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Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Died 1409, in Florence.

Painter, decorative designer.

The grandson or nephew of Aghinetti - known as the Maestro del Sero - Maestro Guccio is mentioned in 1367 in connection with the coats of arms he painted above the Falconieri door in the cathedral....

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Painter, decorative designer.

In 1339, together with Cola Prefetti, Agnelello di Puccio executed the ceiling paintings of Orvieto Cathedral.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Painter, decorative artist.

Andrea di Buccio worked as an artist in Orvieto, where he decorated a ceiling in 1339.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Engraver, marquetry worker. Religious subjects. Religious furnishings.

From 1331 to 1335, Andrea di Martino da Siena worked on the choir stalls at Orvieto Cathedral with Giovanni Ammanati da Siena and under the direction of Niccolo di Nuto. A record survives there showing his signature and the sum he was paid....

Article

Spanish, 14th century, male.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Ramon Andrea worked on the silver retable decorated with enamels in Gerona Cathedral.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Vercelli.

Painter. Frescoes, decorative schemes.

Vercelli School.

In 1387, Antonio da Novara decorated the façade of the Palazzo Comunale with coats of arms and frescoes.

Article

Basilio Pavón Maldonado

Spanish term for a type of intricately joined wooden ceiling in which supplementary laths are interlaced into the rafters supporting the roof to form decorative geometric patterns (see fig.). Artesonado ceilings were popular in the Islamic architecture of North Africa and Spain from the 13th to the 15th century and were also used widely in Jewish and Christian architecture. They continued to be popular into the 16th century when they were effectively integrated with Renaissance motifs.

Artesonado ceilings developed from horizontal coffered ceilings, which were used in Spanish Islamic architecture as early as the 10th century ad (see Islamic art, §II, 5(iv)). The Umayyad caliph al-Hakam II (reg 961–76) ordered a carved and painted coffered ceiling for the Great Mosque of Córdoba (see Córdoba, §3, (i), (a)). It was suspended from the ceiling joists and tie-beams of the pitched roofs covering the aisles. The halls of ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Enameller.

According to Texier, Stephanus de Atrio was working for the Queen of France around 1322.

Article

Term used to describe the distinctive relief decoration commonly used on stucco, wood and other arts of the early Islamic period. Characterized by a slanted cut (Ger. Schrägeschnitt), the decoration usually consists of rhythmic and symmetrical repetitions of curved lines with spiral terminals. The style is first documented in the mid-9th century ad at the Abbasid capital of Samarraا in Iraq, where the walls of enormous mud-brick palaces were rendered with plaster, moulded or carved in three styles of relief decoration. Although two styles (A and B) preserve recognizable vegetal forms ultimately derived from Late Antique ornament, the third (C) or Bevelled style is far more abstract, and the traditional distinction between subject and ground has dissolved. The same style of decoration was also used at Samarraا for wooden furnishings, such as panels and doors and for other sculpted media, such as rock crystal.

The Bevelled style quickly became popular throughout the Abbasid realm: it is found, for example, at the ...

Article

Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

[It.: ‘chest’]

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate cassoni, painted and often combined with pastiglia decoration, were usually commissioned in pairs when a house was renovated for a newly married couple and were ordered, together with other furnishings, by the groom. Florence was the main centre of production, though cassoni were also produced in Siena and occasionally in the Veneto and elsewhere.

The earliest cassoni were simple structures with rounded lids, probably painted in solid colours, such as the red cassone in Giotto’s Annunciation to St Anne (c. 1305; Padua, Arena Chapel). The earliest known chests with painted designs are all from the same shop (e.g. Florence, Pal. Davanzati, inv. mob. 162). Like the much more numerous contemporary chests with gilded low-relief in pastiglia (...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Siena in the second half of the 14th century.

Sculptor (wood), marquetry worker.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Rodezc.1385.

Born in Rodez.

Painter, decorative artist.

Article

French, 14th – 16th century, male.

Painters, enamellers.

Living in Limoges from the 14th century, the Courteys family is best known for two enamellers of the second half of the 16th century. It may have had links with the Court family, also enamellers, and the Courtoys family, who made the windows of the church of La Ferté in the 15th and 16th centuries. In ...

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born 1372; died c. 1421.

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer. History painting, portraits. Ornaments.

Florentine School.

It is generally agreed that Dello Fiorentino died around 1421. If, like Vasari, we adopt the age of 49 as being his age at his death, then he would have been born around ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Parisc.1325.

Painter. Wall decorations.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Paris in 1319 and 1320.

Painter, decorative artist, combmaker/ivory worker.

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active in Florence.

Born 1366; died 26 August 1444.

Painter, decorative artist. Frescoes.

Assistant to Giovanni del Ponte, Smeraldo di Giovanni painted frescoes and decorated chests.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects. Wall decorations, frescoes.

Werlin zum Burne painted frescoes of saints in the church at Guebwiller.