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French, 19th century, male.

Born 28 April 1845, in Rouen; died September 1909, in Rouen.

Engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, architect, art writer.

Jules Adeline was a first-time exhibitor at the Paris Salon in 1873, when, as a young architect, he initially contributed sketches and architectural projects. From ...


Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...


Mark Castro

[Murillo, Gerardo]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, volcanologist, and politician. Murillo first studied art in his native Guadalajara with the painter Félix Bernardelli (1866–1905). Murillo relocated to Mexico City in 1896, studying briefly at the Academia de San Carlos, before securing support from the government to continue his education in Europe. He stopped briefly in Paris in 1897 before moving on to Rome and beginning his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti and the Real Academia de España. Murillo’s encounters with European art had a profound impact on him, particularly Impressionism. He also achieved a measure of success on the European art scene, and his Self-portrait (1899; priv. col.) was awarded the silver medal at the Paris Salon. During his six-year stay Murillo also became absorbed by French and Italian socialist political theory.

Murillo returned to Mexico in 1904, joining the staff of the Academia de San Carlos, where he became an agitator for reform, clashing with the school’s administration over teaching methods and becoming a hero to students, among them José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The debates culminated in the student strike of ...


Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 24 October 1798, in Turin; died 15 January 1866, in Turin.

Painter, draughtsman, caricaturist, lithographer, writer. Historical subjects, battles, figures, landscapes with figures, landscapes, waterscapes, seascapes, architectural views.

Massimo Azeglio was the son of Marquis Cesare Taparelli d'Azeglio who was made minister plenipotentiary to the Holy See by King Victor Emmanuel in ...


Belgian, 19th century, male.

Born 24 June 1837, in Ostend.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver (etching), writer.

Edgar Baes painted seascapes and landscapes in both oils and watercolour. His paintings include Martyrdom of Marguerite of Louvain and Storm in the Dunes, his engravings include Death of Marguerite of Bourgogne...


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 January 1870, in Wedel (Holstein); died 1938, in Rostock.

Sculptor, painter, engraver, dramatist, writer.

Barlach was the son of a country doctor. He studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule Hamburg from 1888 to 1891 and was then a student of Robert Dietz at the academy in Dresden from 1891 to 1895. He then went to Paris where he worked for a year at the Académie Julian. He became interested in the work of Millet, Meunier and Van Gogh - art with social implications. When he returned to Germany in 1898 he worked as a designer on the journal ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Minas de Ríotinto, Huelva, Jan 12, 1871; d Vera de Bidasoa, Navarra, 1953).

Spanish printmaker, painter and writer . He was self-taught. He belonged to the Generación del 98 and the modernist literary movement. He began engraving in 1901 and won second prize at the Exposición Nacional, Madrid (1906), going on to win first prize in 1908. He also began etching c. 1908, and it became his favourite technique, although he also made lithographs. Both his prints and paintings have a literary content and focus thematically on life’s human aspects in a way reminiscent of the work of Toulouse-Lautrec. He illustrated Rubén Darío’s Coloquio de los centauros. Despite their lack of fine detail, his prints are realistic, for example Bar Types (etching and aquatint, c. 1906–9; Madrid, Bib. N.) and Beggars (etching and aquatint, c. 1910; Madrid, Bib. N.). His impressionistic painting style of the 1920s became more roughly worked later, possibly due to the loss of an eye in 1931. In ...


British, 19th century, male.

Born 26 March 1809, in Kentish Town, London; died 13 September 1854, at sea, between Malta and Marseilles.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, writer. Genre scenes, landscapes with figures, landscapes, topographical views.


William Henry Bartlett is thought to have exhibited at the Royal Academy ...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 4 April 1872, in Nîmes; died 1922, in Rueil (Hauts-de-Seine).

Draughtsman, engraver (dry-point/etching), lithographer, dramatist, poet. Figures, nudes, portraits. Posters.

Henry Bataille intended originally to be a painter. He studied for four years at the École des Beaux-Arts and at the private Académie Julian in Paris. As an engraver, he learned the dry point, etching and lithography techniques. He was also attracted by literature and published his first collection of poetry in ...


G. Jansen

(b Overschie, Nov 4, 1812; d Arnhem, July 8, 1891).

Dutch painter, printmaker and museum director. He was from a wealthy farming family and was only allowed to train as a painter when he was about 20 years old. He was initially taught by the carriage-painter Molijn (probably François Adriaan Molijn Dzn), Jacob de Meijer and then at the Rotterdam Teeken-Akademie. Thereafter he studied for two and a half years in the studio of Pieter Gerardus van Os in The Hague, where he became especially skilled at depicting animals. Subsequently he worked in Overschie (1837), Velsen (1838), The Hague (1839) and Amsterdam (1840–42), where he became friendly with the landscape painter Christiaan Immerzeel (1808–86), whose sister he married. After this he worked in Haarlem (1843–50), Heemstede (1852), The Hague (from 1854) and finally, after 1889, in Arnhem. Van den Berg was a competent cattle and landscape painter who managed to achieve considerable fame. He obtained a gold medal in ...


Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 18th century, in Parma; died 1829.

Painter, engraver, architect, writer.

Giuseppe Bertoluzzi's watercolours and etchings are on display in the academy and royal library in Parma.

Parma (Accademia)

Parma (Royal Library)

Paris, 12 May 1919...


British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 28 November 1757, in London, United Kingdom; died 12 August 1827, in London.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, poet. Religious subjects, figure compositions.

