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Jean-Claude Vigato

(b Nancy, Aug 22, 1871; d Nancy, March 10, 1933).

French architect. His grandfather, François André (1811–1904), was a developer and his father, Charles André (1841–1928), became a county architect and was one of the organizers of the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Lorrains of 1894, which proved to be a prelude to the formation of the Ecole de Nancy seven years later. Emile André studied architecture with Victor Laloux at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1896 he travelled to the Nile with Gaston Munier (1871–1918), his friend and fellow student. On the advice of the French archaeologist Jacques de Morgan, they excavated the temple of Kom Ombo (154 bcad 14) to the north of Aswan and under his direction they also took part in an archaeological mission to Persia (now Iran). André made drawings and watercolours on his travels and he went to India with the aid of a travel grant awarded to him for his contribution on Kom Ombo to the Salon of ...


(b Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 3, 1870; d Paris, Aug 14, 1935).

French architect. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Paul-René-Léon Ginain and Louis-Henri-Georges Scellier de Gisors, receiving his architectural diploma in 1892. His early work included S. Bing’s Art Nouveau pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (inspired by Louis Bonnier’s initial project), blocks of flats in Paris in ashlar work, for example 236–238 Boulevard Raspail, 105 Rue Raymond Poincaré (both 1906) and the corner site of the Avenues du Bois de Boulogne et Malakoff (c. 1908), as well as regionalist constructions (garage in Neuilly and rural buildings in Herqueville and Heilly). He participated regularly in the competitions organized by the City of Paris, building low-cost housing schemes in the Rue Brillat-Savarin (1914–30) and the garden city at Chatenay-Malabry (1920–32) in collaboration with Joseph Bassompierre and Paul de Rutté. Following World War I he was named architect for the reconstruction schemes for the districts of Aisne and Pas-de-Calais....


Meredith L. Clausen

Term used to refer to a movement or set of concerns espoused by a small number of left-wing artists and architects in the 1890s and early 1900s, mainly in Brussels and Paris. A significant number of leading Art Nouveau artists and architects, including Victor Horta, Héctor Guimard and Frantz Jourdain (the main spokesman for the movement) were involved. Art à la Rue, which focused specifically on bringing art to the working classes, was part of a broader movement aimed at social reform, whose roots were in the French socialist movement, the political theories of the Russian anarchist Prince Kropotkin and William Morris’s later essays. In challenging the élitist status of art, it urged those in the arts to forget the world of museums and collectors and to concentrate instead on relating art to everyday life, so that it assumed a more socially responsive role in society. The main arena for this was the ...


Anne van Loo

(b Brussels, Sept 15, 1863; d Antwerp, March 6, 1927).

Belgian architect . He began his studies at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, studying monumental architecture in the evenings while working by day. His marriage to the daughter of the architect J.-B. Vereecken introduced him to wealthy bourgeois circles where he found most of his clients. Between 1894 and 1906 he took part in the construction of the Zurenborg district of Antwerp, begun at the instigation of Senator John Cogels, where he built 25 houses for the Société Anonyme pour la Construction du Quartier Est d’Anvers. This group of buildings constitutes one of the city’s architectural curiosities: it is dominated by historicism, particularly in the double residence Euterpia (1906) that is an example of neo-Greek bravura, but Bascourt also developed an original Art Nouveau style there, marked by echoes of Arabian architecture. His own house (1902; destr. 1986) in Antwerp was conceived in the spirit of the work of John Soane, designed around a central hall giving on to rooms that were each furnished and decorated in a different style. He built several mansions, office blocks and industrial buildings in Antwerp between ...


Helen M. Hills

Sicilian family of architects and teachers. (1) Giovanni Battista Basile and his son, (2) Ernesto Basile, were among the leading proponents of Art Nouveau in Italy, especially in their native Palermo.

(b Palermo, 1825; d June 16, 1891). He was primarily a Neo-classical interpreter and Theoretician, as is shown by his scrupulous archaeological studies.

