1-20 of 21 results  for:

  • 1900–2000 x
  • Industrial and Commercial Art x
  • Painting and Drawing x
  • American Art x
Clear all

Article

Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Haag, Austria, April 5, 1900; d Santa Barbara, CA, Sept 30, 1985).

American painter, designer, photographer and typographer, of Austrian birth. After serving in the Austrian army (1917–18), Bayer studied architecture under Professor Schmidthammer in Linz in 1919 and in 1920 worked with the architect Emanuel Margold in Darmstadt. From 1921 to 1923 he attended the Bauhaus in Weimar, studying mural painting (with Vasily Kandinsky) and typography; it was at this time that he created the Universal alphabet, consisting only of lowercase letters. In 1925 he returned to the Bauhaus, then in Dessau, as a teacher of advertising, layout and typography, remaining there until 1928. For the next ten years he was based in Berlin as a commercial artist: he worked as art manager of Vogue (1929–30) and as director of the Dorland advertising agency. Shortly after his first one-man exhibitions at the Galerie Povolotski, Paris, and at the Kunstlerbund März, Linz (both 1929), he created photomontages of a Surrealist nature, such as ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 6 December 1939, in Chicago.

Painter (mixed media), sculptor, designer (furniture).

Finish Fetish, Light and Space.

Larry Bell grew up in San Fernando Valley. In 1957 he joined the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles with the intention of becoming a draughtsman at Disney. However, inspired by the teaching of Robert Irwin and his peers, he resolved to become a painter and left the school before graduating in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1904.

Draughtsman, designer.

Hin Bredendieck was an industrial designer and lived and worked in Atlanta. He studied in Stuttgart and Hamburg and was a student at the Bauhaus between 1927 and 1930. From 1937 to 1945, he was director of the foundation course at the New Bauhaus in Chicago....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 6 November 1932, in Emporia (Kansas).

Assemblage artist, painter, furniture designer.

Wendell Castle studied at the University of Kansas, receiving a BFA in sculpture in 1958 and an MFA in industrial design in 1961. He has taught at the University of Kansas (...

Article

Kirk Marlow

(Fraser)

(b Cramond, nr Edinburgh, July 22, 1900; d Ottawa, July 5, 1994).

Canadian painter, draughtsman, teacher, museum director and writer of Scottish birth. In 1912 he emigrated to Winnipeg, where he was apprenticed in the commercial art studio of Fred Brigden (1871–1956). He also attended the Winnipeg School of Art (1916–18) and continued to work at Brigden’s until 1922. In that year he studied at the Art Students’ League, New York, and in 1925 he moved to Toronto, working until 1929 for the Toronto branch of Brigden’s and then for the commercial design firm Rapid, Grip & Batten. In 1931, with Will Ogilvie (1901–89) and Harold Ayres (1894–?1977), he formed his own commercial studio. The muted colours, schematic compositions and smooth surfaces of his paintings from the late 1920s show evidence of his design background. In his best-known painting, Tadoussac (1935; Ottawa, N.G.), a bird’s-eye view of a town in Quebec, there is a simplification of detail and a calculated arrangement of sparse, crisply edged forms. During the 1920s and 1930s Comfort was recognized as one of Canada’s finest portrait painters working in watercolour and oil. In the portrait of the violinist ...

Article

Aaris Sherin

(b Pittsburgh, PA, 1912).

American graphic designer, illustrator and painter. A student of Alexey Brodovitch, she graduated from the Philadelphia Museum of Industrial Arts and went off to assist Brodovitch as instructor at the Design Laboratory (1935–8). She was art director for Mademoiselle Magazine (1944), Harper’s Bazaar (1940, 1946), Seventeen and House & Garden (both 1949). Her freelance credits included Fortune, House & Garden, Life, Look, Seventeen, Town & Country and Vogue magazines. A successful designer and art director, the early part of her career was spent as a commercial artist. Later she turned primarily to illustration and fine art; areas where she completed the bulk of her life’s work. Today she is known for her small paintings, which are widely collected.

