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Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1900, in Marciana Marina (Livorno); died 1971, in Milan.

Painter, ceramicist, illustrator, scenographer, writer. Stage costumes.

Futurism.

Giovanni Acquaviva studied philosophy and law at the University of Pisa, while devoting himself to illustration at the same time. He founded the Futurist group ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 2 December 1899, in Albisola; died May 1971, in Albisola.

Ceramicist, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, screen printer, photographer. Artists' books.

Futurism.

Tullio d'Albisola studied with his father Giuseppe, a master potter, then with Gaetano Ballardini at the international university pottery class in Faenza, which he entered in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Liège; died 1995.

Painter, collage artist, watercolourist, illustrator, decorative designer, designer.

Futurism, Constructivism.

Groupe 7 Arts.

Baugniet attended the art academy in Brussels where he studied under the Belgian Symbolist painter Jean Delville. He married the dancer and painter Akarova (Marguerite Acarin). His early paintings were figurative, and he was then influenced by French Cubism and international Constructivism. In 1922, Baugniet became a member of the Belgian group ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1886, in Tavria or Kershon; died 1917, in Thessalonica.

Painter, illustrator.

Symbolism, Futurism.

Groups: Golubaya Roza (Blue Rose), Bubnovy Valet (Jack of Diamonds), Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider).

Vladimir Davidovich Burlyuk was the brother of David Burlyuk. He studied in Odessa and married the sister of the painter Lentulov. Along with his brother, he collaborated on the most important projects of the Russian avant-garde, including with the group ...

Article

Ester Coen

(b Fondo, Val di Non, Trentino, March 30, 1892; d Rovereto, Nov 29, 1960).

Italian painter, stage designer, illustrator, decorative artist and writer. After difficult years of study, during which he made his first artistic experiments, he travelled to Turin in 1910 and worked as an apprentice decorator at the Esposizione Internazionale. In spite of spending a year as apprentice to a marble-worker, on his return to Rovereto, he decided to become a painter, choosing subjects associated with Symbolism and social realism. Shortly after publishing Spezzature–Impressioni: Segni e ritmi (Rovereto, 1913), a collection of poetry, prose and illustrations, he moved to Rome, where he met Filippo Tommaso Marinetti at the Galleria Permanente Futurista, run by Giuseppe Sprovieri; through Marinetti he met the Futurists, with whom he exhibited at the same gallery in the spring of 1914 (see Furttenbach [Furtenbach; Furttembach], Josef [Joseph], the elder). This was followed by a one-man show at Trento in July 1914, which closed after a few days because of the outbreak of World War I. He succeeded in returning to Rome, where he was officially welcomed into the ...

Article

Fillia  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 3 October 1904, in Revello; died 9 February 1936, in Turin.

Painter, photomontage artist, writer, illustrator. Murals, ceramics.

Futurism.

Luigi Enrico Colombo took the pseudonym Fillia, which was his mother's maiden name. Although he died at the age of only 32, he was one of the most far-sighted thinkers to influence the evolution of artistic expression between the two World Wars. In fact, in the course of the many journeys he made right up to his death in Paris, he was in contact with the pioneers of abstract art, which was at that time ignored by everyone, and this was how he came to be linked with the leaders of the ...

Article

Fillia  

Daniela De Dominicis

[Colombo, Luigi]

(b Revello, Oct 4, 1904; d Turin, Feb 1, 1936).

Italian painter, sculptor and writer. He moved to Turin and in 1922 began his literary career by contributing to a booklet of poems entitled 1+1+1=1 Dinamite (Turin, 1922). He started painting as a self-taught artist, using his mother’s surname as a pseudonym. In 1923 he founded the Turin Futurist group, whose other later adherents included the Bulgarian-born painter and architect Nicolay Diulgheroff (1901–82) and the Italian sculptor Mino Rossi (1904–63), with the publication of the manifesto Futurista torinese—Sindacati artistici. Through this group he assumed an important role in the ‘second Futurism’ (see Furttenbach [Furtenbach; Furttembach], Josef [Joseph], the elder).

The inspiration for Fillia’s earliest paintings was ‘mechanical life’, which he portrayed by abstracting from the subject using geometrical forms and a lively range of colours. He was clearly aware not only of the work of Giacomo Balla and Fortunato Depero, but also of the contemporary Constructivist art promoted in the periodicals ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1890, in Ferrara; died 1972, in Appiano Gentile.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator. Mythological subjects, historical subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Murals, designs for mosaics, frescoes, church decoration.

