April 1805, in Odense; died 4 August 1875, in Copenhagen.

Writer, graphic artist, creator of silhouettes and collages.

The author of the Fairytales and the Picture Book Without Pictures proved, on occasion, to be a gifted engraver. He left delicate silhouettes of girls, cupids and swans beneath the trees. He also decorated screens with collages....

Article

Arp, Hans, Later Jean  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.

Dadaism.

Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...

Article

Baader, Johannes or Julius, Sometimes Alexis  

German, 20th century, male.

Born 21 June 1876, in Stuttgart; died 15 January 1955, in Bavaria.

Architect, photomontage artist, collage artist, writer.

Dadaism.

Johannes Baader, who was active as an artist for three years, from 1918 to 1921, was a former architect who had created the plans for the famous Hagenbeck Zoo in Stellingen. After the age of 40, he became a follower and champion of the Dada movement in Berlin, calling himself ...

Article

Baargeld, Johannes Theodor  

German, 20th century, male.

Born in Cologne; died 1927, in the Tyrol.

Poet, collage artist, photomontage artist.

Dadaism.

Johannes Baargeld was the son of a banker from Cologne and was involved in the revolutionary unrest following World War I as one of the founders of the Communist party in the Rhineland. He established a left-wing extremist newspaper of art and politics, ...

Article

Ball, Hugo  

German, 20th century, male.

Active in Switzerland.

Born 1886, in Pirmassens; died 1927, in San Abbondio, Switzerland.

Mixed media, poet.

Dadaism.

Zurich Dadaist.

Ball was a poet, producer and founder of the Dada movement in Zurich. His Cabaret Voltaire brought together all the intellectuals and artists in exile, who, at the height of the war in ...

Article

Barber, George  

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the UK.

Born 1958, in Georgetown, Guyana.

Video artist, film maker, photographer, journalist, broadcaster. Scratch videos.

George Barber has a BA from St Martin’s School of Art in London (1980) and an MA from the Slade School of Art in London (...

Article

Bearden, Romare Howard  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 September 1911, in Charlotte (North Carolina); died 12 March 1988, in New York.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, lithographer, screen printer, engraver, collage artist, newspaper cartoonist, illustrator, art theorist. Religious subjects, figure compositions, local figures. Humorous cartoons, frontispieces, stage sets...

Article

Bérard, Stéphane  

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1966, in Lille.

Installation artist, photographer, video artist, film producer, writer, musician.

Stéphane Bérard lives and works in Haute-Provence. Both poet and sculptor, he casts a quizzical and ironic eye on the flotsam of everyday life. His inventions include the ...

Article

Brau, Jean-Louis  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 June 1930, in St-Ouen (Val-d'Oise); died August 1985.

Painter, collage artist, draughtsman, writer.

Lettrism, Affichisme.

Jean-Louis Brau was self-taught in most fields and was well-known in all of them. His principal allegiance, with some interruptions, was to the Lettrist group, its members and activities. As an artist he took part in group events and exhibitions organised by the Lettrists as well as exhibiting at the Salon Comparaisons with the Affichist group in the 1960s and at the Paris Biennale. He also showed his work in solo exhibitions. Brau was an anti-authoritarian anarchist and volunteered to fight in Vietnam and Algeria. In addition to his principal occupations as writer, poet, essayist and polemicist, Brau was also an astrologer and magician....

Article

Bucaille, Max  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 June 1906, in Ste-Croix-Hague (Manche); died 1992.

Engraver, collage artist, sculptor, poet.

Revolutionary Surrealism group.

Max Bucaille was inspired by the collages of Max Ernst that he found in old magazines when he was a student at the Sorbonne in the Faculty of Science. He was a mathematics teacher at the lycée in Creteil and published collections of poetry, collages and reproductions of his gouaches in ...

Article

Bunn, David  

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1950, in Brook Alexander, New York.

Installation artist, video artist, poet.

David Bunn graduated with a master's degree from the University of California at Los Angeles and has received several awards and fellowships including two National Endowment for the Arts Individual Artist Fellowships, the City of Los Angeles Individual Artist Fellowship and the Ethel Fortner Award for creative writing....

Article

Cahun, Claude  

French, 20th century, female.

Born 25 October 1894, in Nantes, France; died 8 December 1954, in Isle of Jersey, UK.

Writer, photographer. Self-portraits, portraits. Photomontages.

Surrealism.

Active in England.