Falconer’s paintings are small landscapes and still-lifes that provide intimate vignettes of somewhat pedestrian subjects. The work has commonalities with folk-art, Surrealism and realism without falling into any one genre. She always approached her subject head on, depicting the commonplace in scenes including spice jars, flowers, boats, building facades and interiors. Her rendition of three pansies is given equal attention as her depiction of the more visually complex river boat houses in New Orleans. Regardless of content, she gives personality to her subjects with precision and a combination of softness and detail that reminds one of early American primitivism, without seeming either stiff or rigid. She designed six stamps for the US Postal Service including the Rose Stamp booklet (...

Article

David Burnett

(b Winnipeg, March 17, 1890; d Winnipeg, Aug 5, 1956).

Canadian painter. He attended evening classes at A. S. Kezthelyi’s Art School in Winnipeg (1909) and studied at the Art Students League, New York (1921–2). He worked as a commercial artist in Winnipeg from 1922 to 1924 before joining the Winnipeg School of Art in 1924; he became its principal in 1929 and held that position until 1949, although he stopped teaching in 1947. In 1932 he was invited to become a member of the Group of Seven and in the following year, when the group officially disbanded, he became a founder-member of the Canadian Group of Painters.

FitzGerald’s work, ranging across landscape, still-life and figure painting and drawing, is characterized by a precise depiction of space, light and volume, as in Doc Snyder’s House (1931) or From an Upstairs Window, Winter (1948; Ottawa, N.G.). His meticulous working procedure and self-critical perfectionism led him to produce only a small number of paintings, his work being most widely known through watercolours and drawings, some of them executed in a delicate variant of pointillism, for example ...

Article

David Burnett and Lin Barton

(b Montreal, Oct 3, 1882; d Kleinburg, Ont., April 5, 1974).

Canadian painter. He worked as a commercial artist in Montreal (1895–1906) and Chicago (1906–7) and attended evening classes at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1906. Determined to become a painter, he went to Paris in 1907 and studied at the Académie Julian under Jean-Paul Laurens. He returned to Montreal in 1909 but in 1913 moved to Toronto, where he became associated with other painters who later banded together as the Group of Seven, notably J. E. H. MacDonald, Arthur Lismer, and Fred Varley. One of the first large paintings in which he established the terms of his approach to the open Canadian landscape, Terre Sauvage (1913; Ottawa, N.G.; for illustration see Group of Seven), was painted in the studio of a future member of the group, Lawren S. Harris. He shared a studio with Tom Thomson from January 1914 and in October 1914...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 23 June 1920, in Walker (Iowa); died 1999.

Painter. Nudes.

John Kacere showed artistic aptitude at an early age. He first trained as a commercial artist in Chicago where his exposure to the great masters, from Holbein to Degas, in the city's museums led to a shift in his career. During World War II, his interest turned to the moderns, for example, Picasso and Klee. After graduating from the university of Iowa, he taught first at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, moving on to, among others, the Rhode Island School of Design and the University of New Mexico. He rose to fame around ...

Article

Rosemarie L. Tovell

(b nr Paisley, Ont., Jan 8, 1882; d Bancroft, Ont., Dec 26, 1953).

Canadian painter and printmaker. He studied at the Art Students League in New York (1903–5), supporting himself as a commercial artist. His voracious appetite for the avant-garde led him to examine all that was available in New York, particularly the French modernists at Alfred Stieglitz’s 291 Gallery. His strong and personal style incorporated aspects of the work of the American and French Impressionists, Whistler, Cézanne, Maurice Prendergast and the Fauves. Milne exhibited his works in watercolour societies in New York and Philadelphia from 1909 to 1916. He was one of two Canadians represented in the Armory Show (1913) and he won a silver medal at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915, San Francisco). The chief work of his New York period is Billboard (1912; Ottawa, N.G.)

Milne moved to rural Boston Corners, NY, in 1916. Working with a more limited palette and looser, fluid brushwork, he began to depict the same landscape subjects in oil and watercolour under varying climatic conditions. In early ...

Article

Hana Myslivečková

(b Světec u Bíliny, July 31, 1873; d Dachau, June 11, 1944).

