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Article

Janet Marstine

(le Lorraine)

(b North Harvey, nr Chicago, Feb 20, 1897; d Woodstock, VT, Nov 18, 1983).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker and film maker. He was brought up in the suburbs of Chicago and was exposed to art at an early age by his father, Adam Emory Albright (1862–1957), a portrait painter. He passed on to his son the interest in careful draughtsmanship that he had developed from tuition with Thomas Eakins. Ivan’s initial field of interest was architecture, which he studied at Northwestern University, Evanston (1915–16), and at the University of Illinois, Urbana (1916–17). During World War I he served with an Army medical unit, making surgical drawings with great precision. He subsequently decided to become a painter and attended the Art Institute of Chicago (1920–23), the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Chicago (1923), and the National Academy of Design, New York (1924). Around this time he began to exhibit regularly.

Albright settled in Chicago in ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 19 February 1946, in Washington DC.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, photographer, video artist, glassmaker, decorative designer. Theatre design.

AfriCobra Group.

Akili Ron Anderson attended the Corcoran School of Art and Howard University in Washington DC where he lives and works. He is a member of AfriCobra (African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists) founded in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1934, in Los Angeles.

Sculptor, ceramicist, draughtswoman, print artist, photographer, film maker. Figures, scenes with figures. Murals.

Camille Billops has a BA from California State College and an MFA from City College in New York. She settled in New York, where in ...

Article

Derrick R. Cartwright

(b Rochester, IN, April 16, 1927; d New York, Dec 21, 2011).

American sculptor, painter, printmaker and film maker. Chamberlain studied at the Art Institute of Chicago from 1950 to 1952 and from 1955 to 1956 at Black Mountain College, NC, where he was exposed to the modernist aesthetics of the poets Charles Olson (1910–70) and Robert Creeley (1926–2005), with whom he formed a lasting friendship. His early welded-iron sculpture was heavily influenced by Abstract Expressionism and by the sculpture of David Smith. In 1957 he moved to New York where he made his first works out of crushed car parts, such as Shortstop (1957; New York, Dia A. Found.), a practice for which he became immediately recognized and recognizable. During the mid-1960s he continued in this mode, expanding its formal vocabulary to include larger free-standing complexes and wall reliefs, always emphasizing fit and spontaneity (e.g. Untitled, 1965). This work earned him instant critical association with the ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 18 November 1933, in McPherson (Kansas).

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, collage artist, assemblage artist, sculptor, film maker.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Bruce Conner studied at Wichita University; at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln where he received a BFA in 1956; at Brooklyn Art School (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 19 September 1936, in Columbus (Ohio).

Painter, print artist, photographer, film maker. Murals.

AfriCobra Group.

Adger W. Cowans studied at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, obtaining his BFA in photography. He then enrolled in the US Navy as a photographer. He was active in the civil rights movement and joined AfriCobra, the African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Active in Belgium.

Born 1940, in New Jersey.

Sculptor, draughtsman, installation artist, collage artist, photographer, screen printer, video artist. Artists’ books.

Peter Downsbrough lives and works between New York and Brussels. His works, founded on concepts of spatiality and temporality, are intended for the urban environment in the form of installations, sculptures, books, collages, photographs, screen prints, postcards and films. Since the 1960s he has been producing three-dimensional works, exploring various materials in a serial process. In the 1970s he enlarged these two concepts to include notions of movement and space, notably in the series ...

Article

Reena Jana

(b Cologne, Germany, 1969).

American mixed-media artist of German birth and Asian descent. Ezawa studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1990–94) before moving to San Francisco in 1994. He received a BFA from the San Francisco Art Institute (1995) and an MFA from Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (2003). Ezawa is not a photographer, but his work centers around photography; he has used a variety of media, from digital animations to paper collages and aquatint prints, to revisit some of the world’s most familiar, infamous and historically significant news photographs, television broadcasts and motion-picture stills (see The Simpson Verdict). All of Ezawa’s work utilizes the artist’s signature style of flat, simple renderings that are cartoonlike and also suggest the streamlined and colorful style of Pop artist Katz, Alex.

Ezawa’s project, The History of Photography Remix (2004–6), exemplifies his approach to exploring the power of photographs as a mirror of reality and yet also a force that can manipulate memories of events and people. The project consists of images appropriated from art history textbooks, such as American photographer Cindy Sherman’s ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 17 October 1955, in Birmingham (Alabama).

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, engraver, collage artist, installation artist, photographer, video artist. Figures, portraits.

Kerry James Marshall grew up in South Central Los Angeles and studied at the Otis Art Institute, receiving a PhD in 1999. He lives in Chicago and teaches at the University of Illinois.

Marshall’s work centres on popular African-American culture. The skin tone of his figures is unapologetically black as a statement against the negative perceptions which are still attached to this colour and to denote the 1960s popular and activist black aesthetics, which embraced all expressions of African-American culture. Marshall’s politically charged work aims to give substance to a social vision. In Memento #5 (2003), he aims to preserve the memory of Civil Rights movement heroes like Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy, and Malcolm X. His intensely black-skinned figures contrast and enrich the colourful backgrounds that Marshall adapts from such modern masters as Matisse. His compelling and complex images reference black folk art and aim to counter the stereotypical representations of black people in Western painting....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Active from 1954 in France.

