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Brazilian, 18th century, male.

Born c. 1738, in Vila Rica (now Ouro Prêto), Minas Gerais; died 18 November 1814, in Villa Rica.


Aleijadinho studied European style from engravings and prints in contemporary journals of architecture. He was fascinated by the elaborate Rococo style and southern German religious representations. He was given the nickname Aleijadinho (the little cripple) because of an illness that progressively destroyed his fingers and toes from ...


Mexican, 20th century, male.

Born 4 February 1902, in Mexico City; died 19 October 2002, in Mexico City.

Photographer, photojournalist.

Originally working as a copy clerk, Manuel Alvarez Bravo experienced a dramatic shift in his life trajectory when his father gave him a camera in ...


Magazines play an important role in the articulation and diffusion of cultural modernization programs in Latin America. From Martín Fierro, the 1920s Argentine magazine that became the avant-garde standard of excellence, to the emblematic Revista de Antropofagia Paulista, in which Oswald de Andrade’s “Manifiesto Antropófago” appears with vignettes and drawings by Tarsila, the vanguard of magazine publications projected Latin American artists’ aspirations to a transformed world.

Magazines had a key role in disseminating the aesthetic ideals of various artistic groups. For instance, there is a long list of magazines that could be deemed “constructivist” publications. A pioneering title, Círculo y Cuadrado, produced by Joaquín Torres-García (1874–1949) heralded a long series of publications that underscore the geometric universe and abstraction. Publications in this vein, espousing a particular ethos and style, were often short-lived. The paradigmatic case of this is Arturo: Revista de Artes Abstractas, which gathered artists and poets and brought about the debate about abstract art in Buenos Aires in the mid-1940s, even though it only produced a single issue, in ...


Julio Roberto Katinsky

(b Rome, Dec 5, 1914; d São Paulo, March 29, 1992).

Brazilian architect of Italian birth. She graduated in architecture (1942) from the University of Rome and in 1943 was editor of the magazine Domus. In 1947 she moved to Brazil when her husband, Pietro Maria Bardi (b 1901), was invited to establish and direct the Museu de Arte de São Paulo; Lina Bardi was involved in planning the interior and designing the fittings of the museum. In 1949 she founded the art and architecture journal Habitat and was its editor until 1953, a period when it was the most influential architecture magazine in Brazil. With her husband and the architect Giancarlo Palanti (1906–77), she set up the Studio d’Arte Palma, making modern furniture that had a great impact in Brazil. She also set up the first industrial design course in Brazil (1948–51) and taught at the University of São Paulo (1954–5...


Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 21 November 1914, in Buenos Aires. Died 1999.

Sculptor. Groups.

Alberto Carlisky began by studying journalism in Argentina, before militating against fascism in support of the Spanish Republicans. After World War II he went to Europe and stayed first in Italy, where he studied classical painting and completed several masks and small figurines. In ...


Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, Mar 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...


Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Mexico City, Jun 27, 1943).

Mexican painter, printmaker, performance artist, writer, teacher, and publisher. He qualified as a printmaker at a very early age, then as a painter and engraver under the tutelage of several masters, among whom the most influential on his life was José Chávez Morado. Although he at first worked with traditional media, he possessed a constantly innovative and critical attitude and experimented with performances, installations, happenings, correspondence art, and media art, as well as writing, lecturing, and publishing on such themes as artistic experimentation, cultural promotion, professional management for artists, collective mural painting, and the publishing process. From 1968 to 1972 Ehrenberg lived in England where, with the architect Martha Hellion and the critic and historian David Mayor, he founded the Beau Geste Press/Libro Acción Libre in Devon, to propagate the work of artists involved with the Fluxus movement of the 1970s. He was also instrumental in the rise of many artistic groups, workshops and small publishing houses, such as ...


Erika Billeter

(b Buenos Aires, April 18, 1932).

Argentine photographer and publisher. She trained as a painter at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires (1947–53), and took up photography only in the late 1950s. She studied in Buenos Aires first in the studio of Luis d’Amico and then in 1960 under Annemarie Heinrich. In 1960 she opened a studio in Buenos Aires with the Argentine photographer Alicia D’Amico (1933–2001). She contributed to La Nación and Autoclub, and in 1973, together with María Cristina Orive, she co-founded La Azotea, a publishing house specializing in Latin American photography. She was primarily a documentary photographer, whose reputation did not depend on the recording of sensational events. Her photographs were realistic portrayals of the Argentine way of life; they were taken using natural light and were not modified in the laboratory.

Orive, María Cristina

Facio, Sara Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, 1968)Retratos y autorretratos...


Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1941.

Painter, draughtsman.

Carlos Fajardo was one of the founder members of the Rex group inspired by Wesley Duke Lee in São Paulo around 1965. The group's work centred around a gallery and a journal, and was outside the traditional art circuit. Fajardo shared the effervescence characterising this period of Brazilian art and challenging the constraints and censorship of the dictatorial regime. Around ...


Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...


Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1914, in Cuba; died 2002.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

Julio Girona travelled in France and studied sculpture with Maillol before moving to the USA. He is a painter, writer, journalist and sculptor. Girona incorporates into his vast canvases words which play an active role in the composition. Signs suggestive of graffiti and almost abstract, break through richly worked almost monochrome surfaces that have been painted over and over....


Mexican, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in San Pedro de las Colonias (Coahuila).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, fresco artist.

In 1922, with Rivera and Siqueiros, Xavier Guerrero founded the journal El Machete. In 1929 he travelled around Europe and settled in the USSR, returning to Mexico in 1937...



Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 1 February 1924, in São Paulo.

Painter. Landscapes.

Iracema Arditti originally worked in a number of different occupations including typist, journalist and air hostess. She was interested in the popular arts and encouraged naive painters she knew, before becoming a painter herself. Arditti became well known with the return of figurative expression in the 1960s....


Aída Sierra Torres

(b Mexico City, ?1820; d Mexico City, 1897).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. He probably began his career in 1847 in the workshop of the Murguía publishing house. In 1854, in collaboration with Andrés Campillo, he created an outstanding series of illustrations for the book Los mexicanos pintados por sí mismos, in which he portrayed character types (e.g. Great Poet, lithograph) in the manner of Honoré Daumier. In 1855 he founded the firm Litografía de Iriarte y Compañía. The following year he published portraits of famous personalities in the weekly review El Panorama. He was a co-founder in 1861 of the political fortnightly La Orquesta, on which he worked for more than ten years as an illustrator and eventually as a caricaturist and as editor. Iriarte continued to contribute to a number of periodicals, including El Renacimiento, and his firm also published the weekly San Baltazar (1869–70). He collaborated with Santiago Hernández on numerous illustrations for, among others, ...


Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1957, in Fortaleza; died 1993.

Painter, draughtsman, installation artist.

José Leonilson was influenced by the work of Arthur Bispo do Rosario. His work is a personal account, a kind of private journal bringing together acrylic paintings and drawings on unstretched canvas, embroidery and sewn-on objects but also abstract signs, some with symbolic overtones. His work recounts the experiences, questions and concerns of the artist, who died of AIDS. José Leonilson took part in collective exhibitions. His work was shown at the Nouvelle Biennale, Paris (...


Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(b Parma, 1790; d Tampico, Dec 11, 1832).

Italian lithographer, active in Mexico. In 1809 he completed his studies in Paris, but after returning to Italy he was sentenced to death in 1824 for revolutionary activities. He went to Mexico with his colleague Gaspar Franchini in 1825, apparently attracted by the idea of putting his revolutionary ideas into practice. He took a lithographic press with him and set up the first lithographic workshop in Mexico City. In addition to teaching, he printed a weekly periodical, El Iris, from February to August 1826, featuring lithographs of fashion models and portraits of such heroes of Mexican independence as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Under this innocent guise, that of printers of a publication intended for women, he and his collaborators gave expression to political comment that led to the periodical’s closure, and in September 1826 he was forced to leave Mexico. In 1828 in Brussels he published Costumes civils, militaires et religieux du Mexique...


Cuban, 20th century, male.

Born 1916, in Havana.

Painter (gouache), engraver, draughtsman. Figures.

Leonel López-Nussa studied at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro in Havana in 1934. As well as a painter, he was also a journalist and novelist. In 1941 he was in Mexico, in ...


Cuban, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Cienfuegos.


Aldo Menendez studied at the school of fine arts in Cienfuegos and at the Cuban national art school. He produced drawings for the journal Revolution and Culture ( Revolución y Cultura). He has taken part in collective exhibitions, notably in the ...


Type of art that exaggerates the physical characteristics of its figures for comedic or critical effect. Caricature has been used throughout the world. For more on its practice in the Western world see Caricature.

The first periodical released in New Spain was La Gazeta de México y Noticias de la Nueva España, founded in 1722 and directed by Juan Ignacio Castorena y Ursúa, Bishop of Yucatán (1688–1733). Six issues were produced, but the publication was suspended due to unfair criticism. In 1784, Manuel Antonio Valdez Murguía (1742–1814) resumed the work previously done by the bishop of Yucatán and expanded it with scientific news, thus strengthening the publication. As a result, the Spanish Crown granted official support to Gazeta de México in 1784, though it did not have illustrations or caricatures. The caricatures appeared on flyers that were pasted in the city centers. It is important to notice though that the concept of caricature developed slowly, and in this period the term is used to refer to the drawings that demystified royal figures and authorities through irony. In ...


Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, art critic.

After law studies and a few years in journalism, Noé worked in the painter Horacio Butler's studio. The French government awarded him a grant to spend a period in Paris in 1961. In ...