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Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 21 July 1948, in Toulon.

Sculptor, environmental artist, assemblage artist.

Jean Allemand is one of the co-founders of the Space group. He has lived and worked in Paris since 1967. He creates environments by assembling geometric structures.

Allemand has participated in collective exhibitions in Paris: since ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 7 May 1943, in Wichita (Kansas).

Sculptor, environmental artist, performance artist, video artist.

Terry Allen studied at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles, receiving a BFA in 1966. His work is inspired by his travels in Mexico, Thailand, China and Colorado. He has taught at California State University Fresno (...

Article

Sofia Hernández Chong Cuy

American installation artists, active also in Puerto Rico. Jennifer Allora (b Philadelphia, Mar 20, 1974) graduated with a bachelor’s degree in art from the University of Richmond, Virginia (1996), and Guillermo Calzadilla (b Havana, Cuba, Jan 10, 1971) graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Escuela de Artes Plastica in San Juan, Puerto Rico (1996). Allora and Calzadilla met in Italy in 1995 during a study abroad program in Florence. They then lived together in San Juan for a year before moving to New York City where they started working collaboratively while each participated in different residency and study programs. In 1998–1999, Allora participated in the year-long Whitney Independent Study Program, while Calzadilla participated in the P.S.1 Contemporary Arts Center National Studio Program.

Allora & Calzadilla’s first important international exhibition was the XXIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1998 curated by Paulo Herkenhoff, which investigated the idea of cultural cannibalism known in Brazilian literature as ...

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Harrisburg, PA, Nov 20, 1946).

American sculptor, draughtswoman, and installation and environmental artist. She studied liberal arts at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (1964–8), and obtained an MA in studio art at Hunter College, City University of New York (1968–71), where she worked under Robert Morris and became familiar with systems theory. From the 1960s Aycock developed phenomenologically site-orientated works to include metaphor and simile, referring to machinery and construction sites, archaeological sites, models, children’s play areas and funfairs, and other public or social settings. For example in A Simple Network of Underground Wells and Tunnels (1975) six concrete wells (1.62 sq. m) with connecting tunnels were sunk into an area of ground c. 6.1×12.2 m at Merriewold West, Far Hills, NJ (destr.). The curious sense of authority within her sophisticated, well-made structures is simultaneously articulated and undermined by a nonsensical, non-functional, and fantastical element. Her works are often a synthesis of diverse elements. The imagery of the ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1967, in Glasgow.

Sculptor, installation artist.

Martin Boyce studied in the Environmental Art Department at Glasgow School of Art from 1986 to 1990. He completed an MFA there in 1997. In 1991 he participated in the seminal Windfall exhibition which served as an important catalyst for drawing attention to Glasgow as a major centre for conceptual art....

Article

Francis Summers

(b Glasgow, 1967).

Scottish installation artist and sculptor. Boyce studied at Glasgow School of Art, in the Department of Environmental Art, from 1986 to 1990, and, after a break of five years returned to Glasgow School of Art to complete his MA (1995 to 1997). He also visited the California Institute for the Arts, Valencia, in 1996. An early work Around Every Corner (1996; see 2000 exh. cat., pp. 18–19), made whilst still at college, is a wall painting that uses a grid and the words of its title. Combining the utopian tropes of the Modernist project with a sense of menace, Boyce made more wall drawings employing words and grids, such as Over Your Shoulder and Disappear Here (both 1999; see 2000 exh. cat., pp. 40–41 and p. 33 respectively). Other works directly reference Modernism by incorporating International Style design products. For example, Boyce used the classic Eames storage unit in ...

Article

Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, Sept 8, 1939).