Futurism, Novecento Italiano.

School of Milan.

Virgile Funi (known as Achille) studied at the Dosso Dossi Institute in Ferrara, then at the Brera Accademia di Belle Arti, in Milan, from 1906 to 1910, where he was a student of Tallone. In 1912, he founded the 'perifuturist' group ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1908, in Genoa; died 1980.

Illustrator, potter.

Futurism.

Alfredo Gaudenzi owes his nickname 'Alf' to Marinetti, who he met in Milan. He turned to painting after qualifying as an accountant but failing to establish himself in a career. He was also a journalist and a commercial artist. He joined the Futurist Group in Turin, then, in ...

Article

Anthony Parton

(Sergeyevna)

(b Negayevo, Tula Province, June 16, 1881: d Paris, Oct 17, 1962).

Russian painter, stage designer, printmaker and illustrator. She was a leading artist of the Russian avant-garde in the early 20th century but became a celebrity in the West through her work for Serge (de) Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. During the 1920s she played a significant role within the Ecole de Paris and continued to live and work in France until her death.

She was the daughter of Sergey Mikhaylovich Goncharov, an architect, and Yekaterina Il’icha Belyayeva but grew up in her grandmother’s home at Ladyzhino, near Kaluga, in Tula Province. She attended the Fourth Gymnasium for Girls in Moscow and in 1898 entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture as a sculpture student where she was taught by Paolo Troubetskoy. At the school Goncharova became friendly with Mikhail Larionov. He became her lifelong companion and colleague, and he encouraged her to relinquish sculpture for painting. Goncharova’s early work comprised mainly pastels, which were exhibited in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1953, in Leningrad.

Book artist, printmaker (lithography), graphic artist.

Mikhail Karasik graduated with an art-graphics degree from the Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute. He is credited with pioneering the form of the artists’ book in Russia. Not only did he make them, he also encouraged his contemporaries to do so as well by curating numerous exhibitions and organising collective books, for example the ...

Article

Charlotte Humphreys

(Yeliseyevich)

(b Olevka, Kherson province, 1886; d Moscow, 1968).

Russian poet and critic of Ukrainian birth. He is best known for his creation of Russian Futurist books between 1912 and 1916 in collaboration with the avant-garde artists Natal’ya Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov, Kazimir Malevich and Ol’ga Rozanova. These books, some of which were written with Velimir Khlebnikov, are characterized by deliberate mistakes and misprints, bold handwriting or irregular typefaces and printed on differently textured paper or wallpaper. The accompanying illustrations were executed in a coarse and primitive style to match the harsh and dissonant tones of the poetry. The books include Igra v adu (‘A game in Hell’; Moscow, 1912 and 1914), Mirskontsa (‘The world backwards’; Moscow, 1912), Pomada (Moscow, 1913), Utinoye gnezdyshko…durnykh slov (‘A duck’s nest…of bad words’; St Petersburg, 1913), Te Li Le (St Petersburg, 1914), Zaumnaya kniga (‘Transrational book’; Moscow, 1915), Voyna (‘War’; Petrograd, 1915) and Vselenskaya voyna (‘Universal war’; Petrograd, ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1886, in Herson; died 1968, in Moscow.

Poet, collage artist. Artists' books.

Futurism.

Alexei Krutchenykh was a poet and a theoretician of phonetic poetry who invented the 'zaum' or transrational language. He maintained close links with the visual arts, having his texts illustrated by Larionov, Goncharova and Malevich. He produced most of his work between ...

Article

Anthony Parton

(Fyodorovich)

(b Tiraspol, Moldova, June 3, 1881; d Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, May 10, 1964).

Russian painter, stage designer, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman and writer of Moldovan birth. He was a leader of the Russian avant-garde before World War I but came to prominence in the West through his work for Serge Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. During the 1920s he played a significant role within the Ecole de Paris and continued to live and work in France until his death.

He was the son of Fyodor Mikhailovich Larionov, a doctor and pharmacist, and Aleksandra Fyodorovna Petrovskaya, but he grew up in his grandparents’ home in Tiraspol. He completed his secondary education at the Voskresensky Technical High School in Moscow and in 1898 entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Here he studied under Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin, and he also became friendly with Natal’ya Goncharova who was to remain his lifelong companion and colleague. Larionov’s work soon caught the imagination of collectors and critics. In ...

