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Article

Roberto Pontual

(b São Paulo, 1935).

Brazilian painter and printmaker. After studying engraving in São Paulo, he moved to New York in 1959 to complete his studies at the Pratt Graphic Center, where his contact with international Pop art merged with his own interest in Brazilian popular imagery, for example in the portfolio of woodcuts Mine and Yours (1967). Immediately afterwards he began painting ambiguous and ironic still-lifes collectively titled Brasíliana, which use bananas as symbols of underdevelopment and exploitation, for example BR-1 SP (1970; São Paulo, Pin. Estado) and Bananas (1971; Washington, DC, Mus. Mod. A. Latin America). In 1971 he won a trip abroad in the National Salon of Modern Art (Rio de Janeiro), which took him again to New York between 1972 and 1973. On his return to São Paulo he began the series Battlegrounds, in which he submitted the previously reclining bananas to slashing, torture and putrefaction. Subsequently shapes were reorganized into configurations of an undramatic Surrealism, playful, colourful, tumescent and as firmly rooted as ever in his native Brazil and Latin America....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1929, in New York.

Painter, draughtswoman. Artists’ books.

Pop Art, Identity Art (Feminist Art).

Ida Applebroog studied at the New York Institute of Applied Arts and Sciences and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. She lived briefly in California, teaching at the University of California, San Diego, and exhibiting her sculptures locally (as Ida Horowitz). After moving to New York in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Allan d'Arcangelo studied at the University of Buffalo until 1953. In 1956 he went to New York and lived in Mexico from 1958 to 1959. Since 1956 he has appeared in the major collective shows of Pop Art - the art of salvaging real objects from everyday life, involving ordinary urban settings, everyday objects, rubbish, scrap, cartoons and their heroes. Since ...

Article

Arman  

Alfred Pacquement

[Fernandez, Armand]

(b Nice, Nov 17, 1928; d New York, Oct 22, 2005).

American sculptor and collector of French birth. Arman lived in Nice until 1949, studying there at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs from 1946 and in 1947 striking up a friendship with the artist Yves Klein, with whom he was later closely associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement. In 1949 he moved to Paris, where he studied at the Ecole du Louvre and where in an exhibition in 1954 he discovered the work of Kurt Schwitters, which led him to reject the lyrical abstraction of the period. In 1955 Arman began producing Stamps, using ink-pads in a determined critique of Art informel and Abstract Expressionism to suggest a depersonalized and mechanical version of all-over paintings. In his next series, the Gait of Objects, which he initiated in 1958, he took further his rejection of the subjectivity of the personal touch by throwing inked objects against the canvas.

Arman’s willingness to embrace chance was indicated by his decision in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 September 1930, in Benicia (California); died 2 November 1992, in Benicia.

Ceramicist, sculptor, painter, printmaker, draughtsman. Figures.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Robert Arneson studied at the College of Marin Kentfield, California (1949-1951), California College of Arts and Crafts (...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Washington, DC, Dec 26, 1924; d in Albany, NY, Feb 9, 2013).

American sculptor and painter . He studied art in 1949–50 under Amédée Ozenfant in New York. During the 1950s he designed and made furniture in New York, but after a fire that destroyed most of the contents of his shop in 1958 he turned again to art, initially painting abstract pictures derived from memories of the New Mexican landscape.

Artschwager continued to produce furniture and, after a commission to make altars for ships in 1960, had the idea of producing sculptures that mimicked actual objects while simultaneously betraying their identity as artistic illusions. At first these included objets trouvés made of wood, overpainted with acrylic in an exaggerated wood-grain pattern (e.g. Table and Chair, 1962–3; New York, Paula Cooper priv. col., see 1988–9 exh. cat., p. 49), but he soon developed more abstract or geometrical versions of such objects formed from a veneer of formica on wood (e.g. Table and Chair...

Article

Canadian First Nations (We Wai Kai/Cape Mudge Band), 21st century, male.

Born 1975, in Richmond (British Columbia).

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer.

The aesthetic of Sonny Assu (Liǥwilda’x̱w/Laich-kwil-tach) is a confluence of Northwest Coast formline motifs and popular Western culture. He is well versed in the traditional Kwakwaka’wakw arts of drum, blanket and basket making and uses these as the starting place of many of his artworks. Drawing on a pop sensibility, mass-media culture is used as a conduit to explore and expose these Kwakwaka’wakw traditions as well as the artist’s own mixed heritage. By bringing these seemingly desperate elements together, Assu’s works challenge popular notions of authenticity regarding Indigenous people and their art. Moreover, while the works may appear whimsical at first glance, they offer a sharp critique of Western society’s culture of consumption as it relates to colonisation, both historical and ongoing, in North America....

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1934, in Frankfurt am Main.

Painter, installation artist.

