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American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in the United States.

Born 7 January 1830 , in Solingen, near Düsseldorf; died 18 February 1902 , in New York.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, photographer. Figures, local figures, landscapes with figures, landscapes, waterscapes, mountainscapes, urban landscapes, seascapes, animals, insects...


Merrill Halkerston

(b Portland, ME, March 4, 1832; d New York, March 26, 1920).

American painter, interior designer and writer. Colman grew up in New York, where his father, Samuel Colman, ran a successful publishing business. The family bookstore on Broadway, a popular meeting place for artists, offered Colman early introductions to such Hudson River school painters as Asher B(rown) Durand, with whom he is said to have studied briefly around 1850. Having won early recognition for his paintings of popular Hudson River school locations (see Storm King on the Hudson), he was elected an Associate of the National Academy of Design in New York in 1854. Most of Colman’s landscapes of the 1850s, for example Meadows and Wildflowers at Conway (1856; Poughkeepsie, NY, Vassar Coll., Frances Lehman Loeb A. Cent.), reveal the influence of the Hudson River school. An avid traveller, he embarked on his first European tour in 1860, visiting France, Italy, Switzerland and the more exotic locales of southern Spain and Morocco. His reputation was secured in the 1860s by his numerous paintings of romantic Spanish sites, notably the large ...


Phyllis Braff

(b Bolton, Lancs, Feb 12, 1837; d Santa Barbara, CA, Aug 26, 1926).

American painter, printmaker, and illustrator, of English birth. His brothers Edward (1829–1901), John (1831–1902), and Peter (1841–1914) were also artists. The family emigrated from England and settled in Philadelphia in 1844. At age 16 Moran was apprenticed to the wood-engraving firm Scattergood and Telfer, but he also began to produce watercolours that sold well. In an exchange arrangement with a book dealer, Moran acquired editions of important engravings, including Claude Lorrain’s Liber Veritatis and J. M. W. Turner’s Liber Studiorum. These served as formative influences for his career as a landscape painter, and contributed to his lifelong concern with pictorial structure and compositional devices. His study of oil painting was guided by his brother Edward, and by Edward’s acquaintance, the marine painter James Hamilton.

Moran’s interest in evocative natural settings led to a trip to Lake Superior in 1860 and to a series of paintings and prints featuring that region’s dramatic configurations of rocks and shoreline. In ...


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 12 January 1837, in Bolton (Lancashire); died 25 or 26 August 1926, in Santa Barbara (California).

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer. Figures, local scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Hudson River School.

Thomas Moran was taught by his brother Edward Moran. He travelled around France, England and Italy, then went to North America and settled in New York. He was one of the key figures of the Hudson River School and was influenced by Turner. In 1871 he made his first trip to the western Yellowstone region, joining a USA Geological Institute expedition. In 1873 he went with Major John Wesley to the Grand Canyon, which became one of his favourite sources of inspiration. He also left behind views of important American sites such as Yellowstone, Yosemite, Zion and the Teton range. Moran's landscapes are heavily imbued with a romantic and idealistic spirit. He transforms a vision of wild beauty, for example natural forms and forces aligned with bad weather, into an almost supernatural, but reasoned outburst. A fervent supporter of the early initiatives to create national parks, he is partly responsible for making Americans aware of the need to preserve their natural heritage....


John Walker Myers

(b Francestown, NH, March 9, 1832; d Granby, CT, July 30, 1928).

American painter. He began his career as a portrait painter in Boston, MA, but moved to New York in 1852 to enrol in antique and life classes at the National Academy of Design; he first exhibited there in 1855. During his studies he turned to landscape painting, becoming a successful member of the second generation of the Hudson River school. Such wilderness and marine paintings as Autumnal Snow on Mt Washington (1856; Poughkeepsie, NY, Vassar Coll., Frances Lehman Loeb A. Cent.) combine precise foreground detail with a more painterly realism in the middle- and background, following the Hudson River tradition. Inspired by the American Pre-Raphaelite movement, Shattuck produced a number of carefully observed nature studies including Leaf Study with Yellow Swallowtail (c. 1859; Santa Barbara, CA, Jo Ann and Julian Ganz jr priv. col.). Many of his works also reveal a knowledge of the Luminist aesthetic, with its concentration on soft, lyrical light and colour and a quiet, poetic evocation of nature. During the 1870s Shattuck’s subject-matter shifted from wilderness to pastoral themes, reflecting the growing taste in America for the mood of Barbizon school pictures. Because of his discontent with the art world and a dissatisfaction with his own work, complicated by a serious illness, Shattuck stopped painting in ...


American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 22 May 1820, in Springfield (Ohio); died 25 February 1910, in Summit (New Jersey).

Painter, draughtsman. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, mountainscapes, flowers, animals.

Hudson River School.

Thomas Worthington Whittredge trained at the Cincinnati Academy of Fine Arts, and subsequently in Düsseldorf and Italy (mostly Rome). He settled in New York in the early 1860s, and was active as a landscape painter and leading member of the Hudson River School. He accompanied three military expeditions to the Rocky Mountains and New Mexico, to observe the landscapes, and the culture of the local Native American tribes. He initially supported himself by producing daguerreotypes and portraits, and sign-painting, before devoting himself to depicting the American landscape, with particular attention to light effects. In the last ten years of his life, he produced an autobiography which was first published in ...


Anthony F. Janson

(b nr Springfield, OH, May 22, 1820; d Summit, NJ, Feb 25, 1910).

American painter. With little education but with a longing to be an artist, he went at the age of 17 to Cincinnati, OH, where he served an apprenticeship as a sign painter to his brother-in-law Almon Baldwin (1800–70). In the summer of 1842 Whittredge opened a daguerreotype studio in Indianapolis, IN, but left the following summer when it proved an unsuccessful venture. He then joined B. Jenks to work as a portrait painter in Charleston, WV, but dissolved the arrangement because of his partner’s alcoholism. Thereafter Whittredge decided to concentrate on landscapes, though he is documented as having painted some earlier. His first surviving landscape, Scene near Hawk’s Nest (1845; Cincinnati, OH, A. Mus.), is in the picturesque manner of the Hudson River school painter Thomas Doughty. A year later he adopted the style of Thomas Cole, as did William Lewis Sonntag, with whom he defined a distinctive regional style. Around the same time Whittredge began painting directly from nature. ...