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Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 31 May 1836, in Paris; died 1932, in Nice.

Painter (gouache), pastellist, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, poster artist. Portraits, genre scenes, local scenes (carnival), flowers, landscapes.

Chéret created a genre, a new method of expression for poster art, and was the founder of a technique destined to set a trend. At the age of 13, he did an apprenticeship with a lithographer who employed him to design letters. But Chéret had other ambitions. He taught himself drawing, with only his very confident sense of taste and the very lively originality of his artistic temperament to guide him. At that time, he produced numerous lithographic vignettes for brochures or book covers. In 1856, Chéret went to England, where he studied new colour lithography techniques. He stayed in England for ten years, then returned to Paris and in 1866 established his printing works and launched his first two colour posters: ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1869, in Antwerp; died 1941, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, poster artist. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Having first studied law, Ghisbert Combaz became a pupil at the academy in Antwerp and a professor at the Brussels academy. He spent most of his life in Antwerp, where he exhibited from 1886 onwards; he also exhibited in conjunction with the association of Art Nouveau artists known as the Libre Esthétique from 1897. As an art historian, he made special study of the art of the Far East. With their sinuous and undulating rhythm, the arabesques in his engravings and posters provide typical examples of the Modern Style....

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 21 May 1869, in Dillingen; died 17 April 1934, in Landsberg am Lech.

Painter (including porcelain), engraver, sculptor, graphic designer. Landscapes. Designs (metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

Very little is known about Hermann Gradl Sr, the elder brother of Max Joseph Gradl. He was first a painter and then a sculptor. He attended the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of arts and crafts) in Munich between ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 October 1872, in Pforzheim; died 8 June 1943, in Jugenheim.

Sculptor (bronze), draughtsman, painter, engraver (wood), graphic designer. Religious subjects, portraits. Medals.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Daniel Greiner had been a pastor, bur he decided, after a conflict with the authorities in his parish of Schotten, to turn to art instead. He trained in Paris, then at the Bildhauerschule (school of sculpture) in Berlin. In ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 in Sweden.

Born 28 February 1867, in Leipzig; died 26 January 1948, in Stockholm.

Sculptor, painter, draughtsman, engraver, caricaturist, illustrator, poster artist. Portraits, scenes with figures, landscapes.

Jugendstil.

Thomas Theodor Heine was a student of Carl Janssen at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. He settled in Munich in 1889. Here he formed an association with a group of painters which included Lovis Corinth, Ludwig Dill and Wilhelm Trübner, who used to meet during the summer in Dachau, a town near Munich, which became a sort of German Barbizon, where painting was done in the open air. In 1892, he brought out his first cartoon in the weekly ...

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

(b Champsecret, Orne, July 23, 1862; d Paris, May 24, 1934).

French painter, illustrator, and sculptor. He went to Paris in 1878 to study under the painter Emile Bin until 1885, when he entered the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. From 1883 onwards, he exhibited landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits (those of women and children being particularly popular) in oil and pastel at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français.

Léandre also taught drawing until 1897. His fame was due chiefly to the vast number of Symbolist drawings he produced for newspapers and magazines. His first post was as a caricaturist for Le Chat noir, and he later worked for Le Journal, Le Figaro, Le Gaulois, and Le Journal amusant; his most important work was for Le Rire, for which he often illustrated the front page. In 1907 he helped to found the Société des Artistes Humoristes, publishing a magazine, Les Humoristes, in 1910.

Léandre produced posters for the nightclubs of Montmartre, artists’ balls, and chansonniers’ tours, and for the first two exhibitions of the Société des Peintres Lithographes. He illustrated many literary works, of which the most famous was Gustave Flaubert’s ...