Born 26 November 1929, in the Bronx (New York City).

Draughtsman, engraver (etching), illustrator. Figures, nudes, landscapes, interiors, still-lifes. Stage costumes and sets, videos, artists' books.

Gregory Masurovsky studied at Black Mountain College in North Carolina in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 27 July 1874, in Montevideo (Uruguay); died 1940, in New York.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver. History painting, portraits, genre scenes.

Francis Luis Mora was a pupil of the Boston School of Art, the Art Students league, New York, and his father, the Spanish sculptor Domingo Mora....

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Native American (Bay of Quinte Mohawk), 21st century, female.

Born 1954, in Niagara Falls (New York).

Photographer, filmmaker, painter, sculptor, printmaker, screenwriter, beadworker.

The Mohawk artist Shelley Niro, born in the United States and raised at the Six Nations Grand River Reserve in Ontario, Canada, is a member of the Turtle Clan. She received a BA from Ontario College of Art and Design (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 14 March 1923, in Brooklyn (New York); died 1976, in New York.

Painter, collagist, printmaker, experimental film. Figures, abstraction.

Figurative Expressionism.

Earle Montrose Pilgrim was a Caribbean-American artist, experimental filmmaker, and jewelry designer. Pilgrim’s parents, Leon and Amy, were born in the British West Indies and settled in the Brooklyn neighbourhood of Bedford-Stuyvesant where they raised Pilgrim and his sister. Pilgrim was a rebellious youth who was expelled from high school in his sophomore year for not wearing the regulation school uniform. Instead of completing his high school education, Pilgrim took an apprenticeship with a printmaker, which was instrumental in his venture into the arts. In 1943, during World War II, Pilgrim joined the US Army and wrote for the Army newspaper, Yank. Pilgrim’s rebelliousness eventually led him to be court-martialled for his refusal to listen to a white officer.

After the war, Pilgrim returned to New York, and studied at the Art Students League as well as with jewelry maker Sam Kramer. In the summer of ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 2 November 1939, in San Francisco (California), United States.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, installation artist, performance artist, video artist.

Process Art, Minimal Art.

Richard Serra first studied literature at the University of California in Berkeley and Santa Barbara, working at a steel mill to support himself. He then gained a degree in fine arts and painting at Yale University, where he collaborated on Joseph Albers’ work, ...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 6 August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; died 22 February 1987, in New York.

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, illustrator, photographer, filmmaker, writer, collector. Figures, portraits, still lifes.

Pop art, Copy art.

Andy Warhol was the son of Slovak immigrants who settled in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the 1920s. His father, a miner, died in 1942 after three years of illness, and his mother only spoke broken English. Despite his very humble origins, he graduated from the Institute of Applied Arts in Pittsburgh in 1949 and went to New York. There he enjoyed a successful career as an advertising artist and a poster artist. He also produced drawings of shoes for the magazine ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

[Warhola, Andrew ]

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Aug 6, 1928; d New York, Feb 22, 1987).

American painter, printmaker, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, film maker, writer, and collector. After studying at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh from 1945 to 1949, he moved to New York and began working as a commercial artist and illustrator for magazines and newspapers. His work of the 1950s, much of it commissioned by fashion houses, was charming and often whimsical in tone, typified by outline drawings using a delicate blotted line that gave even the originals a printed appearance; a campaign of advertisements for the shoe manufacturers I. Miller & Sons in 1955–6 (Kornbluth, pp. 113–21) was particularly admired, helping to earn him major awards from the Art Directors Club.

Warhol continued to support himself through his commercial work until at least 1963, but from 1960 he determined to establish his name as a painter. Motivated by a desire to be taken as seriously as the young artists whose work he had recently come to know and admire, especially Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, he began by painting a series of pictures based on crude advertisements and on images from comic strips. These are among the earliest examples of ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 December 1942, in Holyoke, Massachusetts.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (ink), lithographer, photographer, mixed media, video artist. Figures, portraits, landscapes.

Bad Painting, Conceptual Art.

William Wegman graduated from the Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, and went on to study printmaking at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. His early work consisted of Minimalist paintings and sculptures, but he later began making conceptual works, which he documented with photographs. He made his name in the 1970s with photographs and videos of his Weimaraner dog Man Ray, who also features in his paintings and drawings. He adds captions to his paintings and drawings, some copying text from 1950s children’s encyclopaedias. In the 1980s Wegman continued making photographs of his dogs, generating public attention from children and adults. These deadpan, quirky portraits give them a near-human quality, especially when Wegman began posing them in period costumes, roller skates, and in tableau-vivant settings of everyday life. His series of fairy-tale portraits of the dogs have been described as transfigurations. He returned to painting in the mid-1980s and in 1998, after a 20-year hiatus, Wegman began making video works, usually depicting himself performing monologues. The light-hearted and ironic tone of his videos explores what has been described as ‘the aesthetic of boredom’. In 2003, he showed works in which he had painted around postcards glued to wood panels. He experiments with varied styles, from conceptual art to Hyperrealism, from Orientalism to Luminism. He is based in New York....