Bauermeister lives and works in Cologne. In 1961, her work was featured in a group exhibition alongside American Pop artists Jaspar Johns and Robert Rauschenberg at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam; all three artists were unknown at that time. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Chikasha (Oklahoma).

Engraver.

Denis Beall exhibited at the Paris Biennale of 1963. Although he drew inspiration from Nouvelle Figuration and Pop Art, his choice of subject matter nevertheless shows him to be close to a certain kind of Surrealism. He is represented in museums in London (Victoria and Albert Museum), Oakland and San Francisco....

Article

Canadian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1957, in Toronto (Ontario).

Sculptor.

Neo-Conceptual Art, Appropriation Art.

Alan Belcher lives and works in Toronto and New York. In the Pop Art tradition, Belcher uses advertising images, meaningfully exploiting their powers of enticement. His work consists of glossy colour photographs that are usually pinned, screwed, nailed or wrapped around various objects made of Plexiglas, metal or wood. By using the seductive colours of publicity photographs, and their perfect finish, Belcher's sculpture works on two levels. On one, he denounces marketing's manipulative wiles; on the other, he creates works of art that are almost Minimalist in their simplicity of form. Since ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Dodge City, KA, June 7, 1934).

American painter. He studied at City College, Los Angeles (1953–5), California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, CA (1955–6) and Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles (1956–7). Between 1961 and 1973 he lectured at various art colleges. After initially studying ceramics, Bengston began to concentrate on painting in 1956 and participated in the first group show at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles in 1957, which put him at the centre the region’s new avant-garde, alongside such figures as Ed Kienholtz and Ed Moses. He is best known for the elegiac, Dada-esque tone of his work in the 1960s, when he was heavily influenced by the motorbike and car culture of Southern California, from which he drew motifs such as chevrons, Draculas and love hearts. Mr. Britt (1960; see 1988 exh. cat, pl. 3) is typical in its placement of sergeant stripes in a square in the centre, surrounded by a flat covering of forest green. ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1959, in Barbados.

Sculptor, installation artist.

Neo-Conceptual Art (Neo-Geo), Appropriation Art, Neo-Pop Art.

Ashley Bickerton lives and works in Los Angeles. He arrived on the American art scene in the mid-1980s. With Peter Halley, Jeff Koons and Meyer Vaisman, Bickerton, he belongs to the group of artists known as the ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 9 March 1938, in Chicago.

Painter.

Tom Blackwell's early work was abstract, but influenced by Pop Art, he moved towards photorealism and began to paint large-scale works, which often featured motorcycles, cars and planes.

1966, Psychedelic Art, Riverside Museum, New York...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 June 1934.

Painter.

Blanco painted multi-coloured cats playing in the sun; it is impossible to say whether they belong to popular art, Naïve art or whether they derive their cheerful quality from Pop Art. He took part in many group exhibitions in Argentina but also in international exhibitions, including at the Salon Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui (great young artists of today) in Paris in ...

Article

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1963, naturalised French.

Born 1932, in Salto, to a Indian mother and a French father.

Painter. Figure compositions.

Pop Art.

Bolivar began to work and exhibit in Montevideo. In his first period he painted airy compositions with bright colours that accorded well with their era and the general climate of Pop Art. His objective then was to 'show the forms of a uniquely plastic reality'. From around ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in Berlin.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Initially, K.P. Brehmer's work was formally very close to American Pop Art to the extent that he produced collages based on everyday objects, excerpts from the media and photographic or mechanical reproduction techniques to arrive at a distorted image of today's world and the consumer society. Subsequently, however, his work acquired more pronounced political undertones by the interpolation of two key elements - postage stamps and fragments of geopolitical maps. Brehmer also worked in cinema, directing films which focused on the problem of perception....

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Copenhagen.

Painter.

Brøgger combines many different techniques, and his paintings, which reveal a highly critical attitude towards society, include elements of American Pop Art, Art Nouveau and spontaneous painting. He first exhibited at the autumn salon in Copenhagen in ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 8 May 1945, in Italy.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Carmelo Carra studied at the fine arts academy of Buenos Aires. Carra uses new materials, particularly plastic, and owes some elements of his pictorial language to Pop Art, a common influence for artists of his generation. He adopted the style of cartoon strips, using broad, black lines for emphasis, somewhat in the manner of Adami but evoking a more fantastical vision through the distortions to which he subjects the human body....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Rochester (Indiana). Died 21 December 2011 in New York, New York.

Sculptor, painter.

Pop Art.

After serving in the navy from 1943 to 1946, John Chamberlain studied at the Chicago Art Institute from 1950 to 1952 and then at Black Mountain College under the direction of the painter Josef Albers. He has worked as part of a team (one member cutting out, another welding, a third painting) in Sarasota, Florida, since ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 1942, in São Paulo.

Painter. Figure compositions, figures.

Pop Art.

Maria Chartuni works in acrylics. In 1967 she produced a Diptych of Elizabeth Taylor.