These qualities are demonstrated in his designs for a Greek Revival museum in Athens (1859; unexecuted) and his most important executed work, the huge Teatro Massimo (1875–97), Palermo, using the Corinthian order throughout the building. It was finished by his son, (2) Ernesto Basile. The Teatro Massimo symbolized the ambitions of Palermo, then a provincial city lacking adequate facilities, to copy the kind of Modernist architecture built in the great cities of Europe, especially Paris. It has remained a symbol, and its stage, the largest in Europe after the Paris Opera, has been one of the least used. English influence is marked in his designs for urban spaces in Palermo; the Giardino Inglese (...


Simon Wilson and Lin Barton

(Vincent )

(b Brighton, Aug 21, 1872; d Menton, March 16, 1898).

English draughtsman and writer. He was brought up in Brighton, in genteel poverty, by his mother. She gave her children an intensive education in music and books, and by the time he was sent to boarding-school at the age of seven Beardsley was exceptionally literate and something of a musical prodigy. He was also already infected with the tuberculosis that eventually killed him. There is evidence that his talent for drawing was highly developed by the age of ten, and he was subsequently encouraged by his housemaster at Brighton Grammar School, Arthur William King. Beardsley left school at the end of 1888, and in January 1889 became a clerk at the Guardian Life and Fire Insurance Company in the City of London. Attacks of haemorrhaging of the lungs forced him to abandon his job at the end of 1889. On the strength of a short story sold to Tit Bits...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...


Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....



(b Reus, July 21, 1866; d Barcelona, Feb 8, 1914).

Catalan architect. His father had taught Antoni Gaudí, who later became a close friend and collaborator with Berenguer, the two architects’ characters perfectly complementing each other. Although Berenguer studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes (from 1881) and attended the Escuela de Arquitectura, both in Barcelona, he never finished his studies, abandoning them in 1887 to work first in the office of Augusto Font i Carreras and later with Gaudí. From 1892 he was employed in the architectural department of the town hall of Gracia, one of the adjoining small towns swallowed up by Barcelona, where he did most of his work: the Mercado de la Libertad (1893), the Casa Parroquial (1900), the renovation of the Iglesia de S Juan de Gracia (1909), and the house at Calle del Oro 44 (1909). These works demonstrate most of the general characteristics of ...


Pieter Singelenberg

(b Amsterdam, Feb 21, 1856; d The Hague, Aug 12, 1934).

Dutch architect, urban planner, designer and writer. He abandoned early his intention to become a painter and instead trained in architecture at the Bauschule of the Eidgenössiche Polytechnikum (now Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich under Gottfried Semper’s followers. Semper was a major influence on Berlage, especially for Berlage’s emphatic use of a variety of materials and an acute attention to construction. The other major influence was the work of Viollet-le-Duc. After his training Berlage visited Germany and Italy from 1878 to 1881, returning to Amsterdam to become an associate of the classicist architect and businessman Theodorus Sanders, who very soon handed over to him the task of designing. The shop and office-block for Focke & Meltzer (1884–5), Kalverstraat, Amsterdam, was critically acclaimed for its correct application of the Venetian Renaissance style favoured by Semper and for the grandeur of its shopping area, with its unusually large windows. Berlage voiced doubts in ...


Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).


From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...


Raquel Henriques da Silva

(b Oporto, Oct 1, 1864; d Sintra, Feb 19, 1948).

Portuguese architect. He studied architecture at the Academia de Belas Artes in Oporto and then for five years with Paul Blondel (1847–97) in Paris on a state scholarship. He returned to a busy and successful career in Portugal, his work ranging from projects in Revivalist styles to the propagation of a simplified version of Art Nouveau. In 1895 he won first prize in a competition for restoration work on the church of the Hieronymite Monastery at Belém, although this was subsequently carried out by teams from the Ministry of Public Works, and in 1897 he won first prize in a competition project for the design of low-cost housing estates, in which his approach was derived from the garden city concept. He then won first prize for a standardized design (1898) for primary schools in a style that included some of the hybrid characteristics of the Casa Portuguesa style; this brought him commissions for the construction of about 300 buildings throughout Portugal. He also designed many branches of the ...


German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.


Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Potter, sculptor, architect. Jewellery.


Hermann Robert Bichweiler was active between 1872 and 1893 in Hamburg, where he had his own studio. His ornaments are characteristic of a specific style peculiar to Hamburg.

