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Chiara Stefani



Francisco Portela Sandoval

(b Madrid, Feb 23, 1845; d Madrid, Dec 20, 1924).

Spanish sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Francisco Bellver (1812–89), with whom he undertook his first studies until attending the Madrid Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado. Ricardo soon started to submit to the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes works on historical subjects, such as Tucapel (1862), on mythology, such as Satyr Playing the Flute and a Young Faun Playing with a Goat (both 1864), and others that were religious, such as Piety (1866).

In 1874 Bellver y Ramón obtained a grant to study at the Academia Española de Bellas Artes in Rome; there his most significant works included a bust of Don Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, El Gran Capitán (1453–1515), executed in 1875, and a relief entitled the Burial of St Agnes, which shows traces of Neo-classicism (Madrid, S Francisco el Grande). During this period he sculpted his popular and dynamic ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1724; d 1806).

Flemish sculptor and porcelain modeller. In 1746 he settled in Lunéville (France), where from 1752 he modelled figures for the Lunéville Porcelain Factory (see under Lunéville). He subsequently worked for the porcelain factories at Saint-Clément (1758), Ottweiler Factory (1765) and Niderviller (1772–80). In about ...


Sandra Sider

Folk art, or vernacular art (specific to a group or place), developed in Colonial America out of necessity when individual households produced most of the utilitarian objects required for daily life. Using traditional tools and techniques, many of these makers created pieces in which aesthetics came to play a substantial role, through form, ornamentation, or both. In some groups, notably the Shakers, function was emphasized, with pure form evoking an aesthetic and spiritual response. Religious beliefs have informed American folk art, such as the saints and other figures (Santos) carved and painted by Catholic settlers in the Southwest as early as 1700. Although the majority of folk art is now anonymous, the oeuvre of numerous individual artists can be determined by their distinctive styles or marks. Folk art is often considered within the field of ‘material culture’, with an emphasis on the object’s context rather than its creator. Most American folk art falls within three categories: painting and cut paper, textiles and fibre, and three-dimensional work such as furniture, carvings, metalwork, ceramics, and outdoor installations....


Clementine Schack von Wittenau

(b Kloster-Veilsdorf, nr Rudolstadt, Thuringia, Nov 28, 1868; d Munich, Aug 18, 1945).

German sculptor. He entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich in 1887 and a year later went to the Akademie where he studied under Wilhelm von Rümann until 1892. In 1896 he took over Rümann’s teaching at the Akademie; he became an honorary professor in 1902 and was appointed full professor in 1912, training a whole generation of sculptors who were nicknamed the ‘Münchner Archaiker’. Although he became a member of the National Socialist Party, he was compelled to give up his teaching post in 1937. The small bronze statue Eva (e.g. Munich, Ver. Bild. Kstler) established Hahn’s reputation as a Jugendstil artist. It was only in his middle years that he developed into an outstanding representative of neo-classicism, as is demonstrated in particular by his two monuments to Moltke, one made in 1899 for Chemnitz, in the Hauptmarkt, and the other in 1909 for Bremen, on the façade of the north tower of the Liebfrauenkirche, and the monument to ...


Norwegian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1835, in Moss; died 18 December 1923, in Christiania (now Oslo).


Carl Ludwig Jacobsen was influenced by the Danish Neo-Classical sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. He worked for the King of Denmark.

Bergen: Helberg

Copenhagen: The Minister Due; Falsen; Collett...


Romanian, 20th century, male.

Born 1888, in Câmpulung; died 1929, in Bucharest.

Sculptor. Busts, monuments.

Mataoanu studied in Bucharest and Paris. He executed busts and monuments in Neo-Classical style.


French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1931, in Toutry.


Merlier studied art at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, where he was influenced by Ossip Zadkine. Abstract in style, Merlier developed a Neo-Classical approach to his sculpture, combining a Neo-Cubist structure with an Expressionist purpose. In his recent work, influenced by Lorjou's populism, the allusion to popular arts has led him to produce grotesque figures in multi-coloured wood with fragments of mirrors or metals inserted....


John Wilton-Ely

Term coined in the 1880s to denote the last stage of the classical tradition in architecture, sculpture, painting and the decorative arts. Neo-classicism was the successor to Rococo in the second half of the 18th century and was itself superseded by various historicist styles in the first half of the 19th century. It formed an integral part of Enlightenment, the in its radical questioning of received notions of human endeavour. It was also deeply involved with the emergence of new historical attitudes towards the past—non-Classical as well as Classical—that were stimulated by an unprecedented range of archaeological discoveries, extending from southern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean to Egypt and the Near East, during the second half of the 18th century. The new awareness of the plurality of historical styles prompted the search for consciously new and contemporary forms of expression. This concept of modernity set Neo-classicism apart from past revivals of antiquity, to which it was, nevertheless, closely related. Almost paradoxically, the quest for a timeless mode of expression (the ‘true style’, as it was then called) involved strongly divergent approaches towards design that were strikingly focused on the Greco-Roman debate. On the one hand, there was a commitment to a radical severity of expression, associated with the Platonic Ideal, as well as to such criteria as the functional and the primitive, which were particularly identified with early Greek art and architecture. On the other hand, there were highly innovative exercises in eclecticism, inspired by late Imperial Rome, as well as subsequent periods of stylistic experiment with Mannerism and the Italian Baroque....


