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Article

Chilean, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Paris.

Painter.

Barreda Fabres studied architecture at the Catholic university in Santiago and taught history of art in the architecture faculty from 1950 to 1955. He used a realist technique to paint constructions that belong to the world of the uncanny and the surreal. He took part in exhibitions in North America, Latin America and Europe and received many awards....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1836, in Siena; died 1922.

Sculptor (wood), designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious furnishings.

Bartalozzi worked principally with the wood sculptor Nicodemo Ferri, chiefly on choir stalls for Siena Cathedral and a credenza for Marquis Ferdinando Pieri Nerli of Siena. He was also involved in carving the pianoforte presented by the City of Naples as a wedding gift to the King of Italy....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 November 1836, in Bologna; died 1927.

Painter, watercolourist. Religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views.

Luigi Bazzani studied at the Accademia in Bologna and, following visits to France and Germany, was appointed professor at the Accademia in Rome. He exhibited from ...

Article

Stephen Hill

(Margaret Lowthian)

(b Washington, Co. Durham, July 14, 1868; d Baghdad, 11/July 12, 1926).

English archaeologist and architectural historian. The first woman to achieve a first-class honours in modern history at Oxford University, she travelled widely in Europe, Japan and especially the Middle East in the 1890s, achieving fluency in a number of European languages as well as in Persian, Turkish and Arabic. She developed an interest in archaeology and architecture that was reflected in an authoritative set of articles on the Early Byzantine churches of Syria and southern Turkey, based on her travels in 1905. Her first major travel book, The Desert and the Sown, contains a mixture of travellers’ tales and archaeological information, as does her Amurath to Amurath. Between 1905 and 1914 she made archaeological studies of the Early Byzantine and Early Islamic monuments of Turkey, Syria and Mesopotamia (now Iraq). In 1905 and 1907 she surveyed Binbirkilise with Sir William Ramsay; their book, The Thousand and One Churches, remains the authoritative account of this important site. The architectural recording by survey and photography at Binbirkilise was carried out by Bell and is a lasting monument in its own right. Bell’s interest in Anatolia was inspired by Josef Strzygowski and his book ...

Article

Vincent Lombard, Donato Notarnicola and Jhemel Zioua

(b Paris, June 7, 1876; d Quebec, July 5, 1944).

French architect and monk. He was the son of an architect and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was a brilliant student and obtained his diploma in 1901. After a trip to Spain and Italy, where he produced some beautiful watercolours that earned him a special mention at the Salon in Paris (1901), he decided to become a monk and entered the Benedictine monastery at Solesmes, Sarthe. At this time, religious communities exiled from France needed many new buildings, and Bellot was sent to the Netherlands in 1906 to extend a monastery there. He learnt how to build in brick, a material he used for the rest of his life, and he also became acquainted with H. P. Berlage and Modernist Dutch architecture. Bellot worked in the Netherlands and on the Isle of Wight, England, until 1920, producing many fine yet low-cost buildings in brick. His inventiveness, allied to an admiration for medieval architecture and the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc, led him to develop a style that had neo-Gothic aspects, clearly expressing structure and giving an impression of lightness and balance as much as mass and weightiness, and he used brick to create both structure and decoration....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Pouilly-sur-Loire; died 1944, in Fontainebleau.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist. Figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, harbour scenes, church interiors, architectural interiors, still-lifes.

Boitiat was an inspector of primary education. He put on an exhibition at Fontainebleau in 1938. In 1986...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 5 November 1867, in Verona.

Painter. Figure compositions, religious subjects, portraits, architectural views.

Viscardo Carton was a pupil of Napoleone Nani at the academy in Verona, and of Luigi Cavenaghi in Milan.

He painted altar pictures and frescoes in churches and private houses....

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Genre scenes, church interiors, interiors with figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Cesbron was the son of Achille Théodore Cesbron. He is particularly known for his Corner for the Poor, Abbey Church of Fécamp, View of a Monastery...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1823, in Paris; died 1907, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, designer. Church interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Stage sets.

Philippe Chaperon was set designer at the Opéra in Paris, producing most of the sets for French subsidised theatres, as well as the main theatres in France and abroad and the Expositions Universelles. He painted watercolours based on nature. He was the father of Eugène and Émile Chaperon, who took over from him....

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1865, in Brussels; died 1959.

Painter, decorative designer, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes.

Dierickx was a pupil of Jean Portaels and Joseph Stallaert. In 1887 he won the Godecharle Prize, which enabled him to travel in Italy. He regularly participated in the activities of the ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Bergamo.

Born 1844, in Bergamo; died 1911, in Rome.

Painter, watercolourist. Figures, architectural views, church interiors, architectural interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes.

