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Article

Beninese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1964.

Painter (mixed media).

Simplice Ahouansou is self-taught. In a manner that shows affinities with Surrealism, some of his paintings comment with irony on certain aspects of modern Western civilisation, such as communication, or protection of private property, while other works seem more firmly anchored in the artistic traditions of his native country of Benin....

Article

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Antwerp.

Painter, watercolourist, graphic designer. Figures.

Roger van Akelyn evokes the anguish inherent in the human condition, sometimes using quasi-surrealist imagery.

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1963.

Painter, draughtsman, collage artist, illustrator.

David Aronson, drawn to occultism, paints Surrealistically absurd images, which are sometimes frightening or disturbing. He has produced a set of paintings on the subject of the Holocaust. He also illustrates works for young readers....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 13 July 1949, in Paris.

Painter, engraver.

Julius Baltazar evolved from the Surrealism of his early works towards a spontaneous abstraction, which was revived in the 1950s and 1960s, producing works which can be described as abstract landscape art. His paintings evoke wind, air, sea, sky, space and atmosphere, or more precisely any element which is suddenly interrupted by being ripped open, revealing a void, a blank in the middle of which he nervously makes inscriptions reminiscent of Chinese writing or a signature. His techniques, which make use of scraping, jets of water and paint runs, give an impression of movement in space and facilitate fading in and fading out in the manner of Zao Wou-Ki....

Article

Bio Art  

Suzanne Anker

From Anatomical studies to landscape painting to the Biomorphism of Surrealism, the biological realm historically provided a significant resource for numerous artists. More recently, Bio Art became a term referring to intersecting domains that comprise advances in the biological sciences and their incorporation into the plastic arts. Of particular importance in works of Bio Art is to summon awareness of the ways in which the accelerating biomedical sciences alter social, ethical and cultural values in society.

Coming to the fore in the early 1990s Bio Art is neither media specific nor locally bounded. It is an international movement with practitioners in such regions as Europe, the US, Russia, Australia and the Americas. Several subgenres of Bio Art exist within this overarching term:

(i) Artists who employ the iconography of the 20th and 21st century sciences, including molecular and cellular genetics, transgenically altered living matter and reproductive technologies as well as the diverse fields of neuroscience. All traditional media such as painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking and drawing are employed to convey novel ways of representing life forms. Images of chromosomes, the double helix, magnetic resonance imaging body scans and neuroanatomy comprise this iconography. The molecular underpinnings of the living world have also become visible through high technological instrumentation when artists incorporate such pictorialisations as part of their practice. Representations span both genotypic variations and phenotypic ones. Artists include Suzanne Anker (...

Article

Meghan E. Grossman

Fashion photography is the use of photography to communicate the latest trends in clothing. It acts as a representation of popular taste and is created to serve a commercial industry, yet it has also served as an avenue for change, pushing the boundaries of acceptability with innovations in style, technique, and the portrayal of fashion. Fashion photography was a democratizing force in the acceptance of photography, as it brought the new form of expression to an audience of every social level, rich or poor, urban or suburban. Via mass media, photography serves to relate changes in fashion over long distances and many cultures, primarily disseminating the styles of high fashion in Paris, Milan, or New York to the rest of the world.

Fashion photography as it exists today falls into three main categories: editorial, advertising, and documentary. In the first category, photographs are commissioned by a publication to provide the “news” in fashion to its audience. These photographs are intended to feature the best designs of the current season, without monetary compensation from the companies whose products are included. Editorial photographs are often tied together by theme or narrative, to create a coherent multi-page spread featuring several different designs. Advertising photographs are commissioned by the design house, manufacturer, or retailer to feature a product or brand identity. The company pays for the space in which the advertising photograph appears. Finally, fashion design companies often commission photographers to document their collections; these photographs can be used in-house for documentary purposes or published in the form of a catalog, which serves as additional advertising. Depending on the purpose of the assignment, the photographer may choose to feature the clothes on a model, or hide fashion pieces amongst a jumble of unrelated objects. The goal of the photographer is to elevate the clothing to its highest status, the “fashion object,” through visual cues, lighting, composition, and creativity. Photography has served to add prestige to fashionable clothes since its introduction....

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1955, in Madrid.

Painter.

Carlos Forns Bada's painting displays a Cubist influence and, above all, a Surrealist influence, and also recalls certain works by Dalí and Chirico. He has taken part in numerous group exhibitions, including: in 1977, the ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 5 November 1947, in Tourcoing.

Painter (mixed media). Interiors, landscapes.

Grisor lives and works in Lille. The graphic automatism of his early works has given way to figurative painting, in which he inserts actual objects, such as a coat with a fur collar, an iron, a video screen, or projector. His projects, montages dealing with the absurd, suggest the presence of the human being, which, however, is always absent from the picture....

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the USA from 1972.

Born 1941, in Hunan.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

At the start of his career, Dennis Hwang used graphic techniques such as those used in batik in a so-called Abstract Surrealist style. He also wrote a book entitled ...

Article

Swiss, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 8 November 1950, in La Chaux-de-Fonds.

Draughtsman.

Jean-Michel Jaquet studied at the École des Art Décoratifs in Geneva. He exhibited for the first time in Auvernier-Neuchâtel in 1973. Without being Surrealist, his drawings have the same freedom of invention, the same taste for puns and disrespect. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the Netherlands.

