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Bouton, Fernand  

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1901, in Fleurus (Hainaut).

Painter. Figures, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes.

A pupil of the sculptor and Post-Impressionist painter Léon Vandenhouten who exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Fernand Bouton's work is characterised by meticulous attention to the effects of light, notably twilight, and the plethora of sunset colours and silvery moonlight....


Degas, Hilaire Germain Edgar  

originally de Gas

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 19 July 1834, in Paris, France; died 26 September 1917, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, sculptor, printmaker (monotypes, etchings, aquatints, lithographs), draughtsman, photographer. History painting, figures, nudes, portraits, genre scenes, interiors with figures, sporting subjects.


Impressionist group.

Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas was born in Paris into a well-to-do banking family. His father, whose family originated from Breton nobility, was born in Naples and his Creole mother, Célestine Musson, was born in New Orleans. She died in 1847 when Degas was 13 years old. His grandfather (who had left France at the time of the French Revolution) and his father always signed their names ‘de Gas’, a usage that Edgar continued until about 1870. He only signed works when he sold or exhibited them, and after his death, the executors of his estate stamped red signatures on all the works in his studio. Degas rarely dated his works....


Kirkeby, Per  

Danish, 20th century, male.

Active also in Germany.

Born 1 September 1938, in Copenhagen.

Painter (oils, watercolours), sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, performance artist, environmental artist. Landscapes.


Fluxus, Nouveaux Fauves.

Per Kirkeby received a doctorate in geology and has participated in several scientific expeditions to Greenland, Central America, Central Asia, and Ireland. In the 1960s, he was a member of the experimental art school in Copenhagen, which was close to the Fluxus group, and, in 1978, was made professor at the fine arts academy in Karlsruhe. He has lived and worked in Copenhagen, on Læsø island (north Jutland), and in Karlsruhe.

Kirkeby’s modes of expression are eclectic: he is a painter, sculptor, and draughtsman, but also a poet and maker of prints, environments, models, films, and documentaries. At the beginning of his career, he was inspired by Surrealism and Pop Art, calling himself a ‘superrealist’. He subsequently produced collages based on a spontaneous form of associationism, which incorporated dried vegetable elements and were sometimes arranged in letter shapes. Later, he became involved in the Fluxus group and took part in performances with Joseph Beuys in Copenhagen, with Immendorf in Aachen, and with Nam June Paik in New York. He also mounted exhibitions that brought together various objects he had gathered during his travels. Nothing remains of his work from this period....


Koslov, Abraham  

Russian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Korssun.


Abraham Koslov lived in Paris with his brother, the sculptor Benederte. He painted scenes of Judaeo-Russian folklore in an Impressionist style. They both exhibited in the Salons des Indépendants and d'Automne.

Paris, 20 Oct 1997: The Road to the Village...


Kuna, Henri or Henryk  

Polish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France from 1911.

Born 16 November 1885, in Warsaw.

Sculptor, painter.

Henri Kuna lived in Paris from 1911, where he exhibited at the Salon d'Automne. He was influenced by Impressionism, and then by Maillol's art and ancient and Asiatic sculptures. He worked using marble and ebony in smooth, solid forms. In ...


Lange, Willi Otto Max  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 8 June 1876, in Altona.

Painter, engraver, sculptor.

Willi Otto Max Lange trained at the Düsseldorf Academy of Fine Arts, and at the Académie René Prinet in Paris. He painted Impressionist-style harbour scenes and seascapes.

Hamburg (Kunsthalle)

Hanover (Kestner-Mus.)


Marinas y García, Aniceto  

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Segovia (Castilla y León).


Aniceto Marinas y García depicted Classical subjects in a Realist manner that might be referred to as Impressionist.

Madrid (Prado): Velázquez; The Second of May

Madrid, 21 March 1983...


Renoir, Pierre-Auguste  

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 25 February 1841, in Limoges; died 3 December 1919, in Cagnes-sur-Mer.

Painter, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, sculptor, draughtsman. Figure compositions, figures, nudes, portraits, scenes with figures, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers.

Impressionist group.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s father was a tailor and his mother was a seamstress. The house where he was born, which still stands, indicates his humble background in Limoges. In 1844, the family left Limoges and moved to Paris. From 1854 to 1859, Renoir was apprenticed to various craftsmen and found work as a decorative painter. In Paris, he joined the studio of the porcelain manufacturer Lévy, where he was assigned to paint decorative floral motifs and pastoral scenes inspired by the 18th century, as well as profile portraits of Marie-Antoinette. Around 1858, he left the Lévy studio and then painted on fan-shaped fabric and blinds for the Gilbert firm. In 1859, he decorated about 20 cafés with mythological scenes. Attracted by painting, he attended evening classes in Paris. From 1860 to 1864, he was entered in the register of requests for permission to work in the Musée du Louvre, where he copied 18th-century paintings by Antoine Watteau, François Boucher, and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. These were the first works of art that filled him with admiration, and he would remain attached to them for the rest of his life....


Saint-Alban, Michel de  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1921 or 1923.

Painter, sculptor. Landscapes, waterscapes.

Pre-Impressionist in style and still suggestive of Corot, Michel de Saint-Alban's paintings heighten the pale colours of river scenes. He also painted landscapes of Sologne and a series devoted to Venice. He exhibited at the Salon d'Art Libre from 1955, the Salon des Artistes Français from 1970, the Salon des Indépendants from 1972, and the Salon d'Automne from 1970 to 1984. He held solo exhibitions at: 1947, 1949, the Galerie de France, Paris; 1951, 1952, the Galerie Riquelme, Biarritz; 1984, the Château-Musée, Blois; 1986, 1987, the Galerie Vendôme, Paris....


Steyn, Carole  

British, 20th century, female.

Born 1938, in Manchester.

Painter, sculptor, pastellist.

Carole Steyn trained at the Académie Julian in Paris in 1953, and St Martin's School of Art in London from 1954-1956. Steyn was influenced by Post-Impressionism and Fauvism during her studies in Paris. Her subsequent works show the influence Russian Constructivism. Some of her painted reliefs feature an eclectic range of materials (eggs and walnut shells, bones, recycled leftovers) in compositions exploring themes of fertility, sex, death and war. Later works are more serene in atmosphere, and depict more classical artistic themes such as ...


Zandomeneghi, Federico  

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 June 1841, in Venice; died 30 December 1917, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, flowers.

Impressionist group.

The grandson of the sculptor Luigi Zandomeneghi, Federico Zandomeneghi was taught by his father Pietro, also a sculptor. Around 1862 he was in Florence, where he was in contact with the Macchiaioli group. In 1874 he went to Paris, where he remained until his death, and associated with Renoir, Pissarro and Degas, and exhibited with them at the Salon des Indépendants (1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886). He received an honourable mention at the 1889 Exposition Universelle....