Czech printmaker, designer, illustrator, painter, and teacher, active also in the USA. From 1892 he studied at the School of Applied Industrial Art in Prague (in Friedrich Ohmann’s Decorative Architecture workshop). In 1897 he left for Paris, where in 1898 he worked for Alphonse Mucha, familiarized himself with graphic techniques, worked in applied graphics, and experimented with lettering and design, and photography. His early, Secessionist, work was influenced by Japanese art and Symbolism. After his return to Prague in 1903 he devoted himself to illustration, publishing an album, Coloured Etchings in the Graphic Art Atelier at Vinohrady, Prague (New York, 1906), and the book Barevný lept a barevná rytina [Coloured etching and coloured engraving], and founding the periodical Česká grafika. Preissig lived in the USA from 1910, gaining a reputation as an innovator in the field of book and advertising graphic design, typography, and illustration, in which fields he introduced the linocut and other special graphic techniques. He taught at art schools in New York, and from ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born c. 1900, in Detroit (Michigan); died 1990.

Painter.

Symbolism.

Edna Reindel worked in New York. After graduating in 1923 she undertook book illustration and commercial artwork. She then took a Tiffany Foundation Fellowship, after which she several painted murals for Stamford Housing Project, Connecticut, and for Swainsboro post office, Georgia, for the Treasury Department. Reindel held her first solo show in New York (...

Article

Susan Fillin-Yeh

(Rettew )

(b Philadelphia, PA, July 16, 1883; d Dobbs Ferry, NY, May 7, 1965).

American painter and photographer. He studied at the Philadelphia School of Industrial Design from 1900 to 1903, and then with William Merritt Chase at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (1903–6). In 1906 he exhibited in a group exhibition at the National Academy of Design, New York. From 1908 to 1909, while visiting Europe, Sheeler and Morton Schamberg discovered the architectonic painting structure in the frescoes of Piero della Francesca at Arezzo, in the work of Paul Cézanne, and in works by Henri Matisse and Georges Braque; Sheeler exhibited paintings influenced by Cézanne and by Synchromist colour abstraction at the 1913 Armory Show.

Early Analytical Cubist paintings by Picasso were a decisive influence on Sheeler’s art from 1910 to 1920, for, like contemporary artists and writers inspired by Van Wycks Brook’s notion of a ‘usable past’ (‘On Creating a Usable Past’, The Dial, 11 April 1918, pp. 337–41), Sheeler learnt to discover abstract form in older native subject-matter, particularly in the imposing stone barns of Bucks County, PA; in the conté drawing ...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Lafayette, AL, Nov 7, 1903; d Columbus, OH, Dec 1, 1981).

American artist, designer and teacher . His childhood interest in drawing was counterbalanced by parallel involvements in science and engineering. He took high school courses in engineering drawing, which he went on to study at Ohio State University (OSU) in 1921. Soon after, he changed his major to architecture, then art, eventually earning a degree in fine arts in 1927. Hired the following year to teach basic drawing, he remained on the OSU art faculty until his retirement in 1974. The most eventful phase of his life began in 1941, when, in response to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, he devised an extraordinary method (which he credited to Rembrandt) of using drawing to improve the visual acuity of students, with the intention that they might then better detect the presence of enemy airplanes. This teaching method, for which he also admitted indebtedness to Paul Cézanne and the Gestalt psychologists, consisted of asking his students to draw from projected slides in a pitch black room called a flash laboratory. Each slide was projected for only one-tenth of a second, in response to which the students drew from memory in total darkness. By collaborating with non-art members of the OSU faculty (especially educational psychologist Ross L. Mooney and optical physiologist Glenn A. Fry), Sherman was able to argue persuasively that the accuracy of his students’ perception had improved markedly by drawing in the flash laboratory, so much so that members of the university football team were required to work with him daily, with the goal of improving their passing. The results of this teaching method were formally presented in ...

Article

Janet Marstine

(b Woodstown, NJ, Nov 6, 1876; d New York, May 1, 1953).

American painter, illustrator, designer, playwright, and film director. He studied industrial design at the Spring Garden School in Philadelphia from 1888 to 1890. In 1893 he became an illustrator at the Philadelphia Press. Simultaneously he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he met Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and George Luks. Their style of urban realism prompted him to depict the bleak aspects of city life. In 1897 Shinn moved to New York and produced illustrations for several newspapers and magazines, for example Mark Twain (March 1900; see Perlman, p. 80), a frontispiece for The Critic. He also drew sketches for a novel by William Dean Howells on New York; although the novel was not published, Shinn’s drawings brought him national recognition.

