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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

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Gordon Campbell

[Ger.: Bartmannskrug; ‘bearded-man jug’; d’Alva bottle

Type of German glazed stoneware jug produced from the 15th century through to the 19th, and known in English from the 17th century as the bellarmine, the eponym of which was Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino (1542–1621), who was detested in England because of his anti-Protestant polemics. The jugs, which are decorated with the moulded face of a bearded man (sometimes with a coat-of-arms below it) are also known as ‘Greybeards’ and as ‘d’Alva bottles’; the latter name alludes to the third Duke of Alba (...

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Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

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Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1420, in Perugia; died 8 July 1496, in Perugia.

Painter, fresco artist. Religious subjects.

Perugian School.

In the 15th century the artists of Perugia were influenced both by the naturalism and feeling for light that is characteristic of the Florentines and the decorative elegance of the Sienese. Bonfigli, who was at the Vatican at the same time as Fra Angelico, in ...

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Patrick M. de Winter, Scot McKendrick, Hilary Ballon, Giles Clifford, Bertrand Jestaz, Mark Stocker, Philip Mansel, Pilar Benito, Mercedes Agueda, Robert Oresko, Francisco Javier Pizarro Gomez and Concha Vela

[Borbón]

Dynasty of French and Spanish rulers, patrons and collectors. The French branch of the family (see §I) ruled France from 1589 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1830. The Spanish branch (see §II) was established in 1700, when the grandson of the French king Louis XIV succeeded to the Spanish throne as Philip V.

This line (see fig.) was descended from Robert Capet (1256–1317), Comte de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, the sixth son of King Louis IX (see Capet family, §2). (1) John II was a descendant in direct line of the first Duke of Bourbon, Louis I (reg 1327–41). John II’s brother (2) Cardinal Charles renounced his title in favour of their younger brother, (3) Peter II. Suzanne (1491–1521) the sole heir of Peter II and his wife ...

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