Ecuadorean painter, graphic designer, sculptor, installation artist, architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Bogotá, Colombia. He worked for the Graham Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, and received a grant to attend the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, where he worked with György Kepes. Later he became a professor at the arts faculty of the Universidad Central, Quito. Bueno worked first in graphic design before going on to experiment with the incorporation of technology into art, using laser beams, mechanical pumps, plastic, glass and such elements as water, fire and air, for example in 49 Tubes, exhibited at the Bienal de Arte Coltejer in Medellín in 1972. He also combined visual art with music in such works as Flame Orchards, with music by Paul Earls, which won joint first prize with Kepes in the same exhibition. Exploration into ecological and environmental art led him to experiment with the idea of an aerial view of the urban landscape incorporating military camouflage sheets....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1958.

Sculptor, installation artist, assemblage artist, environmental artist.

Bernard Calet lives and works in Tours. His sculpture - 'assemblies', 'installations' or 'environments' - is clearly anchored in architecture; its principal components are tiled floors, steps, bull's-eye windows, and so on. On occasion, he integrates dull metallic mirror surfaces, notably in the form of steps. Significantly, these 'mirrors' - typically made from tin foil or matt photographic paper - distort and dissipate rather than reflect. This imparts a decided ambiguity to his work, articulating paradoxes and ambiguities rather than holding a mirror up to reality....

Article

Mary M. Tinti

(b Houston, TX, 1951).

American sculptor, installation and conceptual artist. His multimedia works investigate the pathology of contemporary culture. Mel Chin was born and raised in Houston, Texas to parents of Chinese birth and received his BA in 1975 from the Peabody College in Nashville, Tennessee. The works in Chin’s oeuvre are diverse in both medium and subject, but a consistent undercurrent of social, political, and environmental responsibility runs throughout. Whether a sculpture, film, video game, installation, public project or earthwork, Chin’s artworks consistently targeted a broad spectrum of pressing cultural and ecological interests and spread their message in subtle, if not viral ways.

In the 1980s, Chin produced a number of sculptures that set the stage for his ever-evocative artistic journey. The Extraction of Plenty from What Remains: 1823 (1988–9) is a frequently referenced piece from this period. It is a symbolic encapsulation of the effects of the Monroe Doctrine, referencing the complicated dealings between the US (represented by truncated replicas of White House columns) and Central America (represented by a cornucopia of mahogany branches, woven banana-tree fiber, and a surface layer of hardened blood, mud, and coffee grinds). From the 1990s, however, Chin moved away from strictly gallery-based installations and began creating works that directly engaged contemporary culture in a variety of physical and theoretical landscapes....

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Sculptor, environmental artist, installation artist.

Land Art. Eco Art.

Chris Drury studied at Camberwell School of Art from 1966 to 1970. He works with nature to create original forms such as cones, tumuli, sheafs, bundles and fungi....

Article

Canadian, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1937, in Marquette (Manitoba).

Sculptor, mixed-media artist. Fabric art, environmental art.

Aganetha Dyck is best known for her sculptural work that involves a long-term collaboration with bees. Dyck places ready-made items in beehives, often repeatedly, and the bees build honeycombs onto the surfaces of these objects. An early example is her series ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1936, in Turin; died 22 June 2007, in Milan.

Sculptor, installation artist, environmental artist, performance artist.

Arte Povera.

Luciano Fabro lives and works in Milan. His creations may seem entirely disparate, to which he responds that coherence between different elements across all sections of a work seem unnecessary to him, and that a deeper coherence is provided by the very identity of the artist.His creations are enormously diverse in their appearance, but it has been suggested by Fabro himself that what links them is that they all fall within the domain of Arte Povera. This is convenient, given that the artists using this concept (first coined by Germano Celant in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1 April 1933, in Jamaica (New York); died 29 December 1996, in New York.

Sculptor, installation artist, environmental artist, engraver.

Minimal Art.

Dan Flavin entered the Brooklyn Seminary in order to become a priest. He then trained as a meteorologist with the American army in Korea. He subsequently attended the New College of Social Research, New York, in ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1944, in New York.

Sculptor, draughtsman, photographer, painter, installation.

Land Art, Environmental Art.