Article

Piero Pacini

(b Bologna, July 20, 1890; d Bologna, June 18, 1964).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. At the age of 17 he enrolled at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna and discovered contemporary art in books on Impressionism, Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat and Henri Rousseau. He read with interest the articles by Ardengo Soffici in La voce and saw the Venice Biennale of 1910, where he first came across the painting of Auguste Renoir. During this period he often went to Florence to study the works of Giotto, Masaccio and Paolo Uccello. Between 1911 and 1914, when he was in Rome, he was impressed by the work of Claude Monet and, especially, Paul Cézanne. At the Futurist exhibition Lacerba, held in the Libreria Gonnelli, Florence, in 1913–14, he met Umberto Boccioni. Shortly afterwards he showed his first paintings at the Albergo Baglioni in Bologna and the Galleria Sprovieri in Rome. When he was not painting, he taught drawing in primary schools. As an adolescent he associated with those most receptive to new ideas in Bologna, including the painter Osvaldo Licini and the writer Mario Bacchelli. In ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1907, in Milan; died 29 September 1998, in Milan.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer, architect, writer. Mosaics, monuments (fountains).

Futurism.

MAC (Movimento Arte Concreta).

Bruno Munari was self-taught and began working as a graphic artist in 1925, producing illustrations for many magazines under the pseudonym ...

Article

Laural Weintraub

(b Milan, Oct 24, 1907; d Milan, Sept 29, 1998).

Italian sculptor, painter, film maker and designer. His artistic ambition was influenced by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti whom he met in Milan in the mid-1920s. Munari formally allied himself with the second generation of Futurists in 1927 and continued to exhibit with them into the 1930s (see Furttenbach [Furtenbach; Furttembach], Josef [Joseph], the elder and Aeropittura). Few works of Munari’s remain from this period, as most were made from transient materials. One extant work in tempera from 1932 (see Tanchis, p. 13) suggests that Munari had fully adopted Futurist aesthetics. Several other examples from the 1930s, however, show a clear debt to Surrealism.

In his sculpture from 1930 Munari adopted a different attitude. Aerial Machine (1930; see Tanchis, p. 21), for example, indicates a move towards a Constructivist aesthetic. This elegant object is a precursor of his Useless Machines, the first of which was executed in 1933. Constructed of painted cardboard and other lightweight materials, they served to liberate abstract forms in three dimensions. Moreover, they were meant to integrate with the surrounding environment through their kinetic action....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1900, in Turin; died 1981, in Turin.

Painter, ceramicist, designer, illustrator. Figures, scenes with figures. Posters, murals.

Futurism.

Ugo Pozzo founded the Turin Futurist group in 1923 with Fillia and Tullio Alpinolo Bracci and took part in most of the Futurist exhibitions until ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1895, in Florence; died 1957, in Ivrea (Piedmont).

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes.

Futurism, Novecento Italiano.

Strapaese Group.

Ottone Rosai was introduced to the art of wood sculpting by his father, and also studied drawing at the institute of decorative arts, and then at the fine arts school in Florence, where he later became a teacher. His work featured in both group and solo exhibitions, notably in Pistoia in 1911, in Florence in 1913, in Rome in 1922, in 1929 at the second Novecento exhibition, in 1952 at the Biennale exhibition in Venice, and in 1957 at the Olivetti centre in Ivrea. His work featured in group exhibitions held at, notably, the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence in 1960, at the Modern Art Museum in Turin in 1963, and at an exhibition entitled ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 1891, in Athens, to Italian parents; died 1952, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Scenes with figures. Stage sets.

Pittura Metafisica (Metaphysical Painting), Futurism.

Les Artistes Italiens de Paris.

The brother of Giorgio de Chirico, Alberto Savinio studied music at the conservatoire in Athens, winning first prize for composition when he was 13 years old. He continued his studies in Munich with Max Reger. (It was in a magazine at Reger's house that Giorgio, who used to accompany his brother to his music lessons, first encountered Arnold Böcklin's gloomy landscapes.) Alberto Savinio arrived in Paris in 1911 with his mother and his brother. The two boys soon got to know Apollinaire, Breton, Picasso, Cendrars and Cocteau. In 1917, he was in Ferrara with his brother on the occasion of the setting up of the group identifying itself with ...