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Article

French, 15th century, male.

Goldsmith. Religious subjects.

Adrien de Tours was paid a sum of 431 pounds and 10 sols in 1492 for the production of a shrine to St Eutrope.

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active in Perugia.

Born 1479 or 1480; died after 1553.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Domenico di Paride was the son of the goldsmith Paride Alfani. He studied with Perugino and was a fellow student of Raphael and Rosso Fiorentino. His son Orazio was his greatest disciple, and for many years a number of his works were attributed to his son....

Article

Alexander Nagel

[Fr. postautel, retable; Ger. Altar, Altaraufsatz, Altarbild, Altarretabel, Altarrückwand, Retabel; It. ancona, dossale, pala (d’altare); Sp. retablo]

An image-bearing structure set on the rear part of the altar (see Altar, §II), abutting the back of the altarblock, or set behind the altar in such a way as to be visually joined with the altar when viewed from a distance. It is also sometimes called a retable, following the medieval term retrotabulum [retabulum, retrotabularium].

The altarpiece was never officially prescribed by the Church, but it did perform a prescribed function alternatively carried out by a simple inscription on the altarblock: to declare to which saint or mystery the altar was dedicated. In fact, the altarpiece did more than merely identify the altar; its form and content evoked the mystery or personage whose cult was celebrated at the altar. This original and lasting function influenced the many forms taken by the altarpiece throughout its history. Since the altarpiece was not prescribed by the Church, its form varied enormously. For this reason, it is often impossible, and historically inaccurate, to draw neat distinctions between the altarpiece and other elements occasionally associated with the altar apparatus. For example, movable statues, often of the Virgin and Child, were occasionally placed on altars according to ritual needs, and at those times fulfilled the function of the altarpiece....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1843; d 1901).

Norwegian silversmith. Founder of the Oslo company of silversmiths now known as David-Andersen. In 1876 Andersen established a workshop and retail shop in Christiania (Oslo). His early work, mostly in 830 silver, uses traditional Nordic motifs. David’s son Arthur (1875–1970), who became the principal designer for the firm and inherited it in ...

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 3 January 1854, in Antwerp; died 1930.

Painter. History painting, religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes.

Anthony was the son of a silversmith and studied under L. Hendricx, a painter of historical subjects. His altar panel with the Story of St Barbara...

Article

John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of aquamanilia is associated with Mosan art of the Meuse Valley in northern France, and with Lower Saxony in north-east Germany. The majority of surviving examples are made of a variety of bronze that resembles gold when polished, while nearly all those made of precious metals are known only from church inventories.

Church documents refer to aquamanilia as early as the 5th century, when canon regulations stipulated that on ordination the subdeacon should receive such a vessel. Various documents from the 5th century to the beginning of the 11th sometimes use the term to denote both the ewer and its basin. Sometime after the beginning of the 11th century the term became transferred to a type of vessel, usually in the shape of an animal (e.g. lion, stag, horse; ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 18 June 1828, in London; died 4 December 1905.

Sculptor, engraver, metal worker, draughtsman. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, figures. Busts.

Henry Armstead studied at the Royal Academy in London and became a member of the Academy in 1875. He exhibited a large number of busts and reliefs ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Francesco Baiardi was the son of the goldsmith Gilberto Baiardi. He worked in Parma. Known for his Painting of St James (1542).

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 25 January 1708, in Lucca; died 4 February 1787, in Rome.

Painter, miniaturist, draughtsman. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits.

Worked initially as a goldsmith, like his father before him, then studied miniaturist techniques under Conca. The works of antiquity and of Raphael were a major source of inspiration. He exhibited at the 1783 Salon de la Correspondance with a painting of the death of Mark Anthony. An artist of the same name also participated in the 1778 Society of Artists Exhibition in London....

Article

16th century, male.

Active in Ansbach from 1582 to 1614 (?).

Engraver, goldsmith.

Examples of his work include Christ on the Cross, Hunter and Hunted, Little Book of Animals (seven engravings), Grotesques (two), Ornaments and Sundials (six), Grotesque Ornaments (four) and Little Book of the Forest...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active also active in Poland.

Born c. 1500, probably in Verona; died 1570, near Parma.

Engraver, goldsmith, medallist, architect. Religious subjects.

Giovanni Caraglio was one of the greatest engravers of his period and enjoyed a considerable reputation in Italy and abroad, particularly in Poland where he created medals for King Sigismond. When he returned to Italy he settled first in Verona and later near Parma, where he remained until his death....