Hamburg (Mus. für Kunst und Gewerbe)


Raquel Henriques da Silva

(b Venice, 1852; d Venice, Oct 8, 1908).

Italian architect, teacher and designer, active in Portugal. Little is known of his early life and work before the 1880s, when he was one of several Italian architects invited by the Portuguese State to teach in the recently founded schools of industrial design set up in Portugal as part of the reform of art education there, which was carried out by the Minister of Public Works, Emídio Navarro. Bigaglia divided his time in Portugal between teaching in the Escola Industrial Afonso Domingues, Lisbon, and designing many single-family houses or small residential blocks in Lisbon and other parts of Portugal. Bigaglia was a versatile architect and adapted well to the variations in Portuguese middle-class taste of the time, designing decorative façades that incorporated the fashionable style of Art Nouveau in wrought-iron railings, azulejo (glazed tile) friezes, and door- and window-mouldings, but which retained traditional structural design and volume. The most original examples are in Lisbon: Casa Lima Mayer (...


Gerhard Kabierske

(b Karlsruhe, Feb 7, 1867; d Karlsruhe, March 2, 1946).

German architect and teacher. He came from a family of building craftsmen established in Karlsruhe and studied there (1883–4) at the Kunstgewerbeschule, which, under the directorship of Hermann Götz (1848–1901), had become a focus of progressive tendencies in the applied arts in Germany. After a year’s military service he moved on to study architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe, but did not graduate. Feeling little affinity with the doctrinaire Renaissance Revival ideas promoted by his teacher Josef Durm, he was more influenced by study tours in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Scandinavia. In 1888–92 he lived in Berlin and Aachen, where he worked in leading architectural practices and encountered the emerging stylistic movements of the day.

In 1892 Billing set up his own practice in Karlsruhe and produced some competition entries that attracted considerable attention, for example the design (1893) of a bridge over the River Weser at Bremen. Private commissions for houses, residential buildings and industrial developments followed. His work before ...


Anne van Loo

(b Brussels, Feb 21, 1870; d Brussels, Jan 19, 1957).

Belgian architect and designer. He studied architecture at the Ecole Saint-Luc in Brussels and during his very brief career as a practising architect (1899–1903) he became one of the most interesting protagonists of the Art Nouveau style in Brussels. His work included a total of 17 houses in Saint-Gilles and 11 houses in Saint-Boniface, Ixelles, Brussels, where he acted as both architect and builder and sold the houses on completion. To suit the individual tastes of the purchasers he created a different façade for each house based on virtually identical plans, and these buildings remain as examples of Art Nouveau ensembles that are unique in their architectural variety. During the same period he built some 15 houses in the new districts to the south of Brussels, for which he also designed some remarkable wrought ironwork. From 1902 to 1908 he concentrated on building his own house (destr. 1962...


Austrian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 February 1861, in Vienna; died 20 February 1927, in Klosterneuburg.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

Art Nouveau.

Adolf Böhm was a co-founder, together with Gustav Klimt and the architect Joseph Hoffmann, of the Viennese Sezession movement in the closing years of the 19th century. Vienna was the city where 'Jugendstil' (literally, 'Youthful Style'), a movement that rejected academic conformity, first flowered; it would later spread to Germany, France, Belgium, England and elsewhere. He taught in the women's department of the academy of fine arts ...


Ye. I. Kirichenko


(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...


Bernard Marrey

(b Templeuve, nr Lille, June 14, 1856; d Paris, Sept 16, 1946).

French architect and urban planner. Born to a staunchly republican peasant family in Flanders, in 1875 he entered the Ecoles Académiques, Lille, where he was initially attracted to painting. The death of his father in 1876 and the consequent need to support his family then directed him towards the more financially secure career of architecture. In August 1876 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris; he also taught drawing and worked with various architects, notably Paul Sédille whom he greatly respected. In 1881 he married the daughter of Jean Deconchy (1827–1911), one of the architects employed by the city authorities of Paris, and in 1884 Bonnier himself joined the city administration as a trainee architect, working in the 19th arrondissement. In 1883 he won the competition for the construction of the town hall (1886–7) at Issy-les-Moulineaux on the south-west edge of Paris. He then built a series of villas, Les Dunes, Les Oyats, Les Sablons, Les Algues and Robinson (...