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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 28 November 1907, in Charlotte (North Carolina); died 27 April 1977, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, lithographer. Murals.

Groups: Spiral, 306.

Charles Alston moved to New York with his mother in 1914, after his father died. Alston received his BA and MA (...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in Lexington (Virginia).

Painter, engraver, illustrator.

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 13 November 1930, in Madison (Georgia).

Painter, collage artist, installation artist, sculptor, photographer, illustrator, draughtsman, watercolourist, print artist. Figures, portraits, interiors with figures, landscapes, animals.

African-American artist Benny Andrews served in the USA Air Force during the Korean War. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, graduating with a BFA in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1896; died 1979, in Rockport (Massachusetts).

Painter, illustrator, lithographer.

Vera Andrus studied at the Minneapolis Institute of Art and then at the Art Students League in New York, where she was taught by Boardman Robinson. The Musée-galerie de la Seita in Paris showed her work in the ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1914, in Washington (North Carolina), 1919, according to some sources; died 1977.

Sculptor, print artist, ceramicist, illustrator.

William E. Artis studied at the University of Syracuse, New York, New York State University and the Art Students League, New York. He was also a student of Augusta Savage at the Harlem Community Art Center, New York. Artis expressed his humanist ideals by depicting impassive faces in a purified style, combining African and classical sculpture....

Article

Roberta K. Tarbell

[Margaret] (Frances)

(b Ridgefield, CT, May 2, 1895; d Kennebunk, ME, Jan 4, 1987).

American printmaker, illustrator, painter, and writer. Bacon’s artist parents, Elizabeth and Charles Roswell Bacon, met at the Art Students League around 1890. Bacon lived in Cornish, NH (1903), and in Montreuil-sur-Mer, France (1904–6), and learnt French, Latin, Greek, drawing, and writing from tutors before attending the Kent Place School in Summit, NJ (1909–13). She then attended the School of Applied Design for Women briefly and the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts. In 1914 and 1915, landscape artist Jonas Lie (1880–1940) taught her oil painting. At the Art Students League (1915–20), she took the ‘Women’s Life Class’ with Kenneth Hayes Miller, portraiture with George Bellows, and painting with John Sloan, studied briefly with George Bridgman (1864–1943) and Max Weber, and received critiques in printmaking from Mahonri Young. She then studied modern painting with Andrew Dasburg (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1894, in Wallula (Washington).

Painter, engraver, illustrator.

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1887, in Kansas City.

Painter, engraver, illustrator.

Article

Irma B. Jaffe

(b New Brunswick, NJ, Aug 15, 1922; d Northampton, MA, June 3, 2000).

American sculptor, illustrator and printmaker. Baskin studied at the New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts (1939–41), the School of Fine Art (1941–3) and New School for Social Research (1949). He also studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1950) and the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1951). Inspired by the iconic, monolithic imagery of Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian art, and the similar stylistic qualities of Romanesque and Italian Gothic, he consistently and inventively made use of the archaic mode in such prints as the powerful woodcut Man of Peace (1952; see Fern and O’Sullivan, p. 61) as well as in his sculpture. A traditionalist, he carved in wood and stone, and modelled in clay, taking the human figure as his subject. He firmly believed that painting and sculpture should mediate between artist and viewer some moral insight about human experience, and he was convinced that abstract art could not do this. Throughout his career he rejected spatial penetration of form, preferring the holistic look of such works as the ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1881, in Magdeburg (Saxony-Anhalt), Germany; died 1971.

Painter, engraver (wood), sculptor, illustrator. Landscapes, genre scenes. Marionettes.

Japonisme.

Provincetown Artists' Colony.

At the age of 10, Gustave Baumann emigrated to Chicago with his family. In 1898, he worked for an engraver and took evening classes at the Art Institute. He opened an advertising studio in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 September 1911, in Charlotte (North Carolina); died 12 March 1988, in New York.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, lithographer, screen printer, engraver, collage artist, newspaper cartoonist, illustrator, art theorist. Religious subjects, figure compositions, local figures. Humorous cartoons, frontispieces, stage sets...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Columbus (Ohio); died 1925, in New York.

Painter, illustrator, lithographer. Figure compositions, portraits.

Group of Eight (Ashcan School).