Born 1952.

Painter.

Miguel Lohlé was self-taught. The abstract lyricism and Surrealism in his paintings is partly drawn from CoBrA. His work, sometimes constructed and sometimes gestural, relies on experimentation with form and colour.

He has been represented in collective exhibitions including: Lineart, Ghent; ...

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Pangua (Burgos).

Painter.

José María Maestu's painting seems to be a take on the great figurative Surrealist tradition started by Dalí and Tanguy. He has participated in several group exhibitions (notably Art Jonction in Nice, 1987) and shows his works in solo exhibitions in Spain....

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1952.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver.

The painting of Benito Marcos has its roots in Abstract Surrealism, its plastic preoccupation being with the arrangement in space of uncertain architectural forms. He has shown his works in solo exhibitions including: 1981, 1989, Bergamo; ...

Article

Eric M. Wolf

( Houston )

American art collection that opened in 1987. In 2015 the collection contained approximately 17,000 objects, specializing in modern and contemporary art (with particular strength in Surrealism, School of Paris, Abstract Expressionism, Pop art, and Minimalism), antiquities, Byzantine art, and the art of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas. While the vast majority of works in the museum come from the collection of its late founders, John and Dominique Menil, de, the museum continues to collect and grow its art collection.

The main building was designed by architect Renzo Piano and was his first solo museum commission (he had previously partnered with Richard Rogers in the design of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris) and his first commission in the USA. In 2013 this building won the Twenty-Five Year Award of the American Institute of Architects, recognizing architectural design of lasting significance. Sited in a residential neighbourhood in Houston’s Montrose district, the modestly scaled museum building is surrounded by bungalows, houses, and smaller satellite galleries creating a campus-like environment. These surrounding properties are owned by the Menil Foundation and are painted a grey matching that of the wooden cladding on the main building. The museum features the first iteration of Piano’s signature glass roof, here suspended over large ferro-concrete ‘leaves’ or fixed louvres, which regulate the natural light entering the galleries. In addition to gallery space, the main building contains a conservation laboratory with studios for painting, object, and paper treatment, a research library, archives, museum offices, and the second floor ‘treasure rooms’, a sort of curated art storage making a large portion of the museum’s collection immediately available to curatorial staff and visiting scholars....

Article

Montage  

Tom Williams

Term that refers to the technique of organizing various images into a single composition in both film and visual art. It is also frequently applied to musical and literary works that emphasize fragmentation and paratactic construction. In film, the term typically refers to the organization of individual shots to create a larger structure or narrative. This technique was developed most systematically by the film makers of the 1920s Russian avant-garde such as Sergey Eisenstein (1898–1948), Lev Kuleshov (1899–1970), and Vsevolod Pudovkin (1893–1953). In visual art, the term refers to the juxtaposition of disparate images in Collage and particularly Photomontage. Although this use of montage has a number of historical precursors, it was developed primarily in the 1910s and 1920s by artists associated with Dada, Surrealism, and Russian Constructivism such as George Grosz, John Heartfield, Hannah Höch, and Aleksandr Rodchenko. During the period after World War II, the technique became an increasingly routine practice in both advertising and the fine arts. In the late 20th century it has been most associated with the work of such figures as ...

Article

Ana Tapias

(b Maracaibo, Aug 31, 1951).

Venezuelan painter. He studied at the Escuela de Arte ‘Neptalí Rincón’ in Maracaibo from 1967 to 1970. In his work he used elements derived from Surrealism to create portraits containing imaginary landscapes and figures, as in the Blue Bird (1977; priv. col., see 1977 exh. cat., fig.). He won a number of important national awards, including first prize in the National Salon of Young Artists (1975) and first honorary mention in painting in the First National Biennale of Young Artists (1981) at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas. Niño also represented Venezuela in the São Paulo Biennale of 1982, in the 12th Biennale at the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris, and in the 42nd Venice Biennale (1986).

Carmelo Niño (exh. cat. by J. Calzadilla, R. Montero Castro and S. Antillano, Caracas, Gal. A. N., 1977)Los espacios sublimados (exh. cat., Caracas, Cent. A. Euro-Amer.)...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1962.

Painter (mixed media).

Lionel Nosmas lives and works in Valensole. His work presents figurative images with a tendency towards Surrealism.

He has taken part in group exhibitions, including: the Galerie Lubin des Buards in Nice, 1985; the Carrefour des Arts (Art Forum) at the Villa Arson in Nice, ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Fontenay-sous-Bois.

Painter, sculptor.

Groups: Rupture, Phases.

Maurice Odic's art depicts interior worlds like those revealed by Surrealism and Lyrical Abstraction. In 1996, a surgical accident left him tetraplegic; since then, he has composed his pictures by computer....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 7 July 1948, in Paris.

Painter. Landscapes, architectural views.

Daniel Peccoux is married to the painter Léni-Dael. He paints fantastic architectural views in Surrealist-style landscapes. He has taken part in exhibitions, including the Salon des Indépendants in Paris in ...

Article

Venezuelan, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1957, in Caracas.

Painter (mixed media), screen printer.

Alexandra Poleo's painting displays a kind of figurative Surrealism, not dissimilar to free figuration. She has taken part in collective exhibitions, including: touring exhibition with the Telarte group in the USA and Switzerland (...