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Article

Greek, 16th century, male.

Active in Nicaea before 1588.

Painter. History painting, portraits.

According to Zani, Adolus reproduced an old Byzantine painting dating from the 14th century, the Portrait of Epiphanias, Bishop of Constance.

Article

Alipi  

Russian, 11th – 12th century, male.

Died 17 August 1114.

Painter.

This artist was a monk who took his name from that of the monastery in the caves of Kiev. He painted images of the oldest saints, having learned his art from the Byzantine painters who decorated the monastery church in ...

Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active Lombard artist, active at around the same time as Giotto.

Fresco artist.

Andreino da Edesia was probably of Byzantine origin but biographers disagree about the artist. Zani refers to him from 1290 to 1310 and Lomazzo in 1330. The fresco of ...

Article

Angelus  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Venetian School.

Of Venetian origin. An Behold the Man ( Ecce Homo) in the Byzantine style is signed Angelus painted this ( Angelus pinxit).

Venice (Mus. Correr): Ecce homo (signed)

Article

Astrapa  

Serb, 13th – 14th century, male.

Painter.

This Byzantine artist was working around the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century. Employed as painter to the king Milutin, he had many assistants in his studio, including in particular his sons Entychios and Mikhail. A stylistic shift towards greater expression was discernible in the work emerging from their studio, dealing with subjects such as poetry, fables and religious history. Numerous frescoes are attributed to these artists, for instance ...

Article

A. Dean McKenzie

(fl c. 1290–1311). Byzantine painter active in Macedonia. ‘Astrapas’ (Gr.: ‘lightning’) is a pseudonym, and some scholars doubt that it refers to a particular artist. Although the name Astrapas appears together with the name Michael on the wall painting (1295) in the church of the Mother of God Peribleptos in Ohrid, it is not clear whether the two names belong to one and the same artist or two different people. It is also not possible to distinguish the style of Astrapas from that of Michael and Eutychios who also painted frescoes there. The signature of ‘Astrapas’ as painter appears in the exonarthex of the church of the Mother of God (Sveta Bogorodica) Ljeviška (1307–9) in Prizren, where his work has been associated with that of the so-called ‘Master of the Prophets’. Astrapas has also been credited with the frescoes (c. 1311) in the church of the Ascension in the monastery of Žića, in Serbia. His style of painting is characterized by dramatic composition and lively, lifelike figures achieved through the use of classicizing three-dimensional techniques and a palette of warm colours against dark blue backgrounds. His nationality has been disputed, some scholars believing him to be an itinerant Greek artist recruited from Thessaloniki into the service of the Serbian king ...

Article

Bertolt  

German, 11th century, male.

Active in Salzburg.

Miniaturist.

Although this artist worked in Salzburg, his work has the Byzantine traits of the Regensburg School.

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

12th century, male.

Active in Padua in 1143.

Of Byzantine origin.

Painter.

Article

Daniel  

Italian, 12th century, male.

Fresco artist.

A Byzantine artist active in Brindisi about 1197.

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Activec.1227.

Born in Bologna.

Painter. Historical subjects, portraits.

Venetian School.

This artist was a member of the first association of painters formed in Venice by Byzantine painters.

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Florence at the beginning of the 13th century.

Mosaicist.

A Franciscan, in 1225 he decorated with mosaic in the Byzantine style the annex tribune of the Baptistery of S Giovanni, Florence. This artist should not be confused with Jacobsz. de Turrina....

Article

Greek, 9th century, male.

Died 867, in Rome.

Painter.

This Greek painter of the Byzantine School suffered persecution under the iconoclastic Emperor Theophilus, who had him flogged for painting religious images. After recovering, the saint continued to paint pictures of the Virgin and Jesus.

Article

Lazarus  

9th century, male.

Born in Chazan.

Painter.

A monk, this artist worked for the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople. He received commissions mainly from the Emperor Theophilus and the Empress Theodora.

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Born 1216, in Arezzo; died 1293, in Arezzo.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

This artist, who in his time had a great reputation, belongs stylistically to the Byzantine School. He was Cimabue's oldest rival, but despite the latter's success he does not seem to have had the slightest influence on Margaritone. Vasari writes at length about this master and refers to a large number of his works in Arezzo and elsewhere that have since disappeared. Pope Urban IV summoned him to Rome and had him decorate the porch of the old basilica of St Peter. Among works by Margaritone are a ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active Tuscan, active in the first part of the 13th century.

Sculptor.

Named after the architrave low relief of St John the Baptist on the porch of the Baptistery of Pisa. This sculptor's style shows very clear Byzantine influences.

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Painter.

Leipzig School.

Born in Saxony, this artist worked in Leipzig between 1510 and 1520. He acquired the name of 'Master of the Byzantine Madonna' on account of the Byzantine appearance of his paining of the Virgin. He was pre-eminent in the Leipzig School on the eve of the Reformation, and several of his works survive in the museum there and in Merseburg Cathedral, where there are two altarpieces, one dedicated to the ...

Article

John Richards

[Deodata; Deodatus]

fl Lucca, c. 1280; d before 1331).

Italian painter. He was an eclectic and apparently prolific artist whose works record the transition from Italo-Byzantine painting of the 13th century to the Giottesque milieu of the 14th. They also indicate the importance of Florentine styles for Lucchese painting in his time. The earliest work attributed to him is a Crucifix with a living Christ (c. 1280; Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), and if this attribution is correct it suggests that his early development was influenced by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri. Deodato was probably the ‘Datuccius Orlandi’ documented in 1284, and in 1288 he signed a richly ornamented Crucifix for S Cerbone, Lucca (Lucca, Villa Guinigi). This was evidently strongly influenced by Cimabue, for example in the way the hair spills from the (rather larger) head on to Christ’s shoulder, although the figure of the dead Christ has none of Cimabue’s monumentality. The style is linear, largely devoid of chiaroscuro though not without grace, and the modelling is barely structural. Some attempt has been made to reproduce the translucent drapery of the Christ of Cimabue’s later Crucifix (Florence, Santa Croce), but the swaying body keeps closer to the axis of the apron than is the case with Cimabue’s versions. The terminal figures of St John and the Virgin are seen in three-quarter length....

Article

Susan Pinto Madigan

(fl c. 976–1025).

Byzantine painter. The name ‘Pantoleon zographos’ (Gr.: ‘painter’) appears next to 79 of the 430 miniatures in the Menologion of Basil (976–1025) (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. gr. 1613). Pantoleon worked in Constantinople (now Istanbul), where he painted miniatures and icons and, according to a Life of St Athanasios the Athonite, witnessed a miraculous manifestation of that saint while he completed a commission for the Emperor. The Life reports that a certain Cosmas saw an icon of St Athanasios painted by Pantoleon and wanted one of his own. The owner agreed to find him a duplicate based on the original icon while Cosmas waited. When the owner arrived at Pantoleon’s shop to place the order the artist was perplexed, claiming that the day before he had received the same request from Athanasios, and that the icon was already completed. Pantoleon had experienced an ‘overshadowing’, having been visited by divine Grace....

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Spoleto (Umbria) in 1267.

Mosaicist.

There is a large mosaic in the Byzantine style by this artist on the façade of Spoleto Cathedral. It depicts Christ Enthroned, the Virgin and St John.