Richard Fleischner graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design with a BFA in 1966 and an MFA in 1968, both degrees focusing on sculpture. During the 1970s and 1980s, Fleischner became a leading figure in environmental art....

Article

Renato Barilli

(b Rosario, Santa Fé, Feb 19, 1899; d Comabbio, nr Varese, Sept 7, 1968).

Italian painter, sculptor and theorist of Argentine birth. He moved with his family to Milan in 1905 but followed his father back to Buenos Aires in 1922 and there established his own sculpture studio in 1924. On settling again in Milan he trained from 1928 to 1930 at the Accademia di Brera, where he was taught by the sculptor Adolfo Wildt; Wildt’s devotion to the solemn and monumental plasticity of the Novecento Italiano group epitomized the qualities against which Fontana was to react in his own work. Fontana’s sculpture The Harpooner (gilded plaster, h. 1.73 m, 1934; Milan, Renzo Zavanella priv. col., see 1987 exh. cat., p. 118) is typical of his work of this period, with a dynamic nervousness in the thin shape of the weapon poised to deliver a final blow and in the coarse and formless plinth. Soon afterwards, together with other northern Italian artists such as Fausto Melotti, Fontana abandoned any lingering Novecento elements in favour of a strict and coherent form of abstraction. In ...

Article

German, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active since 1977 active in France.

Born 1950, in Kronach (Bavaria).

Sculptor, assemblage artist, environmental artist, mixed media.

Arte Povera.

Friedmann is self-taught and settled in Aignay-Le-Duc in Burgundy in 1977, where she lives and works. In the early 1980s, she started photography, focusing on disused locations. Since ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in London.

Painter (mixed media), sculptor, photographer. Artists' books.

Conceptual Art, Land Art.

After studying in London at St Martin's from 1966 to 1968, Hamish Fulton went on to study photography in 1969. Fulton is interested in landscape and has much in common with Land Art, although his approach is quite different. Unlike Richard Long - with whom he travelled in South America - Fulton does not intervene on site. He builds his work around the physical impression that a space leaves on the body when walking, first in timeless photographs with brief captions and then, from ...

Article

Saudi, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1973, in Khamis Mushait, Saudi Arabia.

Performance, photography, installation, sculpture.

Abdulnasser Gharem graduated from King Abdulaziz Academy in 1992 and then attended the Leader Institute in Riyadh, working within the Saudi government and becoming a lieutenant colonel in the army. Although he had no formal art training, the artist painted in watercolours and investigated modern and contemporary Western art through the Internet. In ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Scotland.

Born 26 July 1956, in Cheshire.

Sculptor, environmental artist, installation artist, photographer. Subjects from nature.

Land Art.

Andy Goldsworthy studied fine art at Bradford School of Art (1974-1975) and at Preston Polytechnic (1975-1978). He is an environmental artist who works in the open air, creating temporary site-specific sculptures from natural and found objects, which may complement their surroundings or contrast starkly with them....

Article

Bojan Ivanov

(b Prilep, March 19, 1925; d Skopje, May 28, 1986).

Macedonian sculptor. He was apprenticed to a local stonecutter in Prilep from c. 1940, and from 1945 he attended the class of Dimo Todorovski (1907–83), founder of modern Macedonian sculpture, at the School of Applied Arts in Skopje. Grabuloski graduated from the Academy of Arts in Belgrade in 1952, having studied under Lojze Dolinar (1893–1970) and Sreten Stojanović (1898–1960). He returned to Skopje and in 1953 founded the Denes group. In the following years he attempted to embody in his work the group’s programme for a synthesis of the arts and architecture. Between 1968 and 1974 he came closest to achieving that aim when he created the huge spherical Monument of Ilinden at Kruševo, central Macedonia, with eight mine-like, radial protrusions arranged on two levels. Comparable in spirit to this monumental project were the ‘ambient sculptures’ that he displayed at his one-man exhibition in the Museum of Contemporary Art in Skopje (...