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

Article

Censer  

John N. Lupia

[thurible; Lat. incensarium, thuribulum, thymiamaterium]

Footed brazier, chafing-dish, or portable grate for burning incense or coals to produce aromatic fumes for liturgical and secular purposes. Censers commonly have two to four rings on the outside of the bowl, with chains or rods attached for holding and swinging. There is frequently a pierced lid or cover, attached by rings, through which the chains or rods pass. Typically the finial or knob of the lid has a separate chain attached.

Censers were produced from c. 700 bc. In the Greek and Roman worlds they were frequently made of precious metals such as gold and silver and functioned as votive gifts; a great number are recorded in temple inventories. (In Rome, bronze turibula were also common.) Censers were used mainly for burning incense as an offering to deities, frequently in conjunction with animal sacrifices, and at funerals. Other uses were secular: incense was believed to have pharmacopic and therapeutic powers and was used to sweeten the air. Censers were also used in court festivals and processions in Rome. Imperial court processions had acolytes carrying torches and candles before the Roman consuls; attendants accompanied the acolytes bearing censers in the form of pans with hot burning coals for rekindling torches and candles when they blew out....

Article

Chalice  

Peter Springer

[Lat. calix: ‘drinking vessel’]

Liturgical implement in which the eucharistic wine is offered, consecrated and distributed to communicants. Other names for it are scyphus, crater, proculum and fons. In the Early Christian period the same materials were used for the eucharistic chalice as for secular drinking vessels: glass, rock crystal, hardstones and wood, horn and ivory, but especially precious and base metals. This diversity reflects the lack of restrictions governing the materials to be used for its manufacture until the Carolingian period. Thus most surviving chalices from pre-Carolingian and Carolingian times—even such a splendid example as the Tassilo Chalice (c. 769–88; Kremsmünster, Stiftskirche, Schatzkam.)—were still made from gilt-copper. From the late 8th century, however, synodal decrees repeatedly forbade the use of materials such as glass, wood, copper, bronze, ivory, horn and pewter. The chalice was instead to be made at least from silver, with the inside of the bowl gilded. (The same injunctions were applicable to the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American metalwork company established in Philadelphia in 1810 by Christian Cornelius, a silversmith who had emigrated from the Netherlands in 1783. He soon turned to the casting of bronze, and by 1825 he had become a lamp manufacturer. The company passed to Cornelius’s son Robert (1809–93), under whose management it became an important lighting business. The company made lamps and chandeliers, often finished in gold lacquer; it also made candlesticks, including the earliest documented American brass candlestick. The best known product of the company was the ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1530, in Perugia; died 1576, in Perugia.

Painter, sculptor (bronze/marble/cast iron/clay), draughtsman, goldsmith, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Groups, statues, low reliefs.

Vincenzo Danti was the brother of Girolamo and Egnazio Danti. He worked initially in the goldsmiths' trade, in whose guild he enrolled in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 February 1865, in Munich; died 1954.

Painter, illustrator, engraver, medallist. Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

After doing an apprenticeship with an engraver Maximilian Dasio entered the Munich academy in 1884, where he studied under Heterich and W. von Diez. Following the success of his sets for the Deutsches Theater, he obtained a scholarship which enabled him to stay in Rome. On his return to Munich he became a teacher at the Damenakademie from ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1518, in Orléans; died 1583 or 1595, in Strasbourg.

Engraver (burin), draughtsman, medallist, goldsmith. Religious subjects, historical subjects, allegorical subjects. Decorative designs.

Fontainebleau School (related to).

This interesting artist was first and foremost an engraver of medals, and worked with the famous sculptor and engraver Benvenuto Cellini during the latter's stay in Paris. Delaulne was an accomplished burin engraver, and his drawing and engraving is remarkable for its precision and finish. He lived for some while in Strasbourg, which may perhaps explain the unmistakable influence of the 16th-century German 'petit maîtres' (little masters) in his approach to engraving. He engraved several copies of work of Marcantonio Raimondi, and produced engravings after Primaticcio, Rosso and Niccolo dell'Abbate. He signed his work ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1886, in Faenza; died 1973, in Rome.

Painter, sculptor (bronze/marble), potter, draughtsman, engraver, medallist. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, sporting subjects, landscapes, still-lifes, birds. Busts, groups, low reliefs, monuments.

Drei studied drawing and sculpture with A. Berti and gained a diploma from the Scuola d'Arti e Mestieri in Faenza in ...