Stefano Donadoni worked on interiors of churches and palaces. His major works include Ancient Bergamo, The Goatherd...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1840, in Chicago; died 27 January 1912, in Munich.

Painter, draughtsman. Genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views, ruins, church interiors, interiors.

Charles Dyer began his career in the Navy and the diplomatic corps (he was consul in Bristol and then Beirut). He left the diplomatic corps to devote himself to painting under the guidance of L. Jacquesson de la Chavreuse in Paris. In ...

Article

Eiheiji  

Dennis Lishka

Japanese Zen Buddhist monastery of the Sōtō sect, in Fukui Prefecture. Eiheiji’s significance derives largely from the place in the history of Japanese Buddhism of its founder, Dōgen (1199–1253), and to his interpretation of Sōtō Zen monastic practice. After 1217 Dōgen joined the dominant Tendai school of Buddhism, but he grew disillusioned with Japanese Buddhism as a feasible human soteriology, although he was much attracted to the practice of Zen meditation. In 1223 he left for China, then under the rule of the Song dynasty (ad 960–1279), to practise Chinese Chan (Jap. Zen) Buddhism under the master Rujing (1163–1228) at Mt Tiantong. After his return in 1227 he advocated Sōtō Zen but was continuously harassed by Tendai-sect monks until he cleared donated land in 1243 in Echizen (western Japan) for the first Sōtō Zen monastery, Eiheiji (Monastery of Eternal Peace). At Eiheiji, Dōgen faithfully reproduced Chinese Chan Buddhism in two important ways: experientially, with daily meditation integrated into such basic activities as eating, walking, working, begging and washing, whereby enlightenment might be attained by the practitioner and by others; and architecturally, the buildings in the temple compound, each unique in structure and function, being tightly integrated into a working site for daily Zen discipline and arranged to fit into the topography of the forested hillside....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1861, in Milan; died 1932.

Painter, watercolourist. Church interiors, waterscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views.

Arturo Ferrari's master was the Milanese painter Giuseppe Bertini. His work frequently appeared at exhibitions held at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan. He also exhibited in Paris (where he won a silver medal at the ...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1848, in Copenhagen; died 1912.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator. Interiors, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, architectural views, ruins, interiors, church interiors.

Copenhagen: View of St Mark's in Venice; View of the Villa Borghese in Rome

Copenhagen (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek): View of the Tomb of A.J. Varstens in Rome...

Article

Cornelia Bauer

(b St Gall, Oct 1, 1858; d Lucerne, Jan 11, 1927).

Swiss architect. After studying architecture for two years (c. 1876–8) at the Hochschule, Stuttgart, under Adolf Gnauth and Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92), he travelled in Italy and France. From 1879 he worked primarily in St Gall, but he also worked elsewhere in Switzerland. He won a gold medal at the Vatican Exhibition (1887–8), and in 1888 he was made a Knight of St Gregory the Great by Pope Leo XIII. Hardegger was an eclectic architect, using all the traditional historicist styles. His designs were often asymmetrical and irregular in both plan and elevation, as in the church of St Martin (1908–10), Olten; they also incorporated painting and sculpture, for example in the Haus zum Bürgli (before 1890), at St Gall, and they emphasized regional traditions, as at the parish church of Göschenen (1898–9). Following the construction of the parish church at Gossau (...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Copenhagen.

Born 22 November 1851, in Holstebro; died 1933.

Painter. Interiors with figures, church interiors, landscapes, architectural views.

Received an honourable mention at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889.

Copenhagen (Den Hirschsprungske Samling): Landscape near Næstved

Copenhagen (Statens Mus. for Kunst): ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Kemalettin Bey]

(b Istanbul, 1870; d Ankara, July 1927).

Turkish architect. He studied at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul, graduating in 1891, and at the Charlottenburg Technische Hochschule in Berlin (1896–8). After his return to Turkey in 1900, he taught at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul and became chief architect of the Ministry of Pious Foundations (1909), entrusted with the restoration of historical monuments and the design of new buildings. This work enabled him to analyse the principles of Ottoman architecture and formulate a revivalist idiom. He built mosques, mausoleums, office blocks, schools, prisons and hospitals; the small mosque (1913) at Bebek, Istanbul, is a fine example of his revivalist style. The Fourth Vakıf Han (1912–26), a large seven-storey office block in Istanbul’s Bahçekapı district, epitomizes Ottoman revivalist architecture, also known as the First National Architectural Style (see Islamic art, §II, 7(i)). Its well-ordered stone façade with rich carvings and coloured tiles hides a sophisticated steel framework. His last building complex in Istanbul, the Harikzedegan apartments (...