Artist Claude Cahun was born into family of Jewish intellectuals with a rich literary tradition. Cahun devised her pseudonym using the last name of her great uncle Léon Cahun, and her earliest publications demonstrate an interest in Symbolism perhaps instilled by the writings of her uncle, Marcel Schwob. However, through her relationship with life-partner Marcel Moore, the pseudonym of Suzanne Malherbe, she honed her artistic voice. Cahun produced her seminal work, ...

Article

Canney, Michael Richard Ladd  

British, 20th century, male.

Born 16 July 1923, in Falmouth; died 1999.

Painter (including mixed media), sculptor (reliefs), writer, broadcaster. Landscapes, still-lifes, portraits and abstracts.

Michael Canney studied art at Redruth School of Art, Penzance and St Ives (1939-1942) and at Goldsmiths School of Art (...

Article

Carrà, Carlo  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 11 February 1881, in Quargnento (Alessandria); died 13 April 1966, in Milan.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, collage artist, engraver (including etching), lithographer, decorative designer, art theorist. Landscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, seascapes. Frescoes.

Futurism, Pittura Metafiscia (Metaphysical Painting), Novecento Italiano, Magic Realism...

Article

Couchot, Edmond  

French, 20th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Installation artist, art theorist.

Computer Art.

Edmond Couchot is director of research projects and professor at the Université Paris VIII. He directs the department Arts et Technologies de l'Image (Arts and Technologies of the Image). As a theoretician, Couchot is interested in the relationship between art and technology, notably image arts and computer techniques. He has published several articles and a book on the subject. As an artist, he stresses the notion of the interactivity between man and computers using sound and the voice. Techno-scientific capability with regard to computer visualisation is an invitation to more extended thinking about the range of the so-called numerical image. The latter is not a representation of reality, but rather it gives a simulation of it, or more precisely according to F. Popper's definition, 'the numerical image of synthesis is no longer the optical projection of a pre-existing object, but the visualisation of a numerical model that simulates the object'. Virtuality follows on from the discovery of digitizing, from the possibility of handling all support material according to a logical mathematical matrix of numbers, which reciprocally becomes speech, sound, music, painting, drawing, writing or noise. The numerical image includes images of synthesis, images of graphic, photographic, cinematographic or videographic origin. This new image is no longer static once and for all; it continually reacts to programmed data. From the reality of life, it is towards the virtuality of experience that we are oriented, where space and time are, in principle, recreated....

Article

Driskell, David Clyde  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 7 June 1931, in Eatonton (Georgia).

Painter, draughtsman (including ink), collage artist, print artist, sculptor, collector, art historian. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, figure compositions, scenes with figures, landscapes. Designs for stained glass.

David C. Driskell earned a BFA at Howard University in ...

Article

Ducornet, Guy  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in La Capelle, Artois (Nord).

Assemblage artist, collage artist, engraver, poet.

Phases group.

Guy Ducornet is known for his 'window-boxes', in which he stages sketches referring to memory, and which he defines as 'small journeys in frames'. In the 1960s, he and the writer Rikki Ducornet created lotto and domino games. Ducornet's interest in North America dates from a stay of study and teaching in the USA and in Canada. He developed ties with representatives of American Surrealism, notably Franklin and Penelope Rosemont, and played the role of an intermediary between the two continents. In ...

Article

Eco, Umberto  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1932, in Alessandria (Piedmont).

Mixed media, writer.

Kinetic Art.

Umberto Eco worked with Bruno Munari. He defines the meaning behind his works thus: 'the movement of forms, colours and planes is the means of obtaining a changing ensemble'. Although his research activities as a creative artist began with kinetic art, today he is much better known for lecturing at the University of Bologna, for his research into semiology, his theories on medieval art and literature, and for being a successful writer. His books include ...

Article

Fillia  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 3 October 1904, in Revello; died 9 February 1936, in Turin.

Painter, photomontage artist, writer, illustrator. Murals, ceramics.

Futurism.

Luigi Enrico Colombo took the pseudonym Fillia, which was his mother's maiden name. Although he died at the age of only 32, he was one of the most far-sighted thinkers to influence the evolution of artistic expression between the two World Wars. In fact, in the course of the many journeys he made right up to his death in Paris, he was in contact with the pioneers of abstract art, which was at that time ignored by everyone, and this was how he came to be linked with the leaders of the ...

Article

Fleischer, Alain  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Paris.

Installation artist, photographer, film maker, novelist. Multimedia.

Alain Fleischer studied French, linguistics and anthropology at university, and has taught at the University of Paris III, at the École d'Art de Cergy, at the Institut des Hautes Études Cinématographiques, and the École Nationale d'Art de Nice (the Villa Arson). He served as head of the École Expérimentale d'Art Contemporain du Fresnoy, in Tourcoing....