Harriet F. Senie

Objects created to remind viewers of specific individuals or events (see also Public monument). At its inception, the United States faced fundamental questions of what the new nation should commemorate and what forms would be appropriate for its new form of government: democracy. Primary subjects were presidents as well as military leaders and wars that functioned as expressions of national values. Often realized long after their subject had died or ended, monuments frequently reflected the time in which they were actually built. As societal values changed, so did the form and emphasis of monuments.

National memorials to the most influential presidents, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Delano Roosevelt include an obelisk, a sculpture housed in a temple and a large complex defined by a series of outdoor spaces dedicated to key aspects of a presidency.

Initially there were no American sculptors capable of realizing a monumental project to George Washington (...



James Cordova and Claire Farago

Term that refers to handmade paintings and sculptures of Christian holy figures, crafted by artists from the Hispanic and Lusophone Americas. The term first came into widespread use in early 20th-century New Mexico among English-speaking art collectors to convey a sense of cultural authenticity. Throughout the Americas, the term imagenes occurs most frequently in Spanish historical documents. Santos are usually painted on wood panels (retablos) or carved and painted in the round (bultos). Reredos, or altarpieces, often combine multiple retablos and bultos within a multi-level architectural framework.

European Christian imagery was circulated widely through the Spanish viceroyalties in the form of paintings, sculptures, and prints, the majority of which were produced in metropolitan centres such as Mexico City, Antigua, Lima, and Puebla, where European- and American-born artists established guilds and workshops. These became important sources upon which local artists elsewhere based their own traditions of religious image-making using locally available materials such as buffalo hides, vegetal dyes, mineral pigments, and yucca fibres, commonly employed by native artists long before European contact....


Peter Springer

(b Mittweida, June 23, 1828; d Dresden, March 21, 1910).

German sculptor. He enrolled at the Akademie, Dresden, at the age of 15, from 1845 training under Ernst Rietschel. He then studied (1851–2) at the Akademie in Berlin, where his tutors included Friedrich Drake, and again (1853–4) at the Dresden Akademie, partly as assistant to Ernst Julius Hähnel. From 1854 to 1855 he was in Italy on a scholarship, and from 1857 he had his own studio in Dresden. Among his notable early works were a frieze for the vestibule of the Dresden Museum (1853; Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister) and a monument to Oberbürgermeister Demiani (1861–2) for Görlitz. He became especially well-known for his sandstone groups of the Four Times of the Day for the stairway to the Brühl Terrace in Dresden (1863–8; recast in bronze, 1908). After the death of Rietschel, Schilling helped to complete the latter’s monument to Martin Luther...


American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 January 1839, in Webster; died 8 December 1913, in Rome.

Sculptor. Animals. Monuments, busts.

Franklin Simmons sculpted equestrian monuments and war memorials. He is known for a neo-classical marble Penelope. He was decorated by King Umberto of Italy....


Elise Madeleine Ciregna

Stonecarving throughout American history has been utilized for various purposes: utilitarian work such as paving, roofing and hitching posts; and ornamental work, such as architectural elements, gravestones and monuments, and sculpture. America’s first professional stonecarvers were mainly trained, skilled artisans from England and Scotland. These men were often called “statuaries” because they were capable of producing highly ornamental carving and sculpture, similar to the work of trained academic sculptors. There was little call for such highly decorative work in the colonies, but as urban centers gradually formed, stone masons found plenty of work in newly emerging cities such as Boston, Philadelphia and New York.

In rural areas many of America’s early stonecarvers were native-born and self-taught. Their skills were most often put to use carving gravestones, which were needed in every community. Both professional and native-born stonecarvers produced beautiful, often idiosyncratic carved work. They worked in the “direct” method of carving, that is carving directly into the stone without creating a preliminary model. Botanist John Bartram designed his own stone house in Philadelphia around ...


Chiara Stefani

Italian family of sculptors. Petronio Tadolini (1727–1813) was a Bolognese sculptor, and his grandson (1) Adamo Tadolini worked in Bologna and then in Rome as a follower and protégé of Canova. Adamo had two sons, both sculptors: Scipione Tadolini (1822–92), who was a pupil of his father and who sculpted such works as Eve after her Sin (marble; Rome, Pal. Braschi), and Tito Tadolini (1828–1910). Giulio Tadolini (1849–1918), the son of Scipione Tadolini, trained first as a painter but then took up sculpture. Two of his works are the equestrian monument to Victor-Emanuel II (bronze, 1890) in Perugia and the tomb of Leo XIII (marble, 1907) in S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. In 1900 he published Adamo Tadolini’s Ricordi autobiografici, written by Adamo in the third person. Giulio’s son Enrico Tadolini (1888–1967) was also a sculptor. In 1938...