Shinn’s work changed radically when, on a trip to Paris in 1901, he was inspired by the theatre scenes of Manet, Degas, and Jean-Louis Forain. He began to paint performers in action, from unusual vantage points, as in ...

Article

Ilene Susan Fort

(b Lock Haven, PA, Aug 2, 1871; d Hanover, NH, Sept 7, 1951).

American painter, printmaker and draughtsman. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts with Thomas Pollock Anshutz from 1892 to 1894 and worked as a commercial artist, first with the newspaper the Philadelphia Inquirer (1892–5) and then the Philadelphia Press (1895–1903). He first gained national recognition for his illustrations in the turn-of-the-century poster style, for example Atlantic City Beach (Philadelphia Inquirer, 19 Aug 1894). He earned his living through magazine illustrations until 1916.

Through his association with Robert Henri and the group of young Philadelphia artists around him, Sloan began c. 1897 to paint in oil and became interested in depicting city life. In 1904, he followed Henri to New York, where he stayed for the rest of his life. In 1908, he participated with seven other artists in an exhibition at the Macbeth Gallery to protest the conservative taste of the National Academy of Design. The group was dubbed ...

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Mesa, AZ, Nov 15, 1920).

American painter, draughtsman, and printmaker. While still studying at Long Beach Polytechnic High School he worked briefly at the Walt Disney Studios in Los Angeles (1936–7). In 1938 he studied commercial art at the Frank Wiggins Trade School in Los Angeles and then worked in Long Beach as a cartoonist. After World War II he attended San Jose State College (1949–50) and California State College at Sacramento (1950–53), majoring in art. While working as an art instructor at Sacramento Junior College from 1951 to 1960 he experimented with various styles of painting, but after meeting Abstract Expressionist painters in New York in 1956–7 he produced such works as The Sea Rolls In (1958; Sacramento, CA, Crocker A. Mus.) under their influence.

In 1960 Thiebaud began teaching in the Art Department of the University of California at Davis. He began in that year to paint still-lifes of items of food such as pies and cakes, for example ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 7 March 1918, in Chicago; died 23 August 2011.

Painter, engraver, lithographer.

June Wayne was an industrial designer and then a radio reporter until 1943. She founded the Tamarind Lithography Studio in Los Angeles.

She worked in lithography from 1948...

Article

Jean Stern

(b Bentzen, Feb 20, 1865; d Laguna Beach, CA, Dec 29, 1946).

American painter of German birth. He came to the USA in 1880, settling in Chicago, where he worked in a commercial art firm. Essentially self-taught, he attended evening classes at the Art Institute of Chicago for only a brief period. Dissatisfied with figure studies, he preferred painting landscapes and quickly became an active exhibitor in various Chicago art shows, winning the Second Yerkes Prize at the Chicago Society of Artists exhibition in 1893. Wendt and Gardner Symons (1862–1930) made a number of trips to California between 1896 and 1904 and, in 1898, to the art colony at St Ives in Cornwall, England. In 1906 Wendt settled in Los Angeles with his wife, sculptor Julia Bracken. He became a leading member in the art community and was a founder-member of the California Art Club in 1909. In 1912 he moved his home and studio to the art colony at Laguna Beach, the same year that he was elected to the National Academy of Design. He was a founder-member of the Laguna Beach Art Association in ...

Article

Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Mayfield, KY, April 30, 1899; d New York, NY, Jan 1, 1977).

American painter. Wilson worked as graphic artist in Chicago for five years after completing the four-year commercial art program at the Art Institute of Chicago School in 1923. He became an adept colorist with a particular interest in still life composition. Wilson hoped to grow as a painter after moving to Harlem, New York in 1928 where he worked odd jobs for wages. Three years later, he permanently relocated to Greenwich Village. He exhibited with the Harmon Foundation, at the Detroit Museum, the Contemporary Arts and Roko Galleries in New York City, and at most of the large historically black universities and colleges. Wilson socialized with important members of the New Negro arts movement such as Aaron Douglas and Jacob Lawrence whose abbreviated figurative works tempered his academic realist style ( see New Negro Movement ). His skill with linear gestures, affinity with nature, and ability to strike a coherent balance between them identify this best work. With two years of Guggenheim fellowships, he spent time with the African Americans living on South Carolina’s Sea Islands in ...