George Wesley Bellows was a student of William Chase, Kenneth Hays Miller and, especially, Robert Henri, whose private courses he attended in 1904. He was one of the youngest members of the Ashcan School, of which Henri was the chief mover and theoretician, which found its subjects in scenes of unadorned urban street life, with its noises, smells and dirt. He was often inspired by Thomas Eakins, though in choice of subjects rather than style. He featured in an exhibition of the National Academy of Design in New York, where he obtained a prize in 1908 and became a member in 1909. He took part as a representative of American Realist artists in the organisation of the Armory Show in 1914, which was unquestionably the defining artistic event in the USA in the early 20th century. He also belonged to a group within American artistic society known as the Fifteen Group. In 1920 and 1925, he was briefly one of the Woodstock Group, and bought a house in that town....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 April 1889, in Neosho (Missouri); died 1975, in Kansas City (Missouri).

Painter, lithographer, illustrator, ceramicist. Scenes with figures, genre scenes, local scenes. Murals.

American Regionalism.

Thomas Hart Benton gave up his job as a newspaper cartoonist in order to enroll in the Art Institute of Chicago, before pursuing his studies in Paris at the Académie Julian from 1908 to 1911. He was then in contact with some of the early 20th-century artists seeking radical renewal, in particular Stanton MacDonald-Wright, one of the active members of the Synchromism movement, which used the circle as the element capable of enlivening an abstract composition through the effects of colour dynamism. Benton himself said that it took him 10 years to break away from this abstract art, which later, after World War I, he openly opposed. But on his return to the USA in 1912, he was still in touch with Alfred Stieglitz, who was showing work by abstract artists and in 1916 was still showing Benton’s synchromist abstract paintings. Back in New York in 1913, he produced pottery, designed sets for Fox Studios, illustrated books and taught an evening class. He also taught at the New School for Social Research in Manhattan, where his personal choices had a significant influence on a great many young artists. Then, from 1926, he taught at the Art Students League, New York, where in 1929 one of his students was Jackson Pollock, who for a time painted Realist pictures, but quickly reacted against this genre, all the more vigorously for having to oppose Benton’s strong personality....

Article

Henry Adams

(b Neosho, MO, April 15, 1889; d Kansas City, MO, Jan 19, 1975).

American painter, illustrator, and lithographer. One of the most controversial personalities in American art, both in his lifetime and today, Thomas Hart Benton was a key figure in the American Regionalist movement of the 1930s, when he focused on working-class American subject-matter and was outspoken in his denunciation of European modern painting. Today he is best remembered for this phase of his life, and much criticized because of it. But Benton’s long career is not easily reduced to a single moment or achievement: his legacy was more complex. As a young struggling artist in Paris and New York, he was a leading American modernist and abstractionist, and in his early maturity he became the teacher and lifelong father figure for Jackson Pollock, the most famous of the Abstract Expressionists. He was also a major American writer, who wrote on art and whose autobiography of 1936 became a best-seller. He was also a notable figure in American music who collected American folk songs and devised a new form of harmonica notation that is still in use....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 October 1874, in St Louis (Missouri); died 1952.

Painter, illustrator. Figure compositions.

Taos Society of Artists.

Oscar Edmund Berninghaus was the son of a lithographer. He took evening classes at the St Louis School of Fine Arts for three terms and in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 13 April 1924, in Gastonia (North Carolina); died February 2001.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, print artist, illustrator. Figures, scenes with figures. Murals.

John Biggers studied at the Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia. From 1943 to 1945, he served in the US navy. After the war, he studied under Viktor Lowenfeld at Pennsylvania State University, first earning a BS, and then an MS in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 29 January 1855, in Dedham (Massachusetts).

Painter, illustrator, engraver (etching).

Henry Robertson Blaney specialised in Eastern subjects and in 1901 exhibited in Buffalo, where he received an honourable mention.

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1935, in Troy (New York).

Engraver, draughtsman, illustrator.

Devorah Boxer picks her subject, which may be a Roman Lock or a Hanging Pillow, and depicts it meticulously, breathing soul and dimensionality into it. She has illustrated a number of books and has also written some, including ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1888, in Polk (Wisconsin).

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator.

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1853, in Louisville (Kentucky); died 1921, in Brooklyn (New York City).

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Figures, portraits.

New York, 23 April 1982: Cale, the Bravest Apache (c. 1890, oil on canvas, 12 × 8 ins/30.5 × 20.2 cm) USD 4,000...