William Blake was the son of a draper. He showed a strong artistic tendency from an early age and, at the age of 10, started to study drawing at Henry Par’s Academy in the Strand. He learnt engraving under Ryland and was then apprenticed to James Basire. During his seven years with Basire (1772–1779), Blake was made to copy the sculptures of Westminster Abbey and of London’s old churches, thus stimulating his fascination with Gothic art. He studied briefly at the Royal Academy in 1779, where he made friends with Barry, Fuseli, Mortimer, Flaxman, and Stodhart. While there, his studies concentrated on Michelangelo....


David Bindman

(b London, Nov 28, 1757; d London, Aug 12, 1827).

English printmaker, painter and poet. His reputation as a visual artist increased during the 20th century to the extent that his art is as well known as his poetry (see fig.). Yet in his own mind Blake never completely separated the two, and his most original work is to be found in hand-printed books of prophecy, which developed a personal mythology of limitless intellectual ambition. In these books, text and design are completely integrated in what he called ‘illuminated’ printing. He also made many pen and watercolour drawings, prints in various media and a small number of tempera paintings, but even in these his broader aims were primarily theological and philosophical: he saw the arts in all their forms as offering insights into the metaphysical world and therefore potentially redemptive of a humanity he believed to have fallen into materialism and doubt.


(b Prague, April 9, 1858; d Prague, May 23, 1934).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator, painter and writer. As the daughter of František Augustín Braun, a prominent Bohemian politician, she was able to play a significant role in Bohemia’s cultural life at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, especially in the area of Czech–French cultural relations. She was a frequent visitor to Paris, where her elder sister, who was married to the writer Elémir Bourges, lived. She was instrumental in familiarizing Bohemian artists with French culture and introduced them to such prominent artists as Rodin, Redon and others. In Bohemia she was much to the fore in bringing writers and artists together and in discovering such artists as František Bílek. She painted landscapes and together with her teacher Antonín Chittussi established contacts in France with members of the Barbizon school. She was, however, primarily an etcher and illustrator and she specialized in etchings of Old Prague, for example ...


G. A. Printseva

[Fidelio] (Antonovich)

(b Milan, Dec 15, 1801; d St Petersburg, Sept 11, 1875).

Russian painter, etcher, teacher and museum director of Italian birth. He was the son of the Swiss artist Antonio Baroffi Bruni (1767–1825), who moved to Russia with his family in 1807, taking the name Anton Osipovich Bruni. In 1809 he became a pupil at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, where he studied under Aleksey Yegorov (1776–1851), Andrey Ivanov (1776–1848) and Vasily Shebuyev and graduated in 1818. Between 1819 and 1836 he lived in Italy, principally in Rome, where he perfected his skills by copying works by the Old Masters. He also painted portraits in order to earn a living. In his best-known portrait of this time, Princess Zinaida Volkonskaya in the Costume of Tancred (c. 1820; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), the sitter’s fantastical, theatrical knight’s costume and her expression of heartfelt languor and radiant sadness are characteristic of Romantic portraiture. In 1824...


(b Valognes, Normandy, July 9, 1847; d Paris, April 26, 1898).

French printmaker, painter, draughtsman and writer. He moved to Paris in 1866 and enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he studied under Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils. In 1867 he enrolled in a drawing course run by Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran, and the following year he studied with the marine painter Jules Noël (1815–81). He learnt the techniques of etching from Louis Monziès (b 1849) and Adolphe Lalauze (1838–1905) around 1873, producing his first etching later that year. He concentrated on landscapes and urban scenes such as Cabs, a Winter Morning at the Quai de l’Hôtel-Dieu (1876; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Many of these etchings combine a central image with a margin of supplementary illustrations, which the artist described as either anecdotal or ‘symphonic’, the latter being evocative additions rather than narrative extensions to the main image. They were published in L’Art, then directed by Léon Gaucherel, and also in Roger Lesclide’s ...


British, 19th century, male.

Born 1784, in Musselburgh, near Edinburgh; died April 1868, in Stoke Newington.

Painter, engraver, art writer.

John Burnet began his study of art with Robert Scott of Edinburgh who taught him the techniques of burin engraving and etching. He studied painting at the same time at the Trustees' Academy. Here he met William Allen and, importantly, David Wilkie whose works he was to skilfully reproduce. In ...


Duncan Macmillan

(b Edinburgh, March 20, 1784; d London, April 29, 1868).

Scottish engraver, painter and writer. He trained as an engraver in Edinburgh with Robert Scott (1771–1841) and also studied at the Trustees Academy under John Graham (1754–1817) in the same city, where he was a contemporary of David Wilkie. In 1806 he moved to London where he greatly enhanced Wilkie’s reputation by producing engravings after several of the latter’s early works. In the same period he also engraved original works, including illustrations to the poems of Robert Burns. He engraved a number of works after Rembrandt for Engravings from the Pictures of the National Gallery, which was published in London between 1830 and 1840 by an association of engravers, and contributed to Cadell’s illustrated edition of Walter Scott’s Waverley novels. As a painter he produced landscape, genre and history works, his most ambitious painting being Greenwich Pensioners Commemorating the Anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (London, ...


[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 19 January 1913, in Ben Chicao, Algeria; died 4 November 1997, in Clermont-Ferrand.

Painter, lithographer, writer.


School of Algiers.

René-Jean Clot was a painter prior to becoming a well-known writer. He spent three years studying law in Algiers before moving to Paris, where he was a pupil of Gromaire, Othon Friesz and Despiau at the Académie